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THE 



AMERICAN. 

Journal of Pharmacy 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 



EDITED BY 



HENRY KRAEMER. 



PUBLICATION COMri'TT^F FOR 1904. 



HENRY N. RITTFNHCUSE, JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER, JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, 

WALLACE PROCTER, M. I. WILBERT, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME 76 



PHILADELPHIA 

1904. 



QO/Qii 



n 




DR. JOHN MORGAN. 

(Reproduced from "The History of Medicine in the United States." 
By Dr. Francis R. Packard.) 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JANUARY, 1904. 



JOHN MORGAN, 

THE FOUNDER OF THE FIRST MEDICAL SCHOOL AND THE ORIGINATOR 
OF PHARMACY IN AMERICA. 

BY M. I. WlLBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Morgan, by far the most erudite and in many respects the 
most noble and interesting character in colonial medicine, contrib- 
uted more than any one other individual to establish and to pro- 
mote medical teaching, medical ethics and medical progress in 
America. 

A simple enumeration of some of his claims to priority will bring 
to mind the nature and variety of his accomplishments. He was 
the founder of medical training, and was elected the first professor 
of medicine in a recognized chartered college. He was one of the 
founders of the first medical society in Philadelphia. 

He was one of the founders of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety. He was one of the founders of the College of Physicians of 
Philadelphia, was the first to suggest the necessity or use of such 
an institution, and among the first to donate books with a view of 
creating a library. 

What is perhaps of more interest to us as pharmacists, however, 
is the fact that Dr. Morgan was the first, and for many years the 
only, practitioner in America to suggest and follow the practice of 
writing prescriptions, and having his medicines dispensed by a 
qualified apothecary. 

(1) 



2 



John Morgan. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1904. 



To more thoroughly appreciate the untoward conditions under 
which Dr. Morgan attempted to introduce this latter, and, at the 
time, unpopular innovation, we must take a short retrospect of the 
conditions as they existed in the early half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, when Morgan first entered as a medical apprentice. The 
active, outdoor life of the early colonists made them an exasperat- 
ingly healthy class of people, but even when ill the advice of a phy- 
sician was only sought after the whole gamut of household remedies 
had been tried and failed. Physicians were not numerous, and 
druggists were few indeed. 

Watson, in his " Annals of Philadelphia," mentions but six drug 
stores existing in Philadelphia about 1750, the few that were not 
owned by physicians were devoted exclusively to supplying medi- 
cines and medicinal preparations to physicians, and to the sale of 
such household remedies as the housewife could not gather herself 
in the fields or cultivate in her own garden. 

Physicians invariably dispensed their own medicines, and these 
were usually prepared by the apprentice or apprentices of that day. 
These apprentices, by running errands, gathering herbs, preparing 
and dispensing medicines and attending to other and at times even 
menial duties about the house of their master, were expected, in 
the course of the six or seven years of their apprenticeship, to 
absorb sufficient knowledge of physic to open a shop and practice 
for themselves. 

Dr. Francis R. Packard, in his " History of Medicine in the 
United States," refers to the life of these early medical apprentices, 
and quotes from the life of Dr. John Bard, one of the more famous 
of the colonial medical men, who in speaking of his preceptor says : 
" He treated his pupils with great rigor and subjected them to the 
most menial employments." 

It was into conditions such as these that John Morgan was born in 
1735. His father, Evan Morgan, was a native of Wales and came 
to Philadelphia at an early date, where he engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, and is said to have been quite successful. 

From letters written by Benjamin Franklin it appears that Evan 
Morgan was a friend and close neighbor of that celebrated printer, 
philosopher and statesman. 

John Morgan, when still quite a lad, was placed at Nottingham 
School, Chester County. This school, at that time, was under the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1904. J 



John Morgan. 



3 



direction of a Rev. Mr. Finley, and had a high reputation through- 
out the middle colonies for its thorough instruction in Latin and 
Greek. 

After the founding of the College of Philadelphia, Morgan was 
transferred to the latter institution, and about the same time was 
apprenticed to Dr. John Redman, one of the most successful as well 
as one of the most popular of the early physicians of Philadelphia. 

In this double capacity of student and apprentice Morgan con- 
tinued until 1757, when he graduated from the College of Philadel- 
phia, being one of the class of seven, the first to receive a collegiate 
degree in Philadelphia. 

It was during this same period of his apprenticeship that John 
Morgan served as apothecary to the Pennsylvania Hospital. Dr. 
Redman, his preceptor, was at that time one of the physicians to 
the hospital, and it was at his suggestion that Morgan was appointed 
to fill the vacancy that had occurred on the resignation of Jonathan 
Roberts, the first apothecary. 

After serving thirteen months as apothecary in the hospital, 
Morgan resigned, May I, 1756, and was succeeded by John Bond, a 
nephew of Dr. Thomas Bond, another one of the physicians and 
also one of the founders of the Pennsylvania Hospital. 

After graduating from the College of Philadelphia and complet- 
ing his term of apprenticeship with Dr. Redman, Morgan enlisted 
as lieutenant and surgeon, with the provincial troops in their cam- 
paign during the French War. 

From his own statements, as well as from contemporary reports, 
it appears that it was in the capacity of surgeon that Morgan was 
chiefly engaged. His fellow-apprentice, lifelong friend and biog- 
rapher, Dr. Benjamin Rush, in speaking of this period, lauds Morgan 
very highly for his diligence and humanity in attending the sick and 
wounded, and intimates that Morgan, even at that time, possessed 
. considerable skill as a physician and surgeon. 

Morgan left the army in 1760, and on the advice of his former 
preceptor and other friends, went to Europe to perfect himself in his 
profession. 

Through the personal friendship of Benjamin Franklin, then a 
resident in London as the agent for the Province of Pennsylvania, 
he was introduced to a number of the prominent medical men and 
scientists in the English metropolis. He thus had an opportunity 



4 



John Morgan. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. January, 1904. 



of improving himself under the most celebrated medical teachers of 
that time. In London he studied under Hewson and Fothergill, 
and also attended the lectures and dissections of Drs. John and 
William Hunter. 

From London he went to Edinburgh, well supplied with letters 
of introduction from Franklin to the leading men of the University. 
Among these letters was one to the celebrated Dr. Cullen, who had 
succeeded Dr. Plummer in the chair of chemistry. 

Dr. Cullen received Morgan most kindly and became one of his 
staunchest patrons and friends. 

After attending lectures at Edinburgh for two years, Morgan pre- 
sented a thesis in Latin, on the formation of pus, and was granted 
the degree of M. D. by the University in 1763 ; some time after this, 
and before coming to America, he was also admitted as a licentiate of 
the College of Physicians of Edinburgh. From Edinburgh, Morgan 
went to Paris, where he spent the greater part of the winter in the 
study of anatomy, attending chiefly the dissections of M. Sue. 

A memoir on the art of making anatomical preparations by cor- 
rosion, in which art he had, under the instruction of Dr. Hunter, 
become very proficient, secured for him admission to the Royal 
Academy of Surgery, as a corresponding member. 

From Paris he took a trip through Italy. In Padua he paid his 
respects to the celebrated Morgagni, who, then eighty-two years of 
age, received him with great politeness and showed him many kind- 
nesses. From Morgan's own account of this visit, it would appear 
that Morgagni was greatly impressed with the dexterity Morgan had 
developed in making anatomical preparations, and complimented him 
very highly on his proficiency in this direction. 

Exactly where Morgan first evolved his plan of medical educa- 
tion, in connection with an established academy or college, does not 
appear in evidence ; it was, however, some time after Dr. Shippen, 
Jr., had left for home. From the letter of recommendation sent by 
Dr. John Fothergill, with Wm. Shippen, Jr., it would appear that 
there had been some understanding to open private courses of lec- 
tures, probably at the suggestion of Dr. Fothergill, who had taken 
a deep interest in medical matters in the American colonies, and 
particularly in the province of Pennsylvania. 

It is probable that it was not until Morgan arrived in Paris that 
his plans for medical education were fully matured. Once having 



Al ?aSaryS m -} J° hn Morgan. 



settled on a definite plan Morgan left no possible chance of improv- 
ing or securing it escape him. It was in Paris that he wrote and 



DISCOURSE 

Upon the Institution of 

MEDICAL SCHOOLS 

In AMERICA; 

Delivered at a Public Anniversary Commence- 
ment, held in the College of Philadelphia 
May 30 and 31, 1765. 

With a 

PREFACE 

Containing, amongft other things, 
The AUTHOR'S 

APOLOGY , 

For attempting to introduce the regular mode of 
praclifing PHYSIC in Philadelphia : 

By JOHN MORGAN m.d. 

Fellow of the Royal Society at London ; Corre- 
fpondent of the Royal Academy of Surgery at 
Paris-, Member of the Arcadian Belles Lettres So- 
ciety at Rom Licentiate of the Royal Colleges of 
Phyficians in London and in Edinburgh - p and 
Profelfor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine 
in the College of Philadelphia, 



PHILADELPHIA : 
Printed and fold by William Bradford at the 
Corner of Market and Front-Streets, mdcc,ilkv 

Facsimile of Title-page of Morgan's Discourse, 
elaborated on his discourse on the Institution of Medical Schools in 
America ; it was also from Paris that the friends of the College of 



6 John Morgan. {^AZl^S^ 

Philadelphia, as well as his personal friends were first broached or 
consulted as to the feasibility or desirability of such an innovation. 

On his return to London Morgan visited a number of the friends 
of the institution and secured from them letters of commendation 
for his plan of medical instruction. 

Soon after his arrival in Philadelphia he proposed his plan for 
connecting a medical school with the College of Philadelphia to the 
Board of Trustees and also intimated that he was desirous of being 
appointed professor of the theory and practice of medicine. The 
project, ably presented and liberally endorsed by the Proprietor of 
the Province and other friends of the institution abroad, was unani- 
mously adopted, and on the third day of May, 1765, John Morgan 
was duly appointed Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic 
in the College of Philadelphia, the first chair of medicine in a regu- 
lar chartered college in America. 

At the succeeding commencement, on May 30th and 31st of the 
same year, Dr. Morgan delivered his discourse or defence of his 
proposed plan of education before a representative gathering of 
medical men, the members of the Board of Trustees and other 
friends of the institution. 

This discourse, while it elicited commendation in some directions, 
was severely criticised in others. Morgan was accused of trying to 
transplant into a new country, ideas that were only suited to Con- 
tinental practice and not at all adapted or adaptable to conditions in 
America. 

The stand taken by Morgan at that time was, it is true, a revolu- 
tionary one from the point of view of the then medical practitioners. 
For Morgan, on the other hand, it was essential to be consistent 
with his training and his accomplishments. 

To digress for a moment, it is unfortunate indeed that this little 
pamphlet, the first and one of the most valuable of American medi- 
cal classics, is not more available at the present time, as much of the 
contained material would be well worth bringing to the attention of 
medical students and medical practitioners of the present time. 

Much of the credit for the high ethical stand taken by this first 
Professor of Medicine is no doubt due to Benjamin Franklin, whose 
letters of introduction secured for Morgan the friendship and patron- 
age of men at the very head of their profession in Europe. The 
advantage, in a professional way, of not dispensing medicines, was 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. \ 
January, 1904. J 



John Morgan. 



7 



no doubt impressed on him during his travels on the Continent, 
although as a Licentiate of the College of Physicians of Edinburgh 
he would have been expected to abide by the adopted rules or code 
of ethics. This college had, as early as 1754, adopted an Act that 
prohibited, their Fellows and Licentiates from taking upon them- 
selves to use the employment of an apothecary, or to have or to keep 
an apothecary shop. 

How thoroughly he was imbued with the expediency of his plan 
is well illustrated by his " Discourse," while the title-page of this 
dissertation, as published, indicates the opposition that his remarks 
met with at the very start. 

To give an accurate idea of the earnestness with which Morgan 
pleaded his case we cannot do better than quote some of the argu- 
ments as he presented them. In speaking of the desirability of 
separating the several branches of the practice of medicine he says : 

" We must regret that the very different employment of physician, surgeon 
and apothecary should be promiscuously followed by any one man. They 
certainly require very different talents. 

"The business of pharmacy is essentially different from either, free from the 
cares of both, the apothecary is to prepare and compound medicines as the 
physician shall direct. Altogether engaged in this by length of time he attains 
to that skill therein which he could never have arrived at were his attention 
distracted by a great variety of other subjects. 

' ' The wisdom of ages approved by experience, the most certain test of 
knowledge, has taught us the necessity and utility of appointing different per- 
sons for these different employments, and accordingly we find them prosecuted 
separately in every wise and polished country. 

"The paying of a physician for attendance and the apothecary for his medi- 
cines apart, is certainly the most eligible mode of practice both to the patient 
and practitioner. The apothecar3% then, who is not obliged to spend his time in 
visiting patients, can afford to make up medicines at a reasonable price, and it 
is as desirable as just in itself that patients should allow fees for attendance — 
whatever it may be thought to deserve. 

" They ought to know what it is they really pay for their medicine and what 
for medical advice and attendance." 

Morgan's plan of confining himself exclusively to the practice of 
medicine did not meet with the approval of his contemporaries, 
even such of them as had attained a medical degree abroad. 

It was not until 1774 that he had even a single follower. This 
first physician to adopt Dr. Morgan's plan of writing prescriptions 
for his patients deserves more than passing notice, as he was one of 
the most interesting and picturesque of the historical characters of 
the revolutionary period in Philadelphia. 



8 John Morgan. { 

Dr. Abraham Chovet, was a native of England, where he is said 
to have been a demonstrator of anatomy for a number of years. 
He lived for a time in Barbadoes and later in the island of Jamaica, 




DR. ABRAHAM CHOVET. 
Reproduced from "The History of Medicine in the United States." 
By Dr. Francis R. Packard. 

The history of this picture is rather an interesting one. The original is a wax 
medallion, now the property of the Pennsylvania Hospital. The picture was 
first published in Norris's " Early History of Medicine in Philadelphia," where 
it is stated that the original was made on May 25, 1784, Dr. Cho vet's eightieth 
birthday, by his servant, Dr. Eckhout. Some time after Dr. Chovet's death 
his daughter, Susannah Maria Penelope Abingdon, gave the medallion to Chris- 
topher Marshall, one of the Fighting Quakers and an early Philadelphia 
druggist; he, in turn, appears to have willed it to his son Charles Marshall, the 
first president of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, who, on his death, 
left it to his eldest daughter, Elizabeth Marshall, the first woman pharmacist 
in America; she, in turn, left it to her younger sister Mary Ann Marshall, and 
she on December 25, 1877, presented the medallion to the Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital, where it is treasured among the historic relics that have been gathered 
together, from time to time, in that, itself, historic institution. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. \ 
January, 1904. J 



John Morgan. 



9 



from the latter place he came to Philadelphia about 1774, being then 
a man well advanced in years. 

The doctor was an eccentric but extremely original character. 
He appears to have been a man well known about town and is men- 
tioned more frequently, perhaps, in the local histories and memoirs 
of the revolutionary period than any of his contemporaries. 

Christopher Marshall in his " Remembrancer," has several anec- 
dotes relating to him, and also describes his lectures on anatomy, 
which were held in a building in Vidall's Court. This building was 
referred to by Mr. Evan T. Ellis in his " Story of a Very Old Phil- 
adelphia Drug Store " (A. J. P., 1903, page 57). 

Dr. Chovet died March 24, 1790, in his 86th year. He was buried 
in Christ Church, his dying request being that he might have a 
plain funeral, and that no bells be tolled on the occasion, as he did 
not wish to disturb sick people by such unnecessary noise. One 
characteristic saying of his, that might well be quoted here, was 
" That physician was an imposter that did not live until he was eighty." 

Despite the fact that Dr. Chovet was over seventy years of age 
when he came to Philadelphia, did not dispense medicines, and 
was, in addition, a notorious Tory, he soon had one of the most 
desirable practices in the city. 

The second medical practitioner to follow Morgan's example was 
John Jones, a native of Long Island, who had received a portion of 
his medical education in* Philadelphia. 

Jones is usually spoken of as having been an apprentice to Thomas 
Cadwalader, the first physician to give demonstrations and lectures 
on anatomy. Dr. Norris in his " Early History of Medicine in Phil- 
adelphia," also refers to John Jones as having been a pupil of Lloyd 
Zachary, whom Jones himself is said to have described as "a person 
whose whole life has been one continuous scene of benevolence and 
humanity." 

After visiting Europe, Dr. Jones settled in New York, where he 
devoted himself particularly to the practice of surgery. He was the 
first professor of surgery in the New York Medical School, and subse- 
quently published what is probably the first comprehensive surgical 
work written in this country, " Plain Remarks on Wounds and 
Fractures;" this is said to have been published first about 1765 
Editions of it are known to have been published in 1775, 1776 and 
1795- 



10 



John Morgan. 



/Am. Jour. Ph-arm. 
X January. 1904. 



Jones removed to Philadelphia in 1779, and in the following year 
he was elected as one of the surgeons of the Pennsylvania Hospital. 
On inquiry, he was so much impressed with the advantages of 
Dr. Morgan's plan of writing prescriptions that he decided to follow 
his example. 

Dr. George W. Norris in his " Early History of Medicine in Phil- 
adelphia," says that these three men, Morgan, Chovet and Jones, 
were the first to adhere closely to the practice of writing prescrip- 
tions. They rapidly came into public esteem, and, other physicians 
seeing the manifest advantages enjoyed by these men, soon fell into 
the same practice. Once in vogue, the custom spread rapidly, so 
that by the end of the eighteenth century the writing of prescriptions 
was quite a common practice in all of the larger cities of the United 
States. 

The story of the founding of the first medical school in America 
might well be repeated here, particularly as in all popular accounts 
Dr. Morgan is not given the credit that is rightfully due him. It is 
true that Norris, Ruschenberger and Packard give Morgan due 
credit. Many other writers, however, content themselves by quot- 
ing the statement made by Rush, in his introductory lecture, 
November 2, 1789, in which he said, " It was during his absence 
from home that he concerted with Dr. Shippen the plan of establish- 
ing a medical school in this city." 

It is true that Dr. Shippen on his return from England opened a 
course of lectures on anatomy, and continued the same for at least 
three years. This plan of private lectures appears to have been 
inaugurated at the suggestion of the celebrated Dr. John Fothergill, 
who, as noted before, had always taken a deep interest in all matters 
relating to the advancement of the practice of medicine in the Ameri- 
can Colonies. But even in this venture, Shippen could not claim to 
have really been the first. As early as 1752, William Hunter, a 
native of Scotland, and a pupil of the elder Monro, settled in Rhode 
Island and gave lectures on anatomy and comparative anatomy at 
Newport, in 1754, 1755 and 1756. 

Thomas Cadwalader, as early as 1742, made dissections and gave 
demonstrations for the benefit of his contemporaries who had not 
had an opportunity of going abroad. There is also a record that 
sometime before 1647, Giles Firmin " made an anatomy and read 
on it very well " in Boston. 



Am. Jour. Pharm."t 
January, 1904. / 



John Morgan. 



Dr. Morgan in his first communication to the Board of Trustees 
of the College of Philadelphia, and also in his discourse, awards full 
credit to all previous lecturers, and, in referring to his plan of estab- 
lishing a school of medicine in connection with the college, says : 
" What led me to it, was the obvious utility that would attend it, 
and the desire I had of presenting, as a tribute of gratitude to my 
alma mater, a lull and enlarged plan for the institution of medicine 
in all its branches in this seminary, where I had part of my educa- 
tion, being among the first sons who shared its public honors. I 
was further induced to it from a consideration that private schemes 
of propagating knowledge are unstable in their nature, and the culti- 
vation of useful learning can only be effectually promoted under 
those who are patrons of science, and under the authority and direc- 
tion of men incorporated for the improvement of literature." 

In speaking of the necessary professorship of anatomy, Dr. Morgan 
says: " Dr. Shippen having been concerned already in teaching that 
branch of medical science is a circumstance favorable to our wishes, 
few here can be ignorant of the great opportunity he has had abroad 
for qualifying himself in anatomy, and that he has already given 
three courses in this city, and designs to enter upon a fourth course 
next winter." 

Shippen subsequently applied for, and was given, the chair of 
anatomy and surgery in the College of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Morgan was undoubtedly the first teacher of the theory and 
practice of medicine, materia medica, pharmacy and pharmaceutical 
chemistry in America. That he taught all of these branches appears 
from the announcement of the first course of lectures in the College 
of Philadelphia, quoted from the Pennsylvania Gazette for September 
26, 1765. 

A course of lectures on Materia Medica, by John Morgan, M.D., etc. Price 
four pistoles. 

The course will commence on the 18th day of November, and will be given 
three times a week at the college, at three o'clock in the afternoon, till fin- 
ished, which will last between three and four months. 

To render these lectures as instructive as possible to students of physic, the 
Doctor proposes, in the course of them, to give some useful observations in 
general, and the proper manner of conducting the study of physic. 

The authors to be read in the materia medica will be pointed out. The vari- 
ous substances made use of in medicine will be reduced under classes suited to 
the principal indications in the cure of diseases. Similar virtues in different 
plants, and their comparative powers will be treated of and an inquiry made 



i 2 



John Morgan. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharrn. 
I January, 1904/ 



into the different methods which have been used in discovering the qualities of 
medicines, the virtues of the more efficacious will be particularly insisted upon; 
the manner of preparing and combining them will be shown by some instructive 
lessons upon pharmaceutic chemistry and pharmacy. To prepare them more 
effectually for understanding the art of prescribing with elegance and propri- 
ety, if time allows, it is proposed to include in this course some critical lectures 
upon the chief preparations contained in the Dispensatories of the Royal Col- 
lege at London and Edinburgh. The whole will be illustrated b}^ many useful 
and practical observations on diseases, diet and medicines. 

This rather comprehensive announcement was followed in 1766 
by another, which read in part : 

A course of lectures on the " Theory and Practice of Physic " will be deliv- 
ered for the benefit of Medical Students, with a preparatory course on Bot- 
any, Chemistry and the Materia Medica, being the substance of a set of lectures 
delivered to his pupils last winter. 

That Morgan had been the acknowledged teacher of chemistry in 
the medical school of the College of Philadelphia would also appear 
from the following letter, written by Dr. Rush, as an application for 
the chair of chemistry. 

Gentlemen: — As the professorship of chemistry which Dr. Morgan has 
sometime supplied is vacant, I beg to offer myself as a candidate for it. 

Should you think proper to honor me with the chair, you may depend upon 
my doing anything that lies within my power to discharge the duties of a pro- 
fessor, and to promote the reputation and interests of your college. 
I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

Benj. Rush. 

Philadelphia, July 31, 1769. 

Dr. Morgan was one of the founders of the first medical society 
in the Province. This was the " Philadelphia Medical Society," 
organized February 4, 176=5. Several years later this society was 
united with the " American Society for Promoting Useful Knowl- 
edge," and this, in 1769, was united with the Philosophical Society 
to form the well-known " American Philosophical Society held at 
Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge." 

The Philadelphia Medical Society included the names of a num- 
ber of the leading medical men of Philadelphia, among them John 
Morgan, J. Kearsley, Jr., Gerardus Clarkson, Thomas Cadwalader, 
James A. Bayard, Robert Harris, George Glentworth, John Redman 
and Benjamin Rush. 

These members continued a semblance, at least, of their organiza- 



Ann Jour. Pharm.1 
January, 1904. / 



John Morgan, 



13 



tion under the new titles, first as the Medical Committee of the 
American Society for Promoting Useful Knowledge, and later as the 
Committee on Medicine and Anatomy of the Philosophical Society. 

Dr. Morgan, as early as 1767, suggested the feasibility of forming 
a College of Physicians. The proposition did not meet with the sanc- 
tion of the proprietor, Thomas Penn, who in a letter to his brother, 
Richard Penn, dated February 27, 1767, said : " I think it very early 
for such an establishment, and wish the faculty would not press for 
such a thing. I shall confer with Dr. Fothergill upon it." The 
resulting conference does not appear to have resulted favorably, as 
nothing more was heard of the project for the time. 

Dr. Morgan was married on September 4, 1765, to Mary, daugh- 
ter of Hon. Thomas and Mary (Johnson) Hopkinson. In 1773 
he visited Jamaica to obtain donations for the department of general 
literature in the College of Philadelphia. In the same year he was 
elected to serve on the staff of the Pennsylvania Hospital, in 
which capacity he served until 1777; he was re-elected in 1778 and 
served to 1783, when he resigned. 

His first resignation from the hospital was due to his discharge 
from the medical service of the Continental Army. 

In 1775 he had been offered and accepted the office of Director- 
General and Physician-in-Chief of the American hospitals. 

In this position he provoked the antagonism and jealousy of many 
of his subordinates, who, by false charges and political intrigues, 
forced his discharge in 1777. This dismissal was a severe blow 
to Dr. Morgan, and although he was subsequently acquitted of all 
charges by a committee appointed by the Continental Congress, he, 
for the time being, considered himself disgraced, and withdrew 
from all public offices. 

January 2, 1787, is the recorded date of the first meeting of The 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia, twenty years after such an 
institution was first proposed by Dr. Morgan. Prominent among 
the first Fellows were the names of the then leading practitioners, 
Dr. Morgan, Dr. Chovet and Dr. Jones, while a number of the 
remaining senior fellows had also been members of the Philadelphia 
Medical Society. 

Morgan did not long survive the inauguration of the College of 
Physicians. He died October 15, 1789, and was buried beside his 
wife in the middle aisle of St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia. 



14 



John Morgan. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1904. 



The prognostications made by Dr. Morgan, in his inaugural ad- 
dress, have long since been fully realized. The school that he 
founded has grown in strength and usefulness and its graduates, 
among them men of more than ordinary abilities, have done it and 
their profession honor. Other useful institutions have been estab- 
lished, and together they have striven to spread the light of knowl- 
edge to all portions of the country. 

Realizing the success that has ultimately attended his efforts it is 
indeed more than passing strange that the one who contributed so 
much to the introduction and advancement of the higher ideals in 
medical practice, should never have received the honors that are 
justly due him. The school he founded and its alumni have never 
made an adequate recognition ot his efforts in their behalf, while 
pharmacists have never given him even a moiety of the recognition 
due him, for his independence and perseverance, in introducing the 
regular mode of practicing physic into America, despite the criticism 
and opposition of his contemporaries. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The material contained in the above sketch has been largely taken 
from the following books : 

Morgan, John, M.D. " Discourses on the Introduction of Medical 
Schools In America." Philadelphia, 1765. 

Packard, Francis R., M.D. " The History of Medicine in the 
United States." Philadelphia, 1901. 

Norris, Geo. W., M.D. " The Early History of Medicine in Phila- 
delphia." Philadelphia, 1886. 

Carson, Joseph, M.D. " History of the Medical Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania." Philadelphia, 1869. 

Ruschenberger, W. S. W., M.D. " An Account of the Institution 
and Progress of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia." Phila- 
delphia, 1887. 

" History of the Pennsylvania Hospital." By Dr. J. G. Morton 
and Dr. Frank Woodbury. Philadelphia, 1886. 

Wood, George B., M.D. " Introductory Lectures and Addresses." 
Philadelphia, 1859. 

Wood, George B., M.D. " Historical and Biographical Memoirs." 
Philadelphia, 1872. 



Am. Jour. Phartu. ) 
January, 1904. J 



Echinacea Angustifolia. 



is 



Watson, John F. " Annals of Philadelphia." Second Edition. 
Philadelphia, 1844. 

Simpson, Henry. ''The Lives of Eminent Philadelphians Now 
Deceased." Philadelphia, 1859. 



HISTORY OF ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA. 1 
By John Uri Li,oyd. 

This drug, which has slowly wedged its way into attention, is 
persistently forcing itself into conspicuity. The probabilities are 
that in time to come, it will be ardently sought and widely used, 
for it is not one of the multitude that have flashed into sight, been 
artfully pushed, then investigated, found wanting, and next dropped 
out of sight and out of mind. It seems proper, then, that the his- 
tory of this drug should be recorded in an authoritative way, where 
it can be referred to in time to come, and that this record is appro- 
priate to the section on historical pharmacy of our association 
seems rational, and it also seems consistent that the record should 
be made in a familiar and discursive manner, rather than stiff and 
precise. 

For sixteen years preceding 1 885, Dr. H. C. F. Meyers, of Pawnee 
City, Neb., prepared a secret remedy, which he called " Meyers' 
Blood Purifier." He was an enthusiast in the belief that this 
remedy was a cure-all for any and all diseases dependent upon 
depraved blood. He was an empiricist, and commended his blood 
purifier without reserve in such affections as seemed in its sphere. 
In 1885 the Doctor conceived the idea of enlarging its field of use- 
fulness, and at the same time profiting by the returns from his dis- 
covery. He, therefore, wrote to Prof. John King, of Cincinnati, and 
to myself, describing his blood purifier, stating that its value de- 
pended upon a Western plant unknown to medicine, and that he 
would like to introduce the remedy to physicians generally. He 
cited many cases where his remedy had effected cures of rattle- 
snake-bite, depraved blood affections, etc., etc., stating that " in more 
than six hundred cases this remedy has failed not once to cure. 
It is not a poison, the medicament acts on blood and nerve." 
(Extract from letter.) 



x Read at the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1903, Historical Sec- 
tion. The specimens named in this paper are in hand of the Society Section. 



i6 



Echinacea Angus ti folia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1904. 



The letter-head of Dr. Meyer heralded the remedy in conspicu- 
ous type, as lollows : 

Office of 
H. C. F. Meyer, M.D., 
Manufacturer and Proprietor of 
Meyer's Blood Purifier, 
Pawnee City, Neb. 

Professor King consulted me concerning the subject, the supposi- 
tion being that, as usual, the preparation would be found either to 
contain some well-known drug or to be an exaggeration of state- 
ment. However, as was our custom with all others concerned in 
materia medica directions, we wrote Dr. Meyer to the effect that if 
his remedy was to be introduced to the medical profession through 
the eclectic school of medicine, according to the inexorable rule of 
our school, the botanical name of the drug would necessarily have 
to be made public. Neither of us could concern ourselves in the 
matter unless he was willing to do this. Dr. Meyer then forwarded 
Dr. King and myself specimens of the root, which to me was new. 
(See specimen "A" herewith of original root.) On May 26, 1886. 
I wrote him that I could not from that root fragment determine the 
matter, and that he would have to supply me with a botanical speci- 
men of the plant. Under date of June 7, 1886, through McCullah 
& Graham, druggists, Pawnee City, Neb., he sent me a box of the 
root, which, however, naturally, did not give me the opportunity 
to classify the plant. On writing him to this effect, he next, Septem- 
ber 28, 1886, mailed me the whole plant, which Mr. C. G. Lloyd 
identified as Echinacea angustifolia, or the " nigger head " of the 
West. (See specimen " B.") Owing to the close relationship 
between this plant and the well-known Echinacea purpureum, or 
"black Sampson," long used in domestic medicine and familiar to 
eclectics and herbalists, I did not seriously consider the drug as one 
promising to fulfil Dr. Meyer's anticipations. However, Dr. King, 
with his usual thoughtfulness, consideration and care, proposed to 
investigate the matter, and, from the drug forwarded me by Dr. 
Meyer I at once made for Dr. King several specimens of liquid 
preparations, and then I passed the subject from mind as one among 
a multitude of such before me, destined to remain in obscurity. 

After some months, Professor King in brmed me that he was very 
favorably impressed with the action of the preparations made for him, 



Am. Jour. Pnarm. I 
Januar.v. 1901. j 



Echinacea Angustifolia. 



'7 



and advised that the remedy be placed in the hands of other physicians 
of experience in whom he had confidence, and to whom he wrote. 
Accordingly, I placed the preparation that Dr. King preferred in 
the hands of Prof. I. J. M. Goss, M.D., of Atlanta, Ga., Prof. H. T. 
Webster, M.D., of Oakland, Cal., and others, who investigated the 
remedy after the suggestions of Dr. Meyer and Professor King, and, 
if I mistake not, Dr. Meyer also corresponded with these gentlemen. 

Two years after the beginning of the investigation, Professor King, 
in the 1887 Eclectic Medical Journal, page 209, wrote an article on 
the therapy of the drug Echinacea, which was the first published 
reference thereto, and this was followed by an article by Professor 
Goss. When Professor Webster's work on " Dynamical Therapeu- 
tics " appeared, he gave Echinacea considerable conspicuity, which 
was the first authentic attention received by this plant in a book 
under covers. These works by professional men of distinction, led 
to attention from eclectic physicians, their contributions to eclectic 
literature becoming frequent. From this date, the name and claims 
and uses of the remedy crept gradually outside of our school. 

In 1893, Mr. C. G. Lloyd contributed to the Eclectic Annual, page 
332, an article on the drug and its identification, lor many persons 
were then confusing Echinacea purpureum with Echinacea angusti- 
folia. All of this time, I was rather resisting the claims made by 
the enthusiastic friends of Echinacea angustifolia, believing that con- 
servatism is to be preferred to over-enthusiasm, and yet one conspicu- 
ous object-lesson before me in its early history led me to be more 
tolerant in its behalf than otherwise I might have been. The wife 
of Professor King had long since been attacked by a cancer, and 
Professor King had tried every remedy that he could think of as a 
palliator, and at last turned to the preparations of Echinacea, which, 
as claimed by both Mrs. King and himself, gave her the only relief 
she had obtained. According to Professor King, it retarded the 
progress of the enemy as no other remedy had done. For years she 
had suffered with this cancer, and informed me herself that when 
Echinacea was not used she noticed an immediate change for the 
worse. To such an extent did she believe in the use of Echinacea 
that, on her account alone, before the remedy was known to others, 
I made it a duty to keep a constant supply on hand, and to the day 
of her death she could not do without Echinacea. That it palliated 
this individual case I had no doubt, and this personal instance, as I 



i8 



Echinacea Angustifolia. 



(Am. .lour Phprm. 
I January, 1904. 



have said, removed my prejudice and led me to a much greater 
toleration for other statements. And yet, the record of the overly 
famed Sarsaparilla, Stillingia, and such drugs, were ever in mind. 

In this connection it may be stated that Dr. Meyer was so posi- 
tive that Echinacea was a certain cure for the bites of poisonous 
insects and rabid animals as to lead him to desire to give the profes- 
sions an exhibition of its power in that direction. For this purpose 
he proposed to come to Cincinnati, and, if we could not get a vicious 
rattlesnake in this locality, to bring a supply of serpents with him, 
and then, in the presence of selected medical authorities, permit these 
serpents to bite him freely, when they were in unquestionable con- 
dition, and then to counteract the poison by the use of Echinacea, 
internally and externally. He urged that this be done, which course, 
however, Professor King and myself positively refused to sanction. 
Dr. Meyer, however, claimed that he had been bitten repeatedly, 
and that there was no danger. 

From the dates given, the drug Echinacea gradually crept into 
notice, and now, after nearly twenty years have passed since the 
inves igations were instituted, the drug is becoming conspicuous 
with the profession, and I will add that, in my opinion, it is destined 
to become more so. 

Owing to the resemblance of the flower heads of Echinacea 
angustifolia, " nigger head," to Echinacea purpureum, " black 
Sampson," and also to several species of plants related to the sun- 
flower family, this drug is now, as found upon the market, of very 
uncertain quality. I have known the root of a plant not related to 
it, thrown upon the market under the name Echinacea angustifolia, 
in large quantities, from sections of the country where Echinacea 
does not grow. Large amounts of so-called Echinacea have been 
sold in commerce, differing in every way from the true drug, which 
grows in great abundance throughout Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, 
and other sections of the West and Southwest. Large amounts of 
Eryngium aquaticum have been dug and sold as Echinacea. The 
root may be superficially described as follows, as contributed by me 
to the Eclectic Medical Journal for August, 1897, to which I will add 
that no attempt is made in this description other than to point to 
some of its conspicuous characters: 

Characteristics. — Echinacea root has a brown or brown-red color. 
It is much wrinkled longitudinally, and the folds of the shrunken 



A jiSa?>, P 5S m '} Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 19 

epidermis sometimes twist about the root in spiral iorm. When 
sliced transversely, the yellowish medullary rays are seen to be sep- 
arated from each other by a greenish pulp, and when the dried root 
is broken, the fracture always presents the appearance of having 
been affl.cted with dry rot. Upon chewing the root of prime Echi- 
nacea, a sweetish taste first presents itself, which upon prolonged 
chewing becomes acrid and tingling, which remains long to affect 
the tongue. This sensation reminds one of aconite, but it is devoid 
of the benumbing quality of aconite, and, unlike aconite, it increases 
the flow of saliva, instead of inducing dryness of the tongue. Indeed, 
in its early record, more than one physician inferred from the simi- 
larity of the taste, that by mistake aconite had been sold under the 
Echinacea label and wrote me concerning the subject. In early 
experience with the drug, I found insipid, tasteless lots of the genu- 
ine plant, that proved worthless in medicine. These specimens all 
came from low, wet lands east of the Mississippi River, for the plant 
is not confined exclusively to the West, and varies much in quality. 

Echinacea contains minute amounts of a colorless alkaloid, which, 
however, does not constitute the therapeutical qualities of the drug. 
It contains much sugar, and large amounts of coloring matters, 
which prove injurious if allowed to remain in its preparations. The 
sensible constituent is a colorless, organic substance of acid reaction, 
which imparts the sensible properties to the drug, being intensely 
acrid and persistent — distressingly so in a pure condition. It exists 
in prime Echinacea in minute amounts, less than ^ of 1 per cent., 
and is probably in itself a mixture. 

Accompanying, please find specimens of the plant and root of 
Echinacea, being the original drug, as sent me direct from the hands 
of its discoverer, Dr. Meyer. 



GARDENS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS. 

By Albert Schneider. 

I. PREFATORY. 

A paper on this subject cannot be made retrospective nor in the 
form of a review, since with a few exceptions there are no extensive 
gardens or parks entirely devoted to the cultivation of medicinal 
plants. The present object is rather to give a few suggestions as to 



20 



Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1904. 



the significance and value of such gardens to the progress of phar- 
macy and medicine, and how such gardens may be established in the 
United States. On careful consideration it becomes evident that 
gardens devoted to the cultivation of medicinal plants are the direct 
outcome of the development and evolution of botanical gardens in 
general. It is true that many medicinal plants are cultivated on a 
large scale, but such plantations are not true gardens of medicinal 
plants any more than are agricultural fields botanical gardens in the 
ordinary acceptance of that term. The following very briefly con- 
densed historical review will give some idea of the very recent origin 
of gardens of medicinal plants, and will furthermore serve to explain 
more fully the plan to be proposed. 

II. HISTORICAL. 

Botanic gardens date back to remote antiquity. We are justified 
in mentioning the gardens of tradition and myth to show that the 
mythical idealization is intimately associated with realization. The 
Jewish " Gan-eden," or Paradise, was supposed to have been situated 
in Persia or Armenia, and according to others in Chaldea. The 
gardens of Hesperides (tree or fruit gardens) were supposed to have 
been in Africa, near Mt. Atlas. There are the promised gardens of 
Mohamet, the gardens of Laertes, and the gardens of Alcinoiis so 
fully described in Homer's Odyssey. These gardens of the imagina- 
tion simply show that the human mind has ever associated joy, happi- 
ness, and pleasure with luxuriant vegetation. 

Coming now to gardens of tradition which perhaps had some 
foundation in fact, we may first of all mention the royal gardens of the 
ancient Egyptians, which were of remarkable splendor. They were 
established on a grand scale about palaces, but were characterized by 
a paucity of species, consisting largely of palms and a few fruit trees 
and culinary vegetables. The country about the Egyptian catacombs 
was also converted into gardens. The Babylonian or Assyrian gardens 
(about 2000 years B.C.), though their existence is purely problematical, 
were described as magnificent, and were reckoned among the wonders 
of the world. They were built on elevated structures, supported by 
enormous pillars. The garden patches were laid out in squares with 
remarkably constructed terraces. Fountains kept the air cool and 
watered the plants. Equally wonderful and problematical were King 
Solomon's gardens and the earlier Persian and Grecian gardens. 



Am. Jour. Pharra. ) 
January, 1904. / 



Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 



2 I 



The earliest comparatively authentic records of botanic gardens 
are those of the Romans. The first described is that of Tarquinius 
Superbus (534 B. C), adjoining the royal palace at Rome. Among 
other plants, roses, poppies, lilies, peaches, apricots and cherries 
were cultivated. The villas of Cicero at Arpinum, of Sallust on 
the Quirinal hill, and those of Nero were noted for their beauty. 
In addition to these private gardens of the nobility there were also 
gardens established about temples, places of worship, and burial 
places which may be compared to the public parks and cemeteries 
of to-day. The term hortus as defined in the laws of the decemviri 
included a garden and country house. The garden devoted to 
kitchen plants was known as hortus pinguis. In spite of the fact that 
the larger Roman gardens were chiefly for pleasure and recreation, 
they contained many useful fruit trees, shrubs and herbs, besides 
flowers. Flowers were greatly prized and they figured very signifi- 
cantly at feasts, frequently enormous sums being expended for them. 
The following useful plants were introduced and grown: The fig and 
almond from Syria, the citron from Media, the peach from Persia, 
the pomegranate from Africa, the apricot from Epirus, apples, pears 
and plums from Armenia, cherries from Pontus. They cultivated 
sweet and sour apples, including a seedless variety; thirty-six vari- 
eties of pears, as early and late, large and small, hard and mellow ; 
three varieties of quince ; varieties of services and medlars ; black, 
white and variegated plums ; numerous varieties of cherries, several 
varieties of olives; they cultivated varieties of grapes — some were 
thick-skinned (duracina), others thin-skinned; one vine at Rome pro- 
duced enough grapes to make 12 amphorae (84 gallons) of wine. 
Some grapes were spherical, others oval or elongated. One was 
called dactylides, because the fruits were long like fingers. They cul- 
tivated figs, mulberries, and perhaps also raspberries and the bramble- 
berry; further, hazelnuts, filberts, beech, mast, pistachias, walnuts 
(Juglans, from Jovis glans, the fruit of Jove), chestnuts, St. John's 
bread (Carob bean from Ceratonia siliqud), pines, gourd, cucumber, 
melons, cabbage, pea, bean, kidney bean, turnip, carrot, parsnips, 
skirret, radish, sorrel, asparagus, onions, garlic, endive, lettuce, suc- 
cory, mustard, parsley, arache, alisander, dittander, elecampane, 
fennel, chervil and mushrooms. This catalogue gives some idea of 
the extent to which useful plants were cultivated, and what we of to- 
day owe to Roman influence and effort. There is no record, how- 



22 



Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1904. 



ever, to show that the Romans made any attempt to arrange or group 
plants according to any definite system or to give the gardens any 
scientific rank. Useful and beautiful plants were introduced from 
other countries as they were found during war-like invasions. No 
special efforts were made to cultivate plants of medicinal value, ex- 
cepting a few herbs in the vicinity of temples devoted to medicine, 
such as the temples dedicated to Esculapius. 

Through Roman influence gardens were gradually established 
throughout Italy, centuries after the fall of Rome. Like the Roman 
villa gardens, most of these were private property. In fact, nearly 
all of the real gardens of antiquity were the pleasure grounds of 
opulent mortals. With the introduction of Christianity the polythe- 
istic temple and sacred gardens were destroyed or neglected or some- 
times continued as gardens of the monasteries ; the gardens of burial 
grounds continued as before. The similarity between the Roman 
villa gardens and the later gardens of Italian baronial castles and 
gardens of the monastic establishments of the Middle Ages is very 
apparent. According to Castellan several monasteries were built 
on the ruins of Roman villas, copying the ancient grouping of build- 
ings, structure of porticoes, terraces, arcades and the range of the 
gardens and pleasure grounds, etc. 

From Italy the establishment of gardens spread northward and 
westward. There is a very close similarity between the Italian 
baronial castles and those of northern Europe and, as in the past, 
the private gardens of the nobility, as well as the more public parks 
and cemetery gardens were essentially for pleasure and recreation 
rather than utility. 

The statements thus far made with regard to botanical gardens of 
antiquity apply not only to the countries referred to, but also largely 
to Asia, Arabia and India. Arabian and Chinese physicians have, 
however, lor many centuries given some attention to the cultivation 
of medicinal plants, and the same may be said of Indian priests, 
though no very reliable data as regards the scope of such work are 
obtainable. Of the earlier European rulers there is only one, namely, 
Karl der Grosse (Charlemagne), who gave considerable attention to 
the introduction and cultivation of economic plants, including med- 
icinal plants. The monks of the dark and later ages apparently had 
an eye to utility, and they gave some attention to the cultivation of 
medicinal plants. Heretofore the " herb-gatherers " relied almost 



A January rig™*} Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 23 

wholly on wild-growing species, but with the increased population 
and the cultivation of the soil, it became necessary to cultivate these 
plants and these earlier monastic gardens are really the progenitors 
of our modern gardens devoted to the cultivation of economic plants, 
especially gardens of medicinal plants. 

Extensive public gardens, established on a scientific and far-reach- 
ing economic basis, are of comparatively recent origin. There were 
none worthy of note prior to the latter part of the sixteenth century. 
The first European public garden was established at Padua about 
1533 or somewhat later (1 545) ; in this garden considerable attention 
was given to the cultivation of " simples " (medicinal herbs). Shortly 
after these dates, other public gardens were rapidly established in 
different parts of Italy, notably the Palermo gardens and the botanic 
garden at Venice, which was formerly the monastic garden of San 
Giobbe. 

The first extensive scientific and economic garden was the Jardin 
des Plantes of Paris, founded by Louis XIII in 1610 and put into 
active operation in 1634. La Brosse, "the first director, remarked 
that during that period it had " eighteen years of persecution and 
six of culture." Under the direction of Thouin (during the first 
years of the consulship), this garden became firmly established as a 
school of botany and plant culture. Its objects were, first, to col- 
lect useful or remarkable plants from every part of the world and to 
distribute them to every part of France and so far as practicable to 
every other country, and, second, to form a school of botany, botan- 
ical research, and an experimental garden. A universal correspond- 
ence was established through which plants were secured from all 
over the world. Collectors were sent out at the expense of the gov- 
ernment, and all material secured was conveyed duty free. Every 
war-like, exploring or commercial expedition was accompanied by 
officially appointed naturalists, to whom every facility was given for 
work in the interests of the garden. Plants received were propa- 
gated without loss of time and distributed, in the first place, to other 
botanic gardens of France; next, seeds and plants were sent to such 
of the French colonies and possessions as might profit by them, and 
lastly, material was sent to foreign correspondents in exchange for 
similar favors received or expected. The influence of this garden has 
been far-reaching. All other extensive botanic gardens of the world 
are copied after this one. The garden is the means of each year add- 



24 Gardens of Medicinal Plants. { A ™kn ^ ^ r y!?9w ^n, ' 

ing millions of dollars to the resources and wealth of the French nation 
and, in addition, it is a powerful factor in public instruction, and has, 
furthermore, been the means of developing scientific research which 
has directly Or indirectly added greatly to the health, happiness and 
comfort of the masses, besides giving French investigators in botany 
first rank. 

The Jardin Botanique de la Faculte de Medicine, devoted entirely 
to the cultivation of medicinal plants, is only a part of the Jardin 
des Plantes, and was established in 1869. Some 2,000 species are 
now under high cultivation in a limited area (about nine acres of 
ground). Since 1877 the garden has been open to the public from 
the fifteenth of March to the first of November of each year, between 
the hours of six to six of each day. Students of medicine are admitted 
on the presentation of cards and are given special privileges when 
desired. Plants are grouped according to the natural orders and 
the orders are grouped according to structural similarities. A 
broad walk separates monocotyis and dicotyls. In connection with 
this garden there is a museum in which are placed on exhibition 
vegetable drugs and their derivatives, pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions, and other materials of interest to medicine and pharmacy. 
Excellent opportunities are offered to do research work in regard to 
medicinal plants in the laboratories of chemistry, pharmacology and 
botany of the Ecole de Medicine of Paris. 

The example set by the Jardin des Plantes has been adopted by 
other countries. At the present time France, England, Germany, 
Austria, United States, Italy, Holland and Russia have extensive 
gardens of great economic and scientific value, similar in scope to 
the Paris gardens. In these the chief attention is given to what are 
commonly called useful or economic plants, including many medici- 
nal plants. 

The largest single botanic garden in the world is the Buitenzorg 
garden of Java, founded by the Dutch Government in 1817. It oc- 
cupies 1,100 acres, with a range in altitude from sea level to 6,000 
feet. The location with the altitudinal range makes it suitable for 
the cultivation under natural conditions of nearly all kinds of plants. 

The second largest gardens are the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, 
near London, with an area of 260 acres, founded by Lord Capel in 
1759. This garden, with its numerous territorial and colonial sub- 
stations, has at the present time even a wider influence than the 



A ja 1 fuar r y ri904 rm '} Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 25 

Paris gardens and is the one potent factor in developing the agricul- 
tural, horticultural and general botanical resources of the British 
Empire. The third largest botanic garden in the world is the New 
York Botanic Garden, in Bronx Park, New York City, established 
in 1 891. It is liberally endowed and well equipped with every means 
for botanical research and investigation. Substations are being 
established. The management has just secured the control of the 
Cinchona station of Jamaica. Dr. N. L. Britton, the director- in- 
chief, and Dr. D. T. McDougall, the associate director, have already 
developed the economic and scientific features of this garden to a 
remarkable degree. This garden is" now about to undertake the 
extensive cultivation of medicinal plants under the direction of Dr. 
H. H. Rusby, who is pre-eminently qualified to undertake this work. 

Additional gardens of great scientific and economic value and 
wide influence are those of Berlin, Vienna, Dublin, Edinburgh, 
Palermo, Naples, St. Petersburg and others. Of these the royal 
gardens of Berlin and Vienna are the most important and deserve 
special mention for the thorough manner in which they are managed 
and maintained. In the United States the State Experimental 
Stations established and maintained by the Government and work- 
ing under the direction of the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington, D. C, are doing a remarkable work in combating plant 
diseases, developing agricultural and horticultural resources, forming 
new and desirable garden and field varieties, and working in the 
interests of botany in general. No other country is doing as much 
in the interests of agriculture. Nor must one forget the work of 
the experimental stations and horticultural societies maintained by 
state appropriations. 

The Paris garden above referred to is perhaps the largest and most 
complete garden of medicinal plants in the world. As already 
stated, some medicinal plants are grown in all of the larger eco- 
nomic gardens. It is also true that certain medicinal plants are 
promiscuously cultivated on an extensive scale in various countries. 
For example, cinchona in India, Java, South America ; spices in 
various tropical islands, especially those belonging to Holland and 
England; cocoa in South America; saffron and licorice in Spain; 
rhubarb in Russia, chamomile in Germany; ginseng in the United 
States and China; tea in China ; ginger in Jamaica; vanilla in Mex- 
ico, etc. There are furthermore gardeners in all countries who de- 



26 



Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 



f Am. .lour. Pharm. 
i January, 1904. 



vote their entire time time to the growing of medicinal plants. 
These various plantations, great and small, limited or extensive in 
the number of species grown, devoted to the cultivation of medicinal 
and related plants for commercial purposes, are not gardens of 
medicinal plants in the present acceptance of that term, any more 
than a wheat or corn field is a botanic garden in the sense in which 
the term is here used. 

In the United States beginnings have been made to establish 
scientific gardens devoted wholly to the cultivation of medicinal 
plants. A small area is set aside for that purpose in the St. Louis 
botanic gardens. A similar small garden is maintained at Ann 
Arbor in connection with the department of pharmacy of the State 
University. The Berkeley (State University of California) gardens 
have about 100 species of medicinal plants among the economic plants 
under cultivation. Similar beginnings are no doubt made in other 
States. In addition to these there are instances of private individuals 
who have attempted such gardens with more or less success ; but 
so far as known to the writer there is no extensive garden of medici- 
nal plants in the United States. 

With this brief historical review an attempt will now be made to 
outline briefly a plan for the establishment of gardens of medicinal 
plants in the United States. The criticism may be made that this 
is premature, but in consideration of the fact that partially successful 
and abortive efforts have been made to establish such gardens, and 
furthermore the fact that to the writer's certain knowledge plans are 
now being matured to establish several such gardens on a compara- 
tively large scale makes it highly appropriate and desirable that there 
should be an opportunity for exchange of ideas and plans, in order that 
there may be a minimum waste of energy and money in establishing 
these gardens and that they may work for mutual benefit. The follow- 
ing suggestions are based upon facts thus far obtainable and give the 
writer's idea of what should be the scope and purposes of such gar- 
dens. It should also be noted that the time has passed when it is 
excusable to start a new and desirable or necessary enterprise on a 
small scale. In order that the undertaking may fulfill requirements 
and expectations it should be liberally supported and given the right 
start. Of course, allowance must be made for a reasonable length of 
time to mature full plans and to put them in operation. 



A jammryfi9M rm '} Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 27 

III. PURPOSES OF GARDENS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS. 

(a) These gardens should be open to all, thus serving as a very 
efficient means of instructing the general public. 

(b) They should serve as a source of special instruction to students 
of pharmacy and medicine. Most students of pharmacy are familiar 
only with the dried plant parts used medicinally and the prepara- 
tions made therefrom, and have practically no conception of the 
appearance of the living plants from which these dried specimens 
are obtained. In this respect students of medicine know even less. 
These are deficiencies in the education of pharmacists and physicians 
which could be supplied by the gardens of medicinal plants. 

(c) These gardens would be the only efficient means of develop- 
ing the possibilities in the State or community for the successful 
cultivation of plants of medicinal value. They would thus no doubt 
add millions of dollars annually to the resources of the United States. 
They would be the means of opening up new chemical, pharmaceu- 
tical and medical laboratories and manufacturing establishments, 
which we are now obliged to patronize in foreign countries. 

(d) In order that a maximum of good or desirable results may be 
obtained there should be several large gardens of medicinal plants 
established in the United States. The least profitable is duplicate 
work; it would therefore be desirable that these various gardens 
should be supplemental to each other in developing the resources 
of the country with regard to medicinal plants. While this is of the 
highest importance, it is at present premature to formulate a com- 
plete plan. A suggestion would be for the movers in the establish- 
ment of the various gardens now planned to meet in the near future, 
say at St. Louis or Kansas City next summer, and mature plans. 
To illustrate, the following gardens are already launched or are 
being planned : New York botanic gardens (ready for active work); 
Shaw botanic gardens, St. Louis (in operation) ; Philadelphia (con- 
templated) ; Ann Arbor garden (in operation); Indiana State Uni- 
versity (contemplated); and San Francisco garden (active work 
begun). It might be suggested that the New York garden investi- 
gate and develop the resources of the southeastern United States, 
West Indies and parts of South America ; the St. Louis gardens, 
the Central States, the southern United States, Mexico and South 
America ; Philadelphia, the northeastern United States, southern 
Europe, India and Asia; Ann Arbor, the northern United States 



28 



Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1904. 



Canada and northern Europe; the Indiana gardens, the Central 
States and the Northwest, including Alaska; the San Francisco 
gardens, the Pacific States and the Orient, including the Philippine 
Islands. These are mere suggestions based upon a co-operative 
idea. The Department of Agriculture would no doubt be willing to 
co-operate in maturing such plans. 

(e) These gardens should maintain adequate laboratories of chem- 
istry, pharmacy, pharmacology and botany for research work. For 
this purpose the laboratories of colleges of medicine and pharmacy 
as well as those of experimental stations, of manufacturing chemists 
and pharmacists would be available. 

(f) The gardens should maintain herbaria and a museum of 
pharmacy and medicine for the instruction of students and the edifi- 
cation of the public in general. The museum should contain a 
suitably arranged exhibit of vegetable drugs and their derivatives, 
mineral drugs, pharmaceutical preparations, apparatus and equipment 
used in collecting, preparing, drying, garbling, packing, storing and 
shipping vegetable drugs; in fact, everything of interest bearing on 
pharmacy and medicine. The herbarium should contain carefully 
determined specimens of all plants of medicinal value and related 
plants. It need scarcely be stated that a fairly complete working 
library is also an essential to such gardens. 

IV. PLANTS TO BE GROWN. 

Dr. Rodney H. True, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, who is in charge of Drug and Medicinal Plant In- 
vestigations, in a recent communication made the following 
statement : " I would suggest the desirability of cultivating small 
plots of a large number of species of plants having medicinal prop- 
erties. (The Government has published nothing so far regarding 
the cultivation of drug plants, apart from a brief outline covering 
the general plans.) From our standpoint, the larger the number of 
drug plants experimented with the better." In this the writer 
heartily concurs. The following plants should be grown in so far 
as that is possible : The official medicinal plants of all countries ; 
important unofficial medicinal plants ; plants reported to have 
medicinal value, as those used by savages of various countries, and 
popular " medicinal herbs " not yet known to the science of medi- 
cine and pharmacy ; plants extensively used as adulterants or sub- 



Ar jkiuarVfiw4. m } Gardens of Medicinal Plants. 29 

stitutes of medicinal plants ; plants having no medicinal value but 
used in medical and pharmaceutical practice. Enough of each 
species should be grown to supply the requirements of the various 
gardens. 

V. GROUPING OF PLANTS. 

This is a matter of greater importance than would appear on first 
consideration. A grouping according to natural orders or accord- 
ing to physiological action or constituents is not natural, and to 
make such grouping in a measure successful, entails extra labor and 
expense and the scheme cannot be carried out consistently or com- 
pletely in many instances. A more rational plan would be to group 
them ecologically, that is, according to the natural requirements and 
conditions of soil, light, moisture and temperature. According to 
such a plan, the following would be a brief tentative outline of the 
groups : 

Group I. — Trees and woody climbers (as grape, ivy, poison ivy), 
including those herbs and shrubs which require shade (forest and 
woodland shrubs and herbs). 

Group II. — Shrubs ; beginning with the larger tree-like forms 
(dogwood, spiraea, etc.), grading off with smaller shrubs (black- 
berries, etc.). 

Group III. — Herbaceous plants and small shrubby plants which 
do not require shade. These may again be separated into sub- 
groups according to nature of soil, water required, climbing herbs, 
runners, smaller herbs and large succulent herbs, etc. This group 
would consist largely of annuals and biennials and is the largest and 
most important group. 

Group IV. — Water plants, that is, such as are wholly or partially 
snbmerged below the surface of the water. These are to be grown 
in artificial ponds when necessary. 

Group V.- — Bog or marsh plants, such as require very wet soil. 
These tor the most part also require more or less shading. 

Group VI. — Xerophytic or dry-soil plants. They require com- 
paratively dry sandy soil with good drainage and plenty of sunlight. 
They are mostly of tropical or sub-tropical origin, and must be 
grown in well-protected areas or in hothouses. 

Group VII — Tropical plants. These must for the greater part 
be grown in hothouses. 

It is hoped that these suggestions may be of some practical ben- 



30 Making of Compressed Tablets. {^I'J^^mT' 

efit. In conclusion, it may be stated that active work has been 
begun on the San Francisco Garden of Medicinal Plants. About 
eight acres of ground in Golden Gite Park are set aside ; some 400 
or 500 different species of medicinal plants will be seeded or planted 
in January, 1 904, and additions' will be made as rapidly as possiole. 
California Collfge of Pharmacy, 

Paknassus Avenue, San Francisco, Cal. 



MAKING OF COMPRESSED TABLETS. 
By George B. Weidemann. 

If a pharmacist wishes to manufacture compressed tablets and 
triturates he can do so very economically, as the apparatus necessary 
for such work will be found in every drug store, with the exception 
of the machine, and its purchase is his only real expense. 

The preparation of the material to be compressed is the most 
difficult part of the work, for each substance has its own peculiarity 
and must be treated in a little different manner, but the general plan 
of procedure is the same. 

The ingredients must first be reduced to a very fine powder, 
granulated, dried and lubricated before it is ready to compress. 

After thoroughly mixing the powder, to granulate, water, d'lute 
alcohol, or a mixture of syrup and water, are the substances usually 
employed, but water makes a firmer granule, which is less liable to 
disintegrate in handling. 

The powder is moistened until it has the consistency of dough 
and is then forced through a No. 16 or No. 20 sieve and dried. For 
a small tablet or triturate a Nj. 20 sieve is better, but for larger 
tablets a No. 16 sieve is used. 

To facilitate drying, a drying oven may be used, but this is not 
necessary, for if spread on paper in a dry place the granules will 
dry very quickly; but, if this method is employed, a piece of paper 
should be laid over the material to keep out particles of dust. 

After the material is thoroughly dry, it is lubricated, and for this 
several substances are used. The manufacturers spray the granules 
with liquid petrolatum, using 10 or 12 drops to the pound, and 
about 2 per cent, of talcum is added to prevent the material from 
adhering to the dies; but I have found this very unsatisfactory, for 
if only a few drops too much of liquid petrolatum are added the 



Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
January, 1904. J 



Compressed Tablet Making. 



31 



material will not compress, and to eliminate this possibility of failure, 
I use French chalk entirely and have been successful in all instances. 

The material is now ready to compress. The tablet should not 
be made too bard or it will not disintegrate when swallowed, but it 
must be made sufficiently hard to prevent disintegration in handling. 
To facilitate solubility a small quantity of an inert powder is added 
to the ingredients and a mixture of sugar of milk 5 parts and cane 
sugar I part is usually added. 

With a Stokes machine it is possible to compress about 100 tablets 
a minute, as one revolution of the wheel completes the tablet. 

Quite a few substances can be compressed without any prepara- 
tion, as the material comes from the manufacturer granulated. To 
this class belong such chemicals as salol, ammonium chloride, 
bromides, iodides and chlorate of potash. 

1 riturates, such as strychnia and its salts, corrosive sublimate, 
calomel, calcium sulphide and arsenous acid, can be made at a cost 
of from 2 to 4 cents a thousand (labor not being accounted for), 
while the manufacturer will charge from 35 to 50 cents for a like 
quantity. All tablets can be made for from 10 to 40 per cent, of 
what they cost to purchase them from the jobbing-house, excepting 
such tablets as chlorate of potash and ammonium chloride, which 
can be bought for a slight advance of the drug itself, and hence it 
would not pay one to make them. 

If a pharmacist puts up headache tablets, cold tablets, or voice 
lozenges, he can save about 75 per cent, by making them himself, 
as the manufacturers charge more proportionately for special 
formulas than for their regular listed ones. 

Some tablets can be made by like methods, but quite a few require 
special manipulation. 

Sodium salicylate, for instance, should be granulated with a gum. 
and syrup of acacia is often employed. 

Quinine sulphate requires the addition of 5 per cent, powdered 
acacia and 10 per cent, powdered cane sugar, or else it will not 
compress. 

Many others require special manipulation which can only be 
learned by experience with the drug itself. 



5^ 



Biographical Sketches. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1904. 



• BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 1 
By M. I. Whjbert. 
DR. DAVID B. TRIMBLE. 

At a meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy that was 
held on March 25, 1834, the Board of Trustees reported that they 
had conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy on nine candi- 
dates who had duly complied with all the requisitions of the College. 
The first name on the list, as reported (A.J.P., 1834, page 255), was 
that of David B. Trimble, the subject of this sketch, who for a num- 
ber of years was the oldest living graduate of the college. David 
Brown Trimble was born in the city of Baltimore on May 29, 181 3. 
As a young man he came to Philadelphia with his brother Joseph, 
and both of them subsequently entered the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy as students, graduating together in the same year. As a 
student in the Philadelphia College, David B. Trimble had the very 
great advantage of having as instructors two of the greatest teachers 
of Materia Medica and Chemistry that this country has ever seen. 
These proficient teachers, Dr. George B. Wood and Dr. Franklin 
Bache, had at that time already established for themselves a reputa- 
tion for ability and thoroughness in their chosen departments that, 
soon after, brought to them ample honors and liberal compensation 
in more elaborate fields of labor. 

When we consider the mental caliber of these early teachers in a 
school of pharmacy, it need not surprise us to find that the students 
who came in contact with them, developed in after life traits that 
readily distinguished them from the average of their fellow workers 
in the same field. 

As noted before, it was from this school that David B. Trimble 
graduated in 1834, the subject of his thesis being " Colchicum 
Autumnale." After graduating at the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy David B. Trimble entered the Jefferson Medical College as a stu- 
dent. Here he graduated in the spring of 1 837, having successfully 
passed the required examination and presented a thesis on 
" Scrofula." 

1 This is the third paper of a series of biographical sketches being prepared 
by Mr. Wilbert. Sketches of Alfred B. Taylor and Maurice W. Alexander 
appeared in the March, 1903, number of this Journal, and a sketch of Professor 
Maisch in the August number. 



A ja n T u O ar r yr.904 rm '} Biographical Sketches. 33 

Dr. Trimble began the practice of medicine in Cecil County, 
Md. He was married, on November 5, 1840, to Elizabeth Trimble 
Asken, at East Nottingham Meeting, Md. 

Dr. Trimble appears to have been imbued with the roving spirit 
that was so prevalent among native-born Americans in the first half 
of vthe nineteenth century. We find him practising medicine in 
Burlington; N. J., Marlton, N. J., and finally in Beverly, N. J., where 
he was well known and is still remembered by a number of the older 
residents. About 1 864, he removed to Chicago, 111., where he 
became acquainted with a fellow alumnus of the college, Mr. A. E. 
Ebert, who at that time was actively interested in the Chicago Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, being the corresponding secretary and chairman 
of the committee on the School of Pharmacy. In 1872, at the sug- 
gestion of Mr. Ebert, Dr. Trimble was offered, and accepted, the 
chair of Materia Medica and Toxicology, in the Chicago College of 
Pharmacy. This chair he occupied for three seasons, or until the 
spring of 1 875, when he resigned. Shortly after this he removed 
to Evanston, 111., where he practised medicine for some years. He 
later removed to Geneva Lake, Wis. Feeling that he had spent his 
more active years, Dr. Trimble retired from the practice of medicine 
and removed to Starke, Bradford County. Fla. The remaining years 
of his life were spent quietly between Starke, Fla., and Philadelphia. 
During this later period he spent some time in Philadelphia and 
cultivated quite a circle of acquaintances, who were charmed by his 
interesting and genial personality and who still recall with pleasure 
the interesting reminiscences of travel and adventure with which he 
was wont to entertain them. 

Dr. Trimble died at Fernandina, Fla., September 4, 1901, having 
reached the eighty-ninth year of his age. Of the ei^ht children 
that had been born to him, but three survived — Mrs. Harry Swin- 
burne of New York, Mr. John J. Trimble, ot Danville, 111., and Mr. 
Henry P. Trimble, of Fernandina, Fla. To these the writer is in- 
debted for many of the facts and data included in the above 
sketch. 



34 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { A ja^uaryfis™' 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By the late C. Remigius 
Fresenius. Authorized translation of the greatly amplified and 
revised sixth German edition, by Alfred I. Cohn. 2 vols., 8vo, 2,076 
pages, 280 figures. Cloth, $12.50. 

As a result of the interest in analytical chemistry, new methods of 
analysis are quite numerous, and improvements of older methods are 
continually being suggested. It is becoming more and more appar- 
ent that while quantitative analysis is based upon certain basic 
principles, as understanding the " properties of precipitates," and the 
insidious causes of error are being eliminated, nevertheless there is 
a personal element that enters into the work which influences, in a 
measure, the result of different workers. Uniform methods of analy- 
sis are being encouraged, and as time goes on there will be more 
disposition for the adoption of uniform methods as are at present 
carried out by the agricultural chemists. 

Many books on quantitative analysis have appeared. Some of 
these have excellent features which commend them. We have not, 
however, seen a book on this subject which may be considered to be 
so complete and so essential to the analyst as the present revision of 
Fresenius. It is so full of methods and references to the important 
literature that one almost wonders that it has been possible for a 
single individual to write a work containing so many of the results 
of the latest researches in analytical chemistry, including methods 
for both inorganic and organic substances. 

A brief summary of the more important subjects treated of in this 
work is as follows : determination of quantity and measuring ; prep- 
aration ol substances for the processes of quantitative analysis; 
general procedure in quantitative analysis; reagents; forms and 
combinations in which substances are separated from each other, or 
in which their weight is determined, including basic radicals and 
acids ; determination of basic radicals and the estimation of acids ; 
qualitative examination of organic substances ; determination of the 
elements in organic substances ; determination of the equivalent of 
organic compounds; calculation of the constituents sought from the 
compound obtained in the analytical process and conversion of 
the result in percents; deduction of empirical and rational form- 
ulas ; calculation of the vapor density of volatile substances ; analysis 



A January P i904 m ' } Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 35 

of water ; analysis of some technical products and minerals, with 
processes for determining their commercial value ; determination of 
sugars, starch, dextrin, alcohol and tan nin ; estimation of anthracene ; 
estimation of the inorganic constituents of plants ; analysis of soils, 
manures and atmospheric air ; official methods of analysis adopted 
by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists ; some principles 
and methods of rock analysis ; tables for the calculation of analyses. 

The work is to be commended to all analysts, and will be consulted 
for years to come, as it has in the past, as an authoritative work 
of reference. 

A Dictionary of Medical Science. Containing a full explana- 
tion of the various subjects and terms of Anatomy, Physiology, 
Medical Chemistry, Pharmacy, Pharmacology, Therapeutics, Medi- 
cine, Hygiene, Dietetics, Bacteriology, Pathology, Surgery, Oph- 
thalmology, Otology, Laryngology, Dermatology, Gynecology, 
Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Medical Jurisprudence, Dentistry, Veterinary 
Science, etc. By Robley Dunglison, M.D., LL.D., Late Professor 
of Institutes of Medicine in the Jefferson Medical College of Phila- 
delphia. New (twenty-third) edition, thoroughly revised, with the 
pronunciation, accentuation and derivation of the terms, by Thomas 
L. Stedman, A.M., M.D., Member of the New York Academy of 
Medicine. In one magnificent imperial octavo volume of 1,224 
pages, with about 600 illustrations, including 85 full-page plates, 
mostly in colors, with thumb-letter index. Cloth, $8.00, net; leather, 
$9.00, net; half morocco, $9.50, net. Lea Brothers & Co., Philadel- 
phia and New York. 

The present edition is the twenty-third during seventy-five years. 
This speaks well for the original author as well as publishers and 
those connected with the later revisions, as it is almost impossible 
to prevent the fossilization of dictionaries and encyclopedias. Dun- 
glison in his earliest work made it clear that the dictionary which 
he had in mind was to be not merely a lexicon or dictionary of 
terms, nor a work which was to contain a bald definition or array of 
synonyms, but there must be an illumination of the subject so that 
each word must have, in addition to definition, some indication of 
its relationship to various departments of medicine. The result has 
been a work which has proven to be almost indispensable to students 
and practitioners. In the present edition numerous illustrations 



36 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^'^^\^' 

have been introduced, as of blood-cells, urinary sediments, methods 
of bandaging, parts of the human body, microorganisms, etc. 

Essentials of Volumetric Analysis. An introduction to the 
subject, adapted to the needs of students of pharmaceutical chem- 
istry. Embracing the subjects of Alkalimetry, Acidimetry, Precipi- 
tation Analysis, Oxidimetry, Indirect Oxidation, Iodometry, Assay 
Processes for Drugs, Estimation of Alkaloids, Carbolic Acid, Sugars, 
Theory, Application and Description of Indicators. By Henry W. 
Schimpf, Ph.G., M.D., Professor of Analytical Chemistry in che 
Brooklyn College of Pharmacy. Illustrated. i2mo, vii -f 227 pages, 
38 figures. Cloth, $1.25. New York : John Wiley & Sons. London: 
Chapman & Hall, Limited. 1903. 

Volumetric analysis, like the study of organic chemistry, has an 
unmistakable charm for the careful student, because chemical themes 
and laws are continually brought into play and accurate results are 
assured. Trie author of the present volume has made an excellent 
reputation as an author of a valuable text-book of volumetric anal- 
ysis and the present work has apparently been prepared to popularize 
this subject. 

The subject-matter is systematically arranged as far as can be, and 
treated as concisely as is consistent with clearness of expression. 
The processes are grouped under five headings : Neutralization, 
Precipitation, Oxidation, Indirect Oxidation, and Iodometry. The 
principles underlying each group are definitely indicated, and their 
application illustrated by numerous practical examples. Other sub- 
jects treated include methods of calibration and of the accurate 
reading of graduated instruments, the calculation of the results of 
analyses, the preparation and standardization of volumetric solutions. 
The indicators, their selection for special cases and the ionic theory 
regarding their action, as well as assay processes for phenol, sugars 
and vegetable drugs, also receive special treatment. 

The book is to be commended to students and others interested 
in volumetric analysis and ought to be in the hands of every phar- 
macist in the United States. We need more books on advanced 
pharmacy which are written as clearly as this one and with so much 
interest and profit to the pharmacist. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
January, 1904. / 



Obituary. 



37 



OBITUARY. 

DR. H. M. ALEXANDER. 

Dr. H. M. Alexander, who had achieved a national reputation as 
a propagator of vaccine virus, died at his summer residence at Cone- 
wango, Pa., On October 13, 1903, after a short illness from angina 
pectoris. 

H. M. Alexander was born at Lewisburg, Union County, Pa., 
May 17, 1 85 1 . He graduated from Bucknell University in 1873, 
and then took up the study of medicine, graduating from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1876. After spending a short time in 
the hospitals studying and obtaining experience, he located at 
Marietta, Pa., and engaged in the practice of his profession. He 
soon won the confidence of the people and became popular and 
enjoyed a handsome practice. He was esteemed as one of the most 
enterprising and upright citizens of the county. 

Dr. Alexander became interested in the subject of vaccination 
and the propagation of bovine virus which had been introduced into 
the United States by Dr. Henry A. Martin in 1870. He made a 
careful study of the best methods and the proper conditions and 
surroundings necessary to insure the production of safe and reliable 
vaccine. He fully recognized the importance of the subject and 
was convinced that all establishments for this purpose should be 
located in the open country, where pure air, perfect cleanliness and 
the best sanitary conditions can be attained. 

In 1882, he established his laboratory and vaccine farm at Marietta, 
in the rich and fertile county of Lancaster, in what has been con- 
sidered an ideal spot. This farm was looked upon as a model, and 
Dr. Robert L. Pitfield in his report on the inspection of vaccine 
farms made to the Pennsylvania Board of Health commented upon 
it as " an admirable establishment in every particular." It was as 
proprietor of the Lancaster County Vaccine Farm that Dr. Alex- 
ander was best known and gained a national reputation and a busi- 
ness that was international. He was an enthusiastic stu lent of the 
subject and an energetic business man, and his efforts met with 
deserved success, and under his personal supervision his biological 
laboratories developed into an important industry. 

The occurrence of epidemics of smallpox, necessitated the pro- 
viding of facilities for turning out at such times of enomorus quan- 



38 



Obituary. 



("Am. Jour. Pbarrri. 
\ January, 1904. 



tities of virus, and in order to meet such demands, in 1886 he 
established a branch laboratory at Omaha, Neb., and as an additional 
precautionary measure a supplemental plant was erected in 1894 on 
a farm near McEwensville, in Northumberland County, Pa. In 1889, 
Dr. Alexander decided to relinquish the practice of medicine and 
devote his entire time to the extensive business. Subsequently the 
style of the firm was changed to Dr. H. M. Alexander & Co., and 
quite recently extensive improvements were made in the Marietta 
laboratories and a department established for the manufacture of 
antidiphtheritic serum. 

Dr. H. M. Alexander was an active member of the Lancaster 
City and County Medical Societies and a contributor to their pro- 
ceedings. He was also a member of the Pennsylvania State Medi- 
cal Association and attended their recent meeting in September at 
York, Pa. The day following his return from this convention he 
was taken ill, but appeared to be improving until overcome by a 
sudden attack of angina. 

Dr. H. M. Alexander was married in 1877 to Miss Martha Wool- 
man, of Philadelphia. She and six children survive him. 

G. M. B. 

BARNARD SIMPSON PROCTOR. 

By the death of Barnard Simpson Proctor, F.I.C., in September 
last, British pharmacy lost one of its most able and honored 
exponents. 

Yet, notwithstanding the distinction won by Mr. Proctor as a 
pharmaceutical chemist, teacher and writer, his life may be said to 
have been one long protest against the fate that made him a phar- 
macist. As a boy, he had a taste for mechanics and physics, and 
his desire was to become an optician and philosophical instrument 
maker. In an appreciation of him, the editor of the Chemist and 
Druggist says : " Proctor ought never to have been behind the 
counter. It is good for pharmacy that he was ; but his abilities 
and his philosophic mind would have ensured for him high rank 
in pure science." 

Mr. Proctor was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1829, and was 
the fifth in line- of five generations of chemists. After passing his 
major examination in 1853 he entered into partnership with his 
father, the late William Proctor, pharmaceutical chemist, it being 
the desire of his father that he be a druggist and chemist, and con- 



A j^u aryf^ a r-} Chicago College of Pharmacy. 39 

tinued in business until 1897, when he retired. He became a mem- 
ber of the Pharmaceutical Society in 1857, and was later, in 1863, 
one of the founders of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, being 
also the author of the first paper presented to this body. In 1869 
he was appointed lecturer on pharmacy at the College of Medicine 
of Durham' University, being the first English pharmacist to hold a 
university chair. His lectures at the University were embodied in 
his book, " Lectures on Practical Pharmacy," published some thirty 
years ago. Mr. Proctor had devoted considerable of his time to 
simplifying the tests for purity, and in 1891 these were published 
under the rather characteristic title, " A Manual of Pharmaceutical 
Testing for the Man of Business and His Assistant." As an ex- 
ample of his thoroughness, it may be cited that in his last paper 
to the British Pharmaceutical Conference, in 1894, which was on 
Rhubarb, were recorded the results of twenty-six years of experi- 
menting. 

In addition to his accomplishments in the science and art of 
pharmacy, Mr. Proctor was a power with his pen, and was regarded 
as being at one time the first of controversialists in English phar- 
macy. The number of papers published by him were legion, and 
it is said that " his interest in pharmaceutical politics was keen to 
the last." 

Mr. Proctor's personal qualities were such as to endear him to 
those who knew him best, being of even temper, warm-hearted, and 
just. In this connection it is interesting to note that he could 
never be prevailed upon to accept the offers of the presidency of the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference, nor would he accept the hon- 
orary degree of M.A. from Durham University, claiming that an 
arts degree was not suitable for him, and at that time the Univer- 
sity did not bestow scientific degrees. 

The last year of Mr. Proctor's life was spent at Westbury.on- 
Trym. Mrs. Proctor, who is a niece of Michael Faraday, and two 
sons and two daughters survive him. F. Y. 



CHICAGO COLLEGE* OF PHARMACY. 

The Alumni Club of the Chicago College of Pharmacy held its 
second monthly meeting of the season, at the rooms of the Chicago 
Drug Trade Club, on the evening of November 4th. Mr. L. I. 
Schreiner presided. 



AO Chicago College of Pharmacy. { A January P i9oI m " 

The feature of the evening was the review of current pharma- 
ceutical literature by members of the club. Mr. G. A. Brenke re- 
viewed the American Druggist for October 28th. A discussion on 
the preservation of Syrup o\ Hydriodic Acid was followed by a prop, 
osition to increase the strength of this official syrup to 5 per cent. 
Professor Hallberg thought such an increase desirable, in that it 
would provide a suitable substitute for the alkaline iodides. Mr. 
Thorburn doubted the desirability of such a substitution from a 
therapeutic standpoint, and suggested that iodides of an organic 
base would be preferable. A lively discussion followed the presen- 
tation of the salient features of the Patent Commissioners' report 
on the petition of the committee chosen by the N.A.R.D. to confer 
with the President. Professor Hallberg was appointed a committee 
of one to draft resolutions expressing the sentiment of the club on 
this question for presentation at the next meeting. 

Professor Day reviewed the leading articles in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy for October, especially Professor Schlotter- 
beck's paper on " The Mydriatic Alkaloids." 

Mr. Thorburn reviewed the October number of the Druggists 
Circular. The greatest interest was manifested in the editorial en- 
titled " A Menace to the Pharmacopoeia." Professor Hallberg spoke 
of the proposition to make a general statement in the Pharmacopoeia 
to the effect that the official requirements applied to the articles in 
the U.S. P. only when used for medicinal purposes; and also of the 
elimination of the common names, such as " Sweet Spirit of Nitre," 
etc. Mr. Hereth, Mr. Schreiner and others took part in the dis- 
cussion. 

The correctness of the statement of Dr. Wiley, in his address 
before the N.A.R.D., in Washington, D.C., recently, as reported in 
the journals, that the Federal Government does not concern itself 
as to the quality of drugs imported, only as to the duty to be col- 
lected, was challenged by Professor Hallberg, who said that instead 
of its being a matter of indifference whether opium, for example, 
contains 5, 10 or 20 per cent, morphine, the customs law levies a 
duty of $6.00 a pound on opium containing less than 9 per cent, 
of morphine and opium prepared for smoking, while opium contain- 
ing not less than 9 per cent, morphine is subject to a duty of $1.00 
per pound ; thus opium which falls below the U.S. P. standard is 
excluded from the drug market in the United States. 



A j a nuar r y, P im m '} Chicago College of Pharmacy. 41 

Several other journals were to have been reviewed, but the mem- 
bers who had agreed to take them were unable to be present. 

Mr. Snow was appointed to arrange for the next meeting of the 
club, to be held at the same hour and place on December 2d. 

At the December meeting, Mr. C. N. Snow presided. The report 
of the committee appointed at the preceding meeting to draft reso- 
lutions regarding the decision of Patent-Commissioner Allen in the 
case of the protest made by the committee of the National Associa- 
tion of Retail Druggists was received, and the resolutions reported 
were unanimously adopted. The chairman was instructed to send 
copies of the resolutions to each Congressman and Senator from 
Illinois, as well as to the President. The following is a copy of the 
resolutions: 



Whereas, The interests of legitimate medicine are seriously injured and 
threatened through the operation of the patent laws of the United States, under 
which patents may be obtained not only on the process of manufacture, but on 
the finished product, and 

Whereas, Protection in the process of manufacture is amply sufficient to 
stimulate inventive genius, and promote in the highest degree adequate reward 
for the talent and labor employed in the discovery of remedial agents, and 

WHEREAS, Protection in the patent of the product inevitably tends to dis- 
courage inventive genius in the discovery of improved methods of manufacture 
tending to higher qualities and increased efficiency in remedial agents, and 

WHEREAS, The laws of other nations, notably those of Germany, recognize no 
right of patent in the finished product, but wisely and equitably limit such pro- 
tection to original processes of manufacture, and 

Whereas, Under existing treaties between the United States and foreign 
nations the citizens of such foreign nations are given all the privileges enjoyed 
by the citizens of the United States, thus supplying them with a degree of pro- 
tection not accorded them under their own government, and which tends to 
grievous extortion in the sale of such foreign products in the United States, and 
to the establishment of merciless monopolies, therefore be it 

Resolved, That we denounce the defense of such discriminating legislation 
by Commissioner of Patents Allen as opposed to the dictates of justice, to the 
rights of domestic inventors, and to the interests of American manufacturers 
and of retail pharmacists in every State, and be it further 

Resolved, That we favor a renewed appeal to the President of the United 
States, invoking his aid in such revision of existing treaties with foreign nations 
as shall extend to foreign manufacturers in this country such privileges only 
as they respectively enjoy in their own country, and as American manufacturers 
and American inventors enjoy in such country. We also ask the Congress to 
so revise the patent laws of the United States as shall permit protection in the 
process of manufacture only, and not in the product. 



42 Chicago College of Pharmacy. { A Ta^uar r y, P i9M. m " 

Mr. Frank E. Fisk reviewed the November number of Merck's 
Report. Considerable discussion was had on the extemporaneous 
preparation of absolute alcohol from strong alcohol. Mr. Thorburn 
reported that he had frequently tried the method of using dried 
copper sulphate, and had failed to get an alcohol stronger than 97 
per cent. He had found that lime freshly ignited gave better results. 

Mr. W. D. Brenke reviewed the Western Druggist for November. 
With regard to the formula for syrup of calcium lacto-phosphate pro- 
posed by C. H. La Wall, Professor Hallberg stated that the plan of 
using the concentrated solution of the lacto-phosphate was an excel- 
lent one, and would apply not only to this syrup, but to other similar 
syrups. 

Professor Day gave an abstract of the original papers appearing 
in the American Journal of Pharmacy for November. 

Mr. Sheblessy reviewed the American Druggist. In reply to a 
question concerning the practice of druggists in lending clinical 
thermometers to patrons, Mr. Sheblessy stated that the practice was 
a common one in his neighborhood, and would be difficult to do 
away with, except by the united action of the druggists of each 
district. 

Mr. A. D. Thorburn commented on the articles presented in the 
November number of the Druggists Circular. In connection with 
the editorial " The Doctor's Duty," he stated that he had informa- 
tion, which he deemed reliable, to the effect that a " phenacetin 
crusade " would soon be inaugurated in Chicago. 

Professor Hallberg reported on the Journal of the American Medi- 
cal Association, summarizing three papers on pharmacology read 
before the section on materia medica, pharmacy and therapeutics, 
viz.: "Is Pharmacologic Action Determined by Chemical Structure 
or by Physical Characters ? " by A. R. Cushny ; " The Relations 
Between the Pharmacologic Actions of Drugs and Their Therapeutic 
Indications," by M. V. Tyrode ; and " Research Problems of Pharma- 
cology," by Torald Sollmann. The papers which appeared during 
the month of November were of unusual interest to pharmacists, 
especially the suggestions of Dr. Sollmann, relating to research, that 
a central laboratory should be established which could supervise and 
correlate the work of independent investigators. In that way only 
can the physiologic action of drugs on animals be compared with 
clinical observations, and the best therapeutic deductions be drawn. 




SoI m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 
Historical Committee. 1 



43 



In accordance with the recommendation contained in the annual 
address of our President, Mr. Howard B. French, the undersigned 
were appointed as " The Historical Committee." 

The early apothecaries of Philadelphia were assiduous workers in 
developing the scientific thought and tendencies of their day, and 
many were equally prominent in social positions and likewise active 
in professional and commercial interests. No small amount of 
credit is due to them for the prominent part they took in laying the 
foundations of a number of successful educational and charitable 
institutions, and the marked influence they exerted in the establish- 
ment oi prominent retail and wholesale drug stores, pharmaceutical 
manufactories, and chemical industries. The drug trade has kept 
pace with the progress and development of this modern city and 
has furnished a number of noted examples of individual energy and 
success. 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy stands as a central figure 
around which are clustered many prominent persons, and interwoven 
and associated more or less closely with her history are the interest- 
ing experiences of many whose lives have been devoted to building 
up enterprises connected with pharmaceutical, chemical, and other 
industries. Her growth and development is an important part of 
the history of Pharmacy. 

These older pharmacists have mostly passed away and much 
interesting historical data has undoubtedly been lost, but a few of 
their associates and acquaintances are left and they should at once 
record their recollections of the past and the reminiscences connected 
with these associations. 

We believe that this is the first organized systematic effort that 
has been made to obtain this information, which must be of more 
than local import, and it becomes the duty of this committee to 
collate, compile, record and permanently preserve all such interesting 
and valuable matter. 

It is the desire of the Historical Committee to make these records 

Members of Committee: George M. Beringer, Chairman, 501 Federal Street, 
Camden, N. J.; William J. Jenks; Prof. Henry Kraemer; Jacob M. Baer; and 
M. I. Wilbert, Secretary, German Hospital, Girard and Corinthian Aves., Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Howard B. French, ex-officio. 



44 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, { A jamiary, P i9M. m ' 

as complete and thorough as possible. We want to obtain all the 
available data relating to individual experiences and life histories, 
to trace the growth and development of modern pharmacies and 
wholesale drug establishments, the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals 
and chemicals and the allied industries. 

This letter is our personal appeal for assistance to any one possess, 
ing knowledge relating to these old-time apothecaries, the trade 
conditions and customs of their days, the stores, the life works, 
habits, associates, scientific, political and social attainments, etc. It 
is directed to relatives and friends as well as to their pharmaceutical 
associates and your co-operation is earnestly solicited. 

Will you please promptly write the Chairman or Secretary, giving 
such information as possible, and loan the Committee any printed or 
written data that you may have? These communications should be 
replete with personal reminiscences, anecdotes and experiences, and 
what may appear to you as only fragmentary notes may be of value 
to the Committee as confirming and adding to information from 
other sources. 

It has been proposed that this Committee should also prepare a 
complete catalogue of the graduates of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, setting forth after each name the date of birth, the class 
date, the address, business location and career, politic and scientific 
honors attained, etc. While this will greatly extend the labors of 
this Committee the completion oi such a list will be of great interest 
to the Alumni and a permanent record of value to the College. Will 
every living graduate favor us with replies to the enclosed queries 
and information regarding those who are deceased. 

The College already possesses a number of historic relics and 
souvenirs and it is now proposed to establish in its museum a section 
devoted to the exhibition and preservation of such materials as 
obsolete drugs, preparations, utensils, apparatus, shop furniture, 
books, papers, diplomas, medals, tickets, portraits, etc., associated 
with pharmaceutical history. May we hope that this permanent 
exhibit will receive your support and that you will donate any such 
historic material in your possession ? 

We ask your careful consideration of the enclosed and a prompt 
reply. 

Please answer the following queries and supply any additional information 
or detailed statements possible and mail promptly to The Historical Committee, 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
January. 1904. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



45 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. If the space allotted on this sheet is not 
sufficient to contain all the information you can give, then kindly write such 
replies on other sheets ; you can't supply too much. 

1. Name. 

2. Address. 

3. Give present business. 

4. Give date and place of birth. 

5. During what years did you attend lectures at the P. CP. ? 

6. Who were the teachers at the time ? 

7. Give any interesting experiences as a student. 

8. What year did you graduate? 

9. Give title of thesis. 

10. Give any information regarding your early life, education, and personal 
history you care to supply. 

11. What classmates have had specially noteworthy careers? 

12. In what stores were yow. employed? 

13. Give your business associations and career since graduation. 

14. What political, educational or social positions have you held? 

15. What educational or honorary degrees have been conferred, upon you? 

16. What organizations are you a member of? 

17. Who were the prominent pharmacists in your locality? 

18. Give in detail any peculiarities of these druggists, their habits, associates, 
stores, fixtures, customs of the time and place, style of trade, character of 
customers, etc. 

19. Have you any pictures of these old pharmacists or their stores ? 

20. Have you any printed or written matter relating to same ? 

21. What anecdotes or reminiscences of this period can you tell? 

22. What relics or souvenirs associated with these older druggists or pharma- 
ceutical history do you own ? 

23. Do you desire to donate any such relics or records to the Historic Section 
of the Museum for permanent preservation ? 

24. Do you know of any one possessing such relics or souvenirs ? 

25. Can you give the Committee the address of any persons possessing infor- 
mation or records relating to these subjects of pharmaceutical history? 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held on Tuesday afternoon, December 15th, with 
Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler in the chair. The meeting was an especially 
interesting one and well attended. 

Prof. John Uri Lloyd, of Cincinnati, who is well known as an 
author not only of scientific books but of fiction, especially folklore 
studies of Kentucky, was the first speaker introduced, and gave an 
address on the »« History of the Eclectic Resinoids and Their Termi- 



46 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { A jaaSary, P i h 9w m ' 

nology." The address was largely historical and devoted in the 
main to the nomenclature of the alkaloids, resins and similar prin- 
ciples introduced into medicine during the first half of the last 
century. Professor Lloyd was fortunate in having an intimate 
acquaintanceship with Prof. John King and others who were instru- 
mental in introducing these substances into medicine, and he stated 
that inasmuch as the history of these circumstances is fast passing 
away he was glad to be able to give the facts to the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy for record. Professor King aimed to formulate a plan 
that would accord with rule and in which the eclectic concentrations, 
as they were called, should be properly differentiated from the alka- 
loids that were then beginning to attract attention. He first called 
these eclectic concentrations " resins," and then, when the demand 
was for a single word to describe them, as podophyllin for resin of 
podophyllum, the termination " in " was adopted to distinguish these 
preparations from the alkaloids, which had the affix " ia" u ine" or 
" ina." 

Professor Remington expressed his appreciation to Professor Lloyd 
for having cleared up this subject and said that he had honored the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy by giving this valuable paper here. 
He then exhibited some specimens of the eclectic concentrations 
which formerly belonged to Professor Procter, some of these having 
been prepared by Prof. Edward S. Wayne. He said that the subject 
of nomenclature was an important one and that druggists are oft 
times confused when they receive a prescription for a resinoid when 
there is a corresponding alkaloid. 

Mr. Wilbert said that fifty years ago the discussion of the eclectic 
resinoids was a very live question, and referred to an article by Prof. 
Edward Parrish on " Eclectic Pharmacy," which was published in the 
American Journal of Pharmacy in 1851 (Vol. xxiii, page 329). In 
this paper Professor Parrish calls attention to a paper by W. S. 
Merrill, in which the latter claims to have introduced several eclectic 
resinoids, viz., those from podophyllum, cimicifuga, sanguinara, lep_ 
tandra, iris and certain other drugs; and in this connection Professor 
Parrish calls attention to the fact that John R. Lewis had previously 
made a study of podophyllum (see Amer. Jour. Pharm, Vol. xix 
(1847), page 165). Mr. Wilbert also mentioned the paper by 
William Hodgson, Jr., which was published in this Journal in 183 1 
(Vol. iii, page 273). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1904. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



47 



Evan T. Ellis remarked that Professor Lloyd's paper was exceed- 
ingly interesting to him as it cleared up what had been for these 
many years a misapprehension involving the rectitude of reputable 
botanic drug houses now in existence — that the admixture of car- 
bonate of magnesia was not a wilful adulteration as he supposed — 
but was really introduced to facilitate the drying of these resinoids 
as they were termed. 

Mr. Wilbert also stated that in 1850 the Legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania granted a charter for an eclectic medical school in this State, 
which was the second established in the United States. This school 
was located at Sixth and Callowhill Streets, over H. N. Rittenhouse's 
drug store. Mr. Rittenhouse was a publisher at that time of the 
eclectic publications. There seemed to be a little misunderstanding 
as to who this Mr. Rittenhouse was, and Mr. Mclntyre was pretty 
well convinced that it was not the Mr. H. N. Rittenhouse who is 
still living and a member of the Publication Committee of this 
Journal. Since the meeting the latter has informed the Secretary 
that the Henry Rittenhouse referred to was originally a comb-maker 
in Kensington ; then an eclectic druggist at Sixth and Callowhill 
Streets, and from there he removed to Seventeenth Street near Ridge 
Avenue, where he died a few years ago, being quite an old man at 
the time of his death. 

M. I. Wilbert gave an address on "The Early History of Medicine 
in America," which was illustrated with a large number of excellent 
lantern-slides, among these being photographs of distinguished 
medical men of that time (see this Journal, page 1). Mr. 
Wilbert also exhibited a photograph of the old Friends' Almshouse, 
the grounds of which were used for the cultivation of medicinal 
plants up until 1 840 or 1850. 

E. T. Ellis, referring to the old-time Friends' Almshouse, on 
Walnut Street between Third and Fourth Streets, Philadelphia, 
mentioned by Mr. Wilbert, and the cultivation of medicinal 
herbs in the little gardens, said that although the main structure 
and all the cottages were torn down in the '3o's or early '40's, 
one old Friend was permitted to retain her home and garden until, 
her death in the '6o's, viz., Nancy Brewer, who had quite a reputa- 
tion with Friends and others for her medicinal herbs — supposed to 
be all grown in her garden. But Nancy, he said, " did draw on us 
in her last years for the Shaker products — as we had the agency of 



48 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { A ^Sa&, P «S[ m 

the Shaker Society herbs." E. T. Ellis remembers the Friends' 
Almshouse perfectly, as he was born near it in 1826. 

Professor Lloyd said that he was much interested in the address 
of Mr. Wilbert and remarked that he was sure that there was a 
thesis in the archives of the University of Pennsylvania on '« The 
Use of Chloroform in Medicine," which antedates any other publica- 
tion on this subject. He said that the name of John Morgan called 
to mind the famous Confederate cavalryman of the same name, 
whose escape from the Columbus penitentiary during the war created 
such excitement throughout the North. Professor Lloyd said that 
while the North was mystified by the disappearance of Morgan and 
whilst large amounts of money were offered for his apprehension, 
he was being cared for by friends in Stringtown County, Ky. Mr. 
Boring also commented on the Morgan raid and said that he was 
with the Pennsylvania regiment which did duty in Kentucky and 
Tennessee at that time. He thought it was a matter of regret that 
John Morgan was killed by a Union soldier. 

Prof. Albert Schneider, of the California College of Pharmacy, 
sent a communication on " Gardens of Medicinal Plants," in which 
he pointed out their value in the progress of medicine and phar- 
macy, and gave some suggestions as to how they may be established 
in the United Slates. (See p. 19.) 

Mr. William B. Marshall, of the Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, D. C, contributed a comprehensive paper on the " Production 
and Use of Cocoa." 

Prof. Henry Kraemer exhibited some hides or so-called " Ceroons," 
used for packing Honduras sarsaparilla, which were received from 
Messrs. Lehn & Fink, New York City ; some specimens of ginseng 
received from Jacob SutlifT, P.D.; a large aquarium presented by 
Messrs. Whitall, Tatum & Co. ; a specimen of Yerba Peckeum pre- 
sented by Mr. Richard Shoemaker; and specimens of a Hercules 
beetle and a green tiger beetle which he had received from Luis 
Javier Guier, P.D., of Cartago, Costa Rica, C. A. 

The following provisional programme has been arranged for the 
next meeting: " Lime Water," by M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M. ; ''The 
Manufacture of Thermometers," by Gustavus Pile ; Examination 
of Commercial Peppers," by James W. Gladhill, A.M., P.U. ; 
" Formulas for Pastes," by Prof. Clement B. Lowe. 

Henry Kraemer, Secretary. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1904. J 



Notes and News. 



49 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Historical Committee of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
has undertaken the collection of the correspondence of such men as Procter, 
Squibb, Maisch, Rice, and others. Persons who are in possession of letters 
from these men or of other representative men of American pharmacy and who 
are willing to have them deposited in the archives of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, are requested to send them to the committee in order that 
they may be properly mounted, classified, and bound. 

The committee has secured both paper and covers of standard size, so that 
the volumes of correspondence will constitute a uniform library when com- 
pleted. Persons who are willing to aid in this work by collecting the corre- 
spondence of any one man who has rendered conspicuous service to American 
pharmacy in his day, should apply to the chairman for standard paper and 
covers. The committee hopes to make a creditable showing at the Kansas City 
meeting next summer. 

Letters may be sent to one of the following persons or to the chairman, Ed. 
Kremers, Madison, Wis. ; Procter letters to A. E. Ebert, Chicago; Maisch letters 
to M. I. Wilbert, Philadelphia; Rice letters to Miss Adelaide Rudolph, Case 
Library, Caxton Building, Cleveland, O. 

Societies of Women Pharmacists. — Daring the early part of the year the 
Woman's Pharmaceutical Association was organized in Chicago with the follow- 
ing officers: President, Miss Nina C. Piper; Vice-Presidents, Miss Julia Runkel, 
Miss Jean Gordon; Secretary and Treasurer, Miss Charlotte Stimson; Commit- 
tee on Membership, Misses Mary Walker, Amanda W. Stahl, Olive Pierce. 
This organization aims to be national or even international in its scope. 

A month or so ago the ' ' Society of Women Pharmacists and Chemists of Penn- 
sylvania " was organized here in Philadelphia with officers as follows: Honorary 
President, Susan Hayhurst, M.D., Ph.G.; President, Susannah G. Haydock, 
Ph.G.; Vice-President, Bertha L. DeGraffe-Peacock, Ph.G.; Secretary-Treas- 
urer, Mabelle Haydock, P.D., B.P. While not the first woman to engage in 
the practice of pharmacy in the United States, Dr. Hayhurst is held in grateful 
esteem by a large number of women pharmacists, to whom she has given an 
opportunity of obtaining practical experience in the Dispensary at the Woman's 
Hospital. 

The Pharmaceutical Examining Board of Pennsylvania have arranged 
for a practical laboratory examination to be given in addition to the usual 
written one on January 16, 1904. 

They have been enabled through the courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy to secure the use of the Pharmaceutical 
Laboratory for the practical work in the morning of the date set, as well as the 
class-rooms for the written examination to be held in the afternoon of the same 
date. 

The laboratory work will consist of prescriptions to be prepared by each 
applicant and is arranged for applicants for the certificate of Registered Phar- 
macist only, the applicants for Q. A. certificates will receive the usual written 
examination to be held in the afternoon. 



50 



Notes and News. 



(Am. Jour PL arm. 
\ January, 1904. 



Those intending to come before the Board for the Registered Pharmacist 
certificate should apply to the Secretary, Dr. Charles T. George, Harrisburg, 
Pa. , at least ten days previous, to receive a blank and assignment of time for the 
laboratory work. 

James T. Shinn, Treasurer of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, has 
for a number of years been interested in educational and philanthropic work in 
this city. He is chairman of the committee of management of Association 
Local Centre of the American Society for the Extension of University Teach- 
ing. This year the Society has the co-operation of the Free Library of Phil- 
adelphia, and, in addition to the lectures at the Local Centre, sixty lectures will 
be delivered at the various branches of the Library. In addition to this, Mr. 
John Thompson, the Librarian, has had copies of the books especially recom- 
mended for reading in connection with the lectures, placed in the reference- 
room of the Library, at 1217 Chestnut Street, and also in the various branches 
of the Library in different parts of the city. 

Besides being a member of a number of other organizations, Mr. Shinn holds 
the following offices : President of the Board of Managers of the Society for the 
Employment and Instruction of the Poor ; Secretary of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital ; President of the Vacant Lots Cultivation Society ; Vice-President of 
the Fuel Savings Society. 

OTTO A. Waee, Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, in the 
St. Louis College of Pharmacy, was the recipient, on November 14th, of a testi- 
monial commemorating the completion by him of thirty consecutive years of 
work as a teacher in that institution. The form of testimonial chosen was that 
of a life-size bronze medallion of Dr. "Wall, and the exercises connected with its 
presentation to the college were held in the Materia Medica Lecture Hall. A 
duplicate medallion was presented to Dr. Wall's family. The dedication cere- 
monies were followed by a banquet. 

C. S. N. Haeeberg, Professor of Pharmacy in the Chicago College of 
Pharmacy, delivered an interesting address on "Some Ancient Pharmacists " 
at the opening exercises of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy, which has 
been published in recent numbers of Meyer Bt others' Druggist and the Western 
Druggist. 

J. B. Nageevoort has accepted the position of chemist for the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. Professor Nagelvoort is well known for his researches in 
phyto- chemistry, and we congratulate him on being so fortunate as to have the 
facilities of the Shaw Gardens at his disposal. 

Charees F. Chandler, of Columbia University, delivered a lecture illus- 
trated with specimens and diagrams, at the American Philosophical Society on 
November 7th, on "The Electro-Chemical Industries of Niagara Falls, - ' which 
was, in fact, a summary of the most remarkable achievements in electrical 
chemistry of the past twenty-five years, all of which are due to the inventive 
research of young Americans. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, 1904. 



THERMOMETERS. 
By Gustavus Pii,k. 
The thermometer as an instrument for ascertaining the tempera- 
ture of various bodies was not given a practical form till less than 
two hundred years ago, and the people who lived before that time 
never had the pleasure of knowing how hot or how cold they were, 
and no one ever spoke of a fall in mercury or a rise in spirits. It 
seems strange that an instrument like this should for so long a time 
have escaped the attention of philosophers and thoughtful minds, 
and even the Chinese, who claim to be the originators of nearly 
everything worth inventing, quite overlooked it, and it remained for 
an Italian doctor to first conceive of a method to indicate the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere. It was about the beginning of the 
seventeenth century when a Doctor Santorio, of Padua, from know- 
ing that the addition of heat produced an expansion of air, con- 
structed a very simple affair by which he was enabled to observe 
the extent of expansion that took place. This instrument consisted 
of a long tube with a bulb blown on one extremity and left open at 
the other end. The open end was placed in a vessel containing a 
colored liquid and the ball heated with a lamp. This caused the air 
in the ball to expand and partly escape through the open end. 
When the heat was withdrawn and the air in the ball began to cool, 
a contraction took place, and the colored liquid rose up in the tube 
till the expansive force of the air in the ball was the same as the 
atmospheric pressure on the liquid. There was no scale or marking 
of any kind attached to this, only the rise and fail of the column 
being noted. 

(5i) 



5 2 



Thermometers. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February. 1904. 



As such an instrument as this could not conveniently be carried 
from place to place and having no scale for reference or comparison, 
it had little practical value; its chief purpose being to draw attention 
to the subject and open the way for further discoveries. Efforts were 
soon made to construct something that would be portable and more 
durable, and as a result, a few years later, an instrument was brought 
out made somewhat after the manner of the first one, but inverted. 
A glass ball was blown having an opening at the top through which 
a glass tube, open at both ends, was inserted and passed down to 
near the bottom of the ball and under the colored spirits that partly 
filled the ball. When heat was applied the air in the ball began to 
expand and the spirits was forced up in the tube. A scale for this 
followed shortly after, not engraved or marked on the tube, but a 
few lines were ruled on a piece of wood which was held against the 
tube when it was desired to read off the height of the column. The 
top mark on this scale was made to indicate the hottest day in sum- 
mer and the lowest mark was placed where the column stood when 
the ball was placed in snow. When the space between the two 
points was divided into sixty parts, which followed later on, it com- 
pleted the discovery of the thermometer. 

It was only a short time after, somewhere about the middle of 
the seventeenth century, that thermometers were made having the 
spirits introduced into a bulb from which all the air was expelled 
and having the opposite end of the tube- sealed over, very much the 
same as those still in use. The honor of constructing the first 
mercurial thermometer belongs to Romer, who about 1709 pro- 
duced an instrument of this kind, only failing to add a scale to make 
it complete. It was in 1724 that a scale having fixed and definite 
points for graduation was invented and introduced by Fahrenheit. 
Taking boiling water to indicate one point and melting ice the other 
point, he divided the space info 180 equal parts, and this scale 
applied brought the thermometer to full completion. The object 
Fahrenheit had in view when he fixed the zero point 32 below 
freezing is quite unknown and has puzzled many inquiring minds, 
but when he selected the two points named for the foundation of his 
scale, he did a very wise thing, for experience has proved them to 
be the very best that could have been chosen and it will always 
remain to his credit. 

Very fortunately for the thermometer maker, the situation of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1904. J 



Thermometers. 



53 



freezing point can be determined with great accuracy, for water 
containing ice will remain at the same temperature just as long as 
there remains any ice to be used up, any accession of heat being 
used in melting the ice. The boiling point of water, however, is not 
so reliable, but being somewhat changeable its determination is 
attended with greater difficulty. The density of the atmosphere or 
barometric pressure has considerable effect upon it ; the purity of 
the water and the nature of the vessel used also produce more or 
less deviation, and have to be taken into account by the maker who 
desires to furnish reliable instruments. However, these difficulties 
can all be overcome, and with proper care and allowances these 
variations can be corrected. In making a thermometer it is of great 
importance to select a piece of tubing that has been evenly drawn 
throughout its entire length. If at any part the bore should be 
enlarged the column of mercury will become shortened and will 
register too low, likewise if the bore should be contracted the col- 
umn will be lengthened and will register too high; hence the great 
necessity of being sure that the tube has an equal bore at every 
point. This important fact is determined by introducing a small 
amount of mercury, just enough to make a short length, say about 
2 inches, and then moving it slowly from one end of the tube to the 
other and measuring it as it travels along. If it remains the same 
length throughout, the tube is fit for use and is sealed over at the 
ends for protection against dust and moisture. 

Now it must not be supposed that the maker of thermometers 
goes to all this trouble and time with all the instruments he turns 
out. Nor is it necessary in all cases, but only when making a 
standard by which others are compared, as will be hereafter ex- 
plained. Having selected the proper tubing, a bulb ot the required 
size to hold the mercury is blown on one end. This operation 
requires considerable skill and practice on the part of the glass 
blower, for a bulb that is too large will make the, scale too extended, 
and if too small will cause the degrees to be too close together. 
A bulb also is blown on the other end of the tube for the purpose 
of filling. By means of a small funnel a sufficient amount of mer- 
cury is introduced into the upper bulb. Heat is then applied to the 
lower bulb to drive out a portion of the air and this, when allowed 
to cool, becomes partially filled with the mercury. Heat is again 
applied to the bulb till the mercury boils and is driven out, carrying 



54 



Titer mo meters. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1904. 



with it all traces of air and moisture. On cooling, the mercury is 
drawn down into the bulb which it completely fills. After standing 
a while, should any air bubbles appear, the operation has to be 
repeated, for the presence of air, even in minute quantities, is sure 
to work mischief. When the thermometer is properly filled the 
upper bulb is cut off and the tube drawn out to a fine point. It is 
then placed in a liquid heated to the temperature that its extreme 
height is to represent, and after all excess of mercury has escaped it 
is sealed over in the flame, and this completes the thermometer. It 
has been observed that after being laid aside for a time the column 
of mercury shows some degree of contraction, which in the course 
of a year amounts to as much as a degree or two. Hence it is best 
to lay newly made thermometers aside to season before graduation 
in order to provide against such changes. 

After the requisite time has elapsed, the graduation is accom- 
plished by introducing the thermometer into a vessel of finely 
broken ice and allowing it to remain till the column of mercury no 
longer recedes, it is then pointed off by making a nick on the tube 
with a fine file. The boiling point is ascertained by placing the 
thermometer in a jacketed vessel which is filled and surrounded 
with steam supplied by boiling water in the bottom of the inner 
section. After sufficient time has elapsed to allow the whole to 
become fully heated, it is pointed off as before and laid aside to cool. 
The space between these two points is then divided into 180 parts 
and after being numbered the thermometer is ready for use. As 
the increase in the volume of mercury is quite uniform in propor- 
tion to the heat added, the divisions will be all equal when a perfect 
tube is used, and this is essential in making a standard instrument. 
For ordinary thermometers it is not customary to calibrate the tubes, 
but in order to obtain satisfactory results several intermediate 
points are taken with the aid of a standard and the required divis- 
ions made between them. Generally the points selected are 32 , 
92 , 1 5 2° and 212 , making 60 divisions between each section, and 
for more accurate work every 30 are registered. The great dis- 
crepancy found in the thermometers made up for the trade is from 
the fact that the intermediate points are not observed. A top and 
a bottom degree only are pointed off and the rest of the scale has 
to take chances for correctness. So when it is considered how diffi- 
cult it is to procure even a small amount of tubing that has an equal 



^b/uaryjm 111 '} Cocoa: Its Production and Use. 55 

calibre at every part — and by far the greater portion is very far off 
in this particular — it is no wonder that it is only by accident that one 
happens to become the happy possessor of a first-class instrument. 
Where it is imperative to determine the temperature with exact- 
ness, the only recourse is to have the thermometer verified and use 
the necessary corrections in connection with it. 

My advice is' to try the freezing and boiling points of every ther- 
mometer to be used, for one can rest assured that if these do not 
register correctly there is very little probability of any other part 
being of much value. One other fact should not be overlooked in 
selecting a thermometer, namely, the complete absence of air. This 
can readily be determined by inverting the instrument and giving a 
few taps on the end, when, if free from air, the mercury will com- 
pletely fill the tube and show an empty space in the bulb, this again 
will disappear when the instrument is turned to its proper position 
and the mercury descends in the tube to its normal place. Besides 
these precautions there is nothing to indicate a good thermometer 
except a comparison with one of known accuracy. 



COCOA: ITS PRODUCTION AND USE. 
By Whuam B. Marshai,i,. 

One of the engravings in Dufour's " Treatise on Coffee, Tea and 
Cocoa/' published in 1688, shows a Chinaman, aTurk andan American 
aborigine having a merry good time at a liquid banquet — the China- 
man with his tea-pot and tea, the Turk with his coffee-pot and coffee, 
and the American with his chocolate urn and cocoa. Another picture 
in the same work shows a Turk, an American and a Chinaman, each 
with a cup of his favorite beverage. Contentment glows on the face 
of each, but the way in which the Turk and Indian regard the China- 
man indicates that they are thinking or saying, " Your tea may be 
good, but what I have here is far better," and of the three the Indian 
seems best pleased. Theoretically, cocoa should hold first rank in 
the field of table beverages, but in practice the order of rank is coffee 
first, tea second and cocoa third. They hold this relative rank in 
the quantity grown and used, in the commercial value and in the 
frequency of use. All this is so notwithstanding the fact that nearly 
everybody likes cocoa from the very first time it is tasted, and 



56 Cocoa: Its Production and Use. { A Febr°ua 1 ryr?9 a o4 m * 

that it is almost entirely free from the attacks to which coffee and 
tea are subjected by those who consider their use unhealthful. 

To compare the use of cocoa to the use of coffee and tea would 
be somewhat like comparing cake to bread. The cake is used in 
less quantity, is more expensive, is more nourishing, and appeals 
more sharply but less enduringly to the taste than the bread. So 
with cocoa. Its appearance on the table at intervals, even fre- 
quently, is hailed with delight, but it has not been able to establish 
itself to any great extent as part of the regular diet. Tea and coffee, 
though of less pleasing taste, are wanted almost as regularly as bread 
and the cocoa is wanted occasionally like the cake. As cocoa is 
usually prepared with milk, the beverage is much more expensive 
than tea and coffee, which are prepared with water. The raw cocoa 
itself also is more expensive than either of the other two materials, 
if account be taken of the amount and cost of each required to make 
an equal quantity of beverage. The milk, the cocoa and the large 
quantity of sugar used to sweeten to taste, all combine to make the 
beverage a rich and concentrated food, and, after a period of its 
steady use, headaches and other slight derangements, cause one to 
turn from it, just as happens after a surfeit of sweets. Doubtless a 
part of this result is due to the fact that the milk is boiled and is taken 
while hot, and hence has effects different from those attaching to the 
use of cool, raw milk. What has been said above is not to be con- 
sidered as being at all derogatory to the value of the beverage as a 
food, but rather as being a hint that in diet there must be a balancing 
of quality and quantity. An increase in the former should be accom- 
panied by a decrease in the latter. Unfortunately, because of habit, 
we are momentarily uncomfortable, unless we receive a certain cubic 
measurement of food at the usual periods, and we are inclined to fill 
up to a certain point without much present concern as to whether 
the filling is a highly concentrated food or a preparation of sawdust, 
so long as the palate is pleased, the cubic requirements satisfied and 
the usual length of time spent in eating. 

From personal experience, I am able to praise the food value of 
cocoa, whether it be in beverage form or in the form of chocolate. 
In the latter form, it is especially valuable on occasions when a meal 
is to be postponed for an hour or two, as often happens when one is 
traveling. Possibly it is an unconscious recognition of its food value 
that makes chocolate one of the most popular of the confections and 



Am. Jour. Pharml 
February, 1904. J 



Cocoa : Its Production and Use. 



57 



other materials offered for sale by newsboys on trains. While con- 
sidering this portion of the subject, one might find amusement and 
profit by inquiring into the facts which underlie the very common 
offering of chewing-gum and chocolate side by side in the slot 
machines — the former being usually in the 5 cent side of the machine 
and the latter in the 1 cent side. And why can both these sell 
through inanimate machines, while the cough drop, which formerly 
had the streets to itself, seems to require not only a man, but a man 
in continual motion, to effect a profitable number of sales. 

The cocoa trees belong to the large plant order Sterculizcece t 
which contains nearly fifty genera and more than five hundred 
species. The order is remarkable because of the immense size of 
some of its trees. The Adansonia digitata, or baobab tree, of Africa, 
which yields the fruit called monkey bread, often has a trunk more 
than 20 feet in diameter. The ceiba trees are remarkable not only 
for their size, but also for the immense buttresses which bolster up 
the trunk on several sides, and whose bases extend many feet from 
the center of the tree. The order includes not only large trees, but 
also shrubs and tender herbs, and, as might be expected from the 
large number of its species, it yields many economic products, such 
as timbers, medicines, gums, fibers, foods, etc. The most important, 
and among the most interesting of the Sterculiaceous plants, are the 
cocoa trees — the source of cocoa, chocolate and cocoa butter. The 
flowers and fruits of many of the order have a foul odor, and hence 
the ordinal name Sterculiacece, from the Latin Sterculius, the patron 
deity of manuring, from stercus, meaning dung. Notwithstand- 
ing the uncomplimentary name that has been given to the order 
the deliciousness ot the beverage cocoa has gained for the genus 
which includes the cocoa trees, the name Theobroma, meaning a food 
for the gods. There are several species of cocoa trees in cultivation, 
but the most important of them is the Theobroma cacao, L., which is 
cultivated almost to the exclusion of the others. Many agricultural 
varieties have been produced through selection and cultivation. 

The tree attains a heightfof from 15 to 35 feet, and a diameter of 
from 12 to 15 inches. The trees are arranged in rows, either by 
planting seeds or by setting out nursery plants. At a little distance 
the plantation resembles in a general way an apple orchard, the 
cocoa trees having an irregular growth like the apple, and the trunk 
often being distorted and leaning like that of the apple, but of smaller 



5 s 



Cocoa : Its Production and Use. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ February, 1904. 



diameter. The leaves are evergreen, glossy, thick and large. They 
commonly reach a length of 8 to 15 inches, and often are much 
longer. The flowers are very small, and have five yellow petals in 
a pink calyx, on a stalk about an inch long. As with many other 
plants, there is no relation between the size of the flower and the 
size of the fruit. The cocoa flower is so small as to be insignificant, 
but the fruit which it produces is 5 to 10 inches long, 4 to 6 inches 
in diameter, and weighs several pounds. The morning glory's flower 
is many times as large as the cocoa flower, but its fruit is many 
thousand times less, both in size and weight, than the cocoa fruit. 
More striking instances of the absence of anything like a uniform 
ratio between size of flower and size of fruit could readily be cited. 

The cocoa flowers appear in clusters in the axils of present or 
former leaves on the larger parts of the tree, including the trunk 
almost to the ground. Consequently the fruits appear at the same 
places, viz. : on the trunk and thicker branches. In this respect the 
cocoa tree is one of the exceptions, as most trees bear their fruits on 
the smaller branches. As the cocoa fruit weighs several pounds, it 
is reasonable to suppose that the smaller branches would be unable 
to support the weight, and hence the burden is relegated to the 
trunk and stouter branches. In our own region, we do not commonly 
see fruits borne in this way, but instances are not altogether wanting. 
The fruit of the Osage orange is often borne on the thicker limbs, 
and even on the trunk. In this case, as in the case of cocoa, the 
weight of the fruit has probably been the chief factor in determining 
the points at which it shall be borne. When ripe, the cocoa fruit is 
of a golden-yellow or yellowish-brown color. It comes to maturity 
in about four months after blossoming. In shape it very much 
resembles our spindle-shaped muskmelon, except that it is a little 
more pointed at the end. Running from the stem end to the bud 
end of the fruit are several depressions, which divide the surface of 
the pod into segments, such as we see in the muskmelon. The skin 
is quite smooth. The fruit is often compared to the cucumber to 
give an idea of its shape and general appearance, but the resemblance 
to the muskmelon is much closer. When fresh, the rind is tough 
and leathery, easily indented with the finger nail or cut with a knife. 
In this condition the fruit is solid and heavy, being filled with pulp 
and seeds. The seeds at this time are soft — somewhat firmer than a 
ripe lima bean. When the fruit is dried, the pulp disappears, the 



A Feb J r°ua;y P £ m '} Cocoa: Its Production and Use. 59 

beans become hard and brittle', and the rind becomes hard and 
woody. The interior being now empty of all the pulp, except a few 
stringy remains, the seeds rattle about with every disturbance of the 
shell. 

Each fruit contains from twenty to forty seeds, which, when cured, 
become the cocoa beans of commerce. Each seed is enclosed in a 
pale crimson, paper-like husk which is somewhat hairy on the out- 
side but very smooth and shining on the inner surface. It adheres 
closely to the kernel, but the latter shrinks away in drying, and still 
more in the roasting process, so that the shell may be easily cracked 
and removed. The kernel consists of two very large cotyledons, 
remarkable for the way in which they are twisted and folded and 
for the manner in which the radicle or germ spreads out to all parts 
of the seed to line every twist and fold. The germ is hard and 
stony. It is, of course, physiologically of prime importance since 
it is the part which sprouts when the seed is planted. To the manu- 
facturer also it is important because of its uselessness to him, and its 
removal adds one step to the work of making cocoa. 

The trees begin bearing about the end of the third year and are 
in their prime at the. tenth year. They continue to yield profitable 
crops for thirty-five to forty years. It is estimated that the average 
yield is about thirty-six fruits or 3 pounds of commercial cocoa beans 
per tree per annum. Sometimes a tree will bear eighty to a hundred 
fruits in the year, yielding 7 or 8 pounds of beans. In exceptional 
cases the yield may be even greater than this. Flowers and fruits 
in all stages of development may be found at all seasons of the year, 
but there are two principal harvests — one in June and one about 
Christmas, the former being called in American countries the harvest 
of San Juan and the latter the harvest of La Natividad. 

In harvesting, those fruits which grow within easy reach are cut 
off with a machete, while those which hang high are brought down 
by means of a long pole with a knife so arranged at the top that it will 
cut either by a thrust or a draw. The ripe fruits are known by their 
golden-yellow or brown color or by sounding hollow when rapped. 
In cutting, care is necessary to avoid injuring the swelling or " eye" 
on the tree at the point where the fruit stem is attached, as it is this 
swelling which produces the future fruit. 

The fruits are generally allowed to pile up for a day or two and 
are then cut open and the pulp embedding the seeds is readily taken 



60 Cocoa: Its Production and Use. { A r'eb J rwyfim m 

out by a deft movement of the hand or of a wooden spoon which is 
often used for the purpose. During this operation a large portion 
of the pulp is removed by the mere handling, and as the pulp is soft 
and juicy another large portion drains off as liquid. The beans are 
then packed in barrels or boxes, covered over with banana leaves, 
snugly stacked and allowed to ferment for three or four days. As 
in all operations making use of fermentation great watchfulness is 
necessary to prevent a too rapid or too great rise in temperature. 
Very often, and especially in parts of Venezuela, the fermenting is 
done by placing the beans in holes in the ground and covering them 
with clay. Beans prepared thus are known as clayed cocoa. The 
clay used is of a warm brick- red color and greatly improves the 
appearance of the cured bean, without, however, having any great 
effect upon the judgment which an expert dealer in cocoa will pass 
upon the quality of the inside of the bean. In the fermenting pro- 
cess the color changes from a pale crimson to the dark brown which 
the seeds have when they reach our markets ; the kernel loses 
nearly all its bitterness, and even in this unroasted condition, if sugar 
be added, it tastes much like chocolate. 

The next operation is to remove nearly all the remaining pulp and 
the slime of fermentation. This is done by slipping and squeezing 
the beans through the hands or by dancing among them with the 
bare feet. They are then to be thoroughly dried — usually by ex- 
posing them to the sun, but often by passing them over steam coils. 
On a small scale the sun drying is done by exposing the beans on 
mats or trays or anything that will permit easy and quick handling. 
On large plantations the drying is done on box-like platforms espe- 
cially constructed for the purpose. These platforms are raised a little 
from the ground and have a sliding peaked roof which may be 
quickly slid back and forth so as to cover or uncover the drying 
beans. The object of the sliding roof is to protect the beans from 
rain or sudden dampness, either of which, if allowed to reach the 
beans after the drying has begun, would greatly lower the quality. 
The roof is used also to protect the beans from the burning heat of 
the sun during the middle of the day. After a final sorting, which 
is done by hand, the beans are bagged and are ready for market. 

The cocoa tree originated in northern South America, but it has 
been introduced to all parts of the world in a broad zone on both 
sides of the equator. It can be cultivated as far as latitude 25 ° 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1904. J 



Cocoa : Its Production and Use. 



61 



north and south, but its cultivation as an industry may be said to 
be confined to the belt between latitude 15 north and 15 south. 
In suitable stations (sea level to 1500 or 2000 feet) it is cultivated 
from middle Mexico to central South America, many of the West 
Indian Islands, the East and West coasts of Africa, India, Ceylon, 
Java, Borneo, northern Australia and many of the Polynesian Islands. 
Usually the bean takes its commercial name from, the country pro- 
ducing it, but the products of some countries are known by names 
otherwise derived. The Mexican is known as Mexican, or Socon- 
usco; the Brazilian as Brazilian, Bahia or Maranham ; the Vene- 
zuelan as Maracaibo or Caracas; the Ecuadorean and Peruvian as 
Esmeralda or Guayaquil ; that of Guiana as Berbice. Ecuador 
grows and exports a larger quantity than any other country, and 
cocoa is perhaps her most important product. Trinidad comes 
next. Venezuela comes third. The African crop is growing in 
importance, and its export exceeds that of Venezuela, and is ap- 
proaching that of Trinidad. 

Cocoa was the first of the three great beverages to make the con- 
quest of Europe, but, when coffee came into the field, cocoa had 
to take second place, and then came tea to wedge itself between the 
other two, thus pushing cocoa into third place. 

Payen gives the following percentage analysis of cocoa : Fat 
(cocoa butter), 52; nitrogenous compounds, 20; starch, 10; cellu- 
lose^; theobromines; saline substances, 4 ; water, 10; cocoa 
red and essential oil, trace. Until a few years ago theobromine, 
caffeine and theine were thought to be chemically different, but 
they are now believed to be identical, not only in composition, but 
also in their effects. All three are mild cardiac stimulants, and it 
is chiefly this effect that has been the handle of the sword in the on- 
slaughts that have been made against the use of tea and coffee. 
During their whole history, and especially during their early history 
in Europe, they might have said, as Robert Burns said when one of 
his moral shortcomings attracted particular attention, "the more 
they clatter the better I'm kenned." Cocoa has never been sub- 
jected to any of the opposition that has beset the paths of the other 
two beverages, although it contains about 2 per cent, of theobromine, 
while tea contains 2 to 3 per cent, of theine, and coffee contains 
from 1 to 2 per cent. Hence, in the matter of the alkaloid, cocoa 
deserves a trifle better standing than tea, and a little poorer stand- 



62 Cocoa : Its Production and Use. {^'J^l^X' 

ing than coffee — when the percentages of theine and theobromine in 
the raw materials are considered. But how much theine goes into 
a cup of tea, how much caffeine into a cup of coffee, and how much 
theobromine into a cup of cocoa or a cake of chocolate ? And, 
further, what part of each after reaching the stomach can place itself 
on such intimate terms with its host as to call forth heartfelt re- 
sponses ? In determining what amount of each alkaloid finally 
reaches the stomach, account must be taken of the fact that for each 
cup of the respective beverages tea leaves are used in almost feather- 
weight quantities, coffee is used by the tablespoonful and cocoa is 
used by the teaspoonful. Of the tea and coffee the leaves and 
grounds are left in the pot, and they retain at least a part of the 
theine, while the cocoa, being an emulsion, is all consumed and all the 
theobrcmine is swallowed. Tea and coffee are generally denied to 
children and invalids, but this is rarely or never the case with cocoa; 
and children are allowed to eat large quantities of chocolate candy 
without receiving any warning other than that which is so often 
necessary to keep them from stuffing. On account of their tender 
years and as their systems are unaccustomed to the alkaloid it 
might be expected that in the sudden use of cocoa and chocolate 
the theobromine would manifest very obvious effects, just as tobacco, 
the first time it is smoked, has effects which are unequalled at any 
future smoking ; but such does not appear to be the case, and about 
the only marked effects are such as come from an improper adjust- 
ment between quantity and quality of food. Except in the matter 
of alkaloid, cocoa differs in all respects from tea and coffee, as it is 
a true food, and the other two are not, their main value consisting 
in the tendency of the theine to retard waste of tissue. The cocoa 
has the double effect of retarding waste because of the theobromine ; 
and of furnishing the material for new tissue and for energy, be- 
cause of the starch, oil and nitrogenous compounds. 

Upon entering a cocoa and chocolate factory, the sight of a num- 
ber of various kinds of machines leads one to suppose that the 
manufacture involves very complicated processes ; but, as a matter 
of fact, the reverse of this is true. The earliest tools used for the 
purpose were simply a stone and pestle, or roller lor crushing the 
roasted seeds to powder. Practically every step in the making of 
chocolate is simplicity itself, and the making of a loaf of bread 
involves as much, if not more, science. The essential steps are the 



A Feb J wTi9 a 04 nK } Cocoa: Its Production and Use. 63 

following : roasting ; crushing and winnowing to remove the outer 
shell and the husky matter which lines each twist and fold of the 
kernel; removing the hard germ or radicle; grinding to a paste; 
cooling. This gives cocoa. If it is to be made into sweet chocolate, 
the paste is flavored and sweetened. All the operations can be per- 
formed by hand ; but machinery has been developed to such an 
extent that the handwork is nearly restricted to stoking the fires and 
shifting the cocoa from time to time into positions where the machin- 
ery may set to work on it. 

When the beans are broken out of the bags, they are sifted, cleaned 
and sorted in order to remove foreign matter and unsound beans. 
They are then roasted in revolving cylinders, in which operation the 
flavor is greatly improved, and the shell and kernel become brittle, 
so that they are easily separated from each other, and the kernel 
is easily broken into small grains. The beans are then fed into a 
crusher, which breaks them into small pieces. As they fall from the 
crusher, a blast of air winnows out the hull and the tough linings of 
the folds. The small grains of pure cocoa and the hard germs fall 
together in one pile. The grains are known as cocoa nibs, or 
cracked cocoa. Some people prefer to buy the nibs rather than the 
further prepared cocoa, because they feel assured that in this form 
there is no adulteration. When the nibs are used, they require fur- 
ther crushing and long boiling to prepare them for the table. In 
this form the cocoa contains all its oil, and makes an exceedingly 
rich beverage. After the germs are removed by a machine especially 
adapted to that purpose, the nibs are fed to heated mill-stones, or to 
grinding machines which work on much the same principle. In the 
grinding they are reduced to a thick paste, and not, as one would 
expect, to a powder. This is due to the great amount of oil which 
they contain and which the heat and friction soon turns into a fluid. 
During the grinding, a large part of the oil oozes from the machine, 
and is caught in drip-pans. It is a thick and creamy liquid ; but 
upon cooling, it hardens into a waxy solid of the color of manila 
paper. This is the crude cocoa butter of commerce. The cocoa 
paste then has some of the oil returned to it or some taken away, 
according to the degree of richness which the manufacturer wishes 
his product to have. The paste is then placed in pans, and the 
resulting cakes are the cocoa, or " plain chocolate," from which the 
beverage is made. When the cocoa is to be almost entirely free 



64 Cocoa: Its Production and Use. { ^ebvu^i^T' 

from oil, the paste is subjected to pressure, and the hard mass result- 
ing therefrom is known as rock cocoa. 

Much of the caked cocoa is ground to powder and packed in tins, 
so that when it reaches the consumer it is in about the same con- 
dition as when it left the factory, and no grating is necessary to 
prepare it for infusing. The paste mentioned above, if it is to be 
made into the confection chocolate, is usually enriched by returning 
some or all of the oil, and is flavored with cinnamon or vanilla, sweet- 
ened, molded into cakes, cooled and wrapped in fancy papers. The 
gloss on the edges and one flat side of the cake is due to the 
contact of the chocolate with the molding pan, just as a cake of corn- 
mush is glossy wherever it has been in contact with the pan. After 
it is molded, the chocolate must be kept cool in order to retain its 
firmness and the gloss. On this account, the up-to-date chocolate 
factory is supplied with a refrigerating plant in order that the storage- 
rooms may be kept as cool as desired. The depth of color gives 
some hint as to the amount of oil the chocolate contains. The richest 
grades are those used to coat the very finest chocolate creams, and 
they are often so dark as to deserve to be called black rather than 
brown. A chocolate which, when held in the hand, quickly softens, 
smudging the fingers, contains much oil. 

The cocoa shells or hulls are not thrown away nor burned, but 
are sold to be used for making a beverage similar to cocoa, but far 
inferior. In Ireland this stuff is called " miserabies." 

The cocoa butter, the Oleum theobromatis of the Pharmacopoeia, 
is a fixed oil which at ordinary temperature is solid, but which melts 
at from 86° to 92 F. When bleached and refined it loses its pale- 
yellow color and becomes snow white and glistening like cold lard. 
It is a trifle lighter than water, its specific gravity being -97 to -98 
(at 59 F.). Unlike a great many oils it does not become rancid 
from long standing. Repeated meltings and hardenings affect its 
quality but little. On these accounts it is especially valuable for 
many purposes. It is very nutritious and its odor and taste are 
pleasant, making it a valuable substitute for cod-liver oil in cases 
which require that kind of a tonic and yet in which the palate and 
weakened stomach rebel against nauseating doses. The butter is 
used to a very great extent as the chief material in suppositories and 
in various cosmetics and pomatums. For these purposes ■ it is ad- 
mirably adapted because of its soothing and healing qualities, its 



A Febmary!i9 a o r 4 m *} Cocoa : Its Production and Use, 6$ 

freedom from acid and from the fact that although it is usually firm 
the temperature of the body quickly reduces it to a fluid condition. 
The low temperature at which it melts has made it one of the chief 
materials depended on for medication when the need is for a salve 
or ointment that shall rapidly turn to a fluid and be absorbed. The 
plain cocoa butter, without medication of any kind, is an excellent 
ointment for chapped hands and lips. The butter is also used for 
making fine soaps and in some of the cream confections. 

The correct name is cacao and not " cocoa,'' and according to 
rules we should say cacao. But our people claim the right to break 
the rules to suit their convenience, and, with the exception of a few 
purists, they have used the word cocoa. In fact, cacao is altogether 
unknown to the greater number of our people. To pronounce it in 
their presence calls forth a question which makes it necessary to 
explain by the word " chocolate " or " cocoa." When the grocer 
is asked for cocoa he should, according to the dictionary, hand out 
' a preparation of cocoanut, but in every case he will hand out the 
beverage material forming the subject of this paper. The people of 
this country have long since discontinued the use of " cocoa " to 
indicate any of the food products of the cocoa palm and always add 
the word " nut," making the word cocoanut. Cocoa fiber used in 
cocoa matting is derived from the cocoa palm or cocoanut palm and 
has no relation whatever to the beverage cocoa. 

Great numbers of our people believe that cocoa (cacao), coca and 
cocoanut are the same product or that they are derived from the 
same source. There is, of course, no close relation among them, as 
they come from three different plant orders and are used for dif- 
ferent purposes. There is also some confusion between " cocoa " and 
" chocolate," some persons using " chocolate " to indicate the con- 
fection, the cocoa in cakes and the beverage, while others use it to 
indicate the confection only, calling all the unsweetened forms and 
the beverage cocoa. The tendency is to use " chocolate " to indicate 
all the manufactured forms of cocoa and the beverage also. One of 
the largest cocoa and chocolate manufacturing firms has published 
the following definitions : 

Cocoa. — The commercial name given (1) to the seeds of the small 
tropical tree known to botanists as Theobroma cacao; (2) to the 
cracked or coarsely ground product of the roasted seeds, sometimes 
designated more particularly as " cocoa nibs " or " cracked cocoa ; " 



66 



Lime Water. 



[ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
l February, 1904. 



(3) to the finely pulverized product of the roasted seeds from which 
a portion of the fat has been removed, sometimes designated as 
" breakfast cocoa " or " powdered cocoa." 

Chocolate. — (i) The solid or plastic mass produced by grinding to 
fineness the kernel of the roasted seeds of Theobroma cacao without 
removing any of the fat, sometimes called " plain chocolate" or 
u bitter chocolate ; " (2) the same product to which have been added 
sugar and various flavoring substances, sometimes called " sweet 
chocolate" or " vanilla chocolate." 

It is interesting to note our tendency to interchange "o" and "a" 
in certain words. " Cacao " wants to become or has become 
" cocoa ; " " cafe " has become " coffee ; " and " Curacao " has become 
" Curacoa." 

LIME WATER. 

By M. I. Wubkrt, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Despite the fact that lime water is probably the best known and 
most widely used of all pharmaceutical preparations, its peculiarities 
and shortcomings have received but little attention by investigators 
and pharmacists. 

The fact that it may, and sometimes does, fall far short of what is 
usually understood by the term, lime water, has repeatedly been 
noted, while the reason for this shortcoming is no doubt to be found 
in the fact that, in by far the greater number of pharmacies, the 
care for and the making of this preparation is usually entrusted to 
the apprentice, or boy about the place. 

That lime water is deserving of greater attention will become evi- 
dent when we realize the very important part that it has, from time 
to time, taken in the armamentarium of the physician and also 
recognize the great harm that may possibly result from the use of 
a comparatively inert preparation. 

Lime water has been used from the earliest times, and is to-day 
recognized as one of the most valuable remedies in a number of 
affections of the gastro-intestinal tract, particularly in the treatment 
of infants and children. Lime water is well known as an efficient 
antacid, and is also used quite extensively as a local application or 
as a necessary ingredient in preparations designed for external use, 
notably the well known lime liniment or carron oil. It is also used 



m. Jour. Pharm. 1 
February, 1904. J 



Lime Water. 



6 7 



as an addition to bring about chemical change of the more active 
substances, as in the well known black or yellow washes. All of 
these preparations, it will be noted, depend largely on the fact that 
the lime water used be of the full strength. 

Lime water is official in all known national pharmacopoeias, and 
although the official titles as well as the prescribed modes of pre- 
paring the solution differ materially, the ultimate object that is 
sought by all is practically the same — a saturated solution of calcium 
hydrate in water, at ordinary temperatures. 

Calcium hydrate, as is well known, varies considerably in its solu- 
bility, being much more soluble in cold than in hot water, and dif- 
fering in this respect from the majority of chemical substances. So 
little is known about the physical or chemical changes that are pro- 
duced by the solution of chemical substances, in water, that it would 
be futile to attempt, at this time, a general discussion of the under- 
lying principles or factors that regulate the solution of calcium 
hydrate. The subject has been investigated in a practical way by 
several persons, among them M. A. Lamey {Comptes Rendus, Feb- 
ruary, 1878, page 333), L. C. W. Cocx {Arch. f. Phar., 1879, page 
145), and Thos. Maben {Phar. Jour., 1883, reprinted in A. J. P., 1884, 
page 1 10). 

The United States Pharmacopoeia of 1890 defines liquor calcis as 
"a saturated aqueous solution of calcium hydrate," and gives among 
other tests one for the quantitative estimation of the contained 
alkali. The Pharmacopoeia does not, however, limit the allowable 
variation of the calcium hydrate in solution, but simply states that 
50 c.c. of the official solution should require for complete neutrali- 
zation about 20 c.c. of oxalic acid, decinormal volumetric solution, 
corresponding to about 0148 per cent, of calcium hydrate. 

The German Pharmacopoeia, on the other hand, directs that lime 
water should contain from 0-148 to 0-167 P er cent - of calcium 
hydrate, while the other requirements are practically the same as 
those of the U.S.P. 

Just a word here as to the applicability of these two quantitative 
methods, from a practical point of view. 

The German Pharmacopoeia directs the use of a normal volumetric 
hydrochloric acid solution. This, in addition to the added difficulty 
of making the solution, has the objection of being unduly concen- 
trated ; 100 c.c. of lime water requiring only 4 to 4-5 c.c. of normal 
hydrochloric acid for complete neutralization. 



68 



Lime Water. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm 
X February, 1904. 



The U.S.P. method, using a decinormal volumetric oxalic acid 
solution, has the advantage that a sufficiently accurate solution is 
readily made, by any pharmacist, while the solutions themselves are 
more evenly proportioned. 

The testing of lime water can readily be done without the use of 
a burette, or other complicated apparatus, a 50 c.c. metric graduate 
being quite sufficient to measure the solutions. The test itself using 
phenolphtalein as an indicator is sufficiently interesting to appeal 
to any boy or apprentice, and if properly instructed, the latter would 
probably take considerable pride in standardizing his lime water. 

To get some additional data as to the care devoted to the making 
of this preparation by the local pharmacists, a number of samples of 
lime water were purchased and examined. It will not be necessary 
to enumerate in detail the results of our investigation, suffice it to 
say that the samples as purchased varied from 0-043 to 0-165 per 
cent, of calcium hydrate, while by far the greater number of the 
samples fell below 0-148 per cent., the average requirement of the 
U.S.P. It may, however, be of interest to note that one-half of the 
samples contained less than 0-120 per cent., and one-fourth of the 
total, less than 0-085 per cent, of calcium hydrate, while, as noted 
before, one sample contained as little as o 043 per cent, of the alkali. 
All of the purchased samples contained appreciable quantities of 
soluble sulphates, indicating that all had been made with common 
tap or city water. One sample contained appreciable quantities of 
a chloride, and this, on inquiry, it was learned, had been made from 
oyster-shell lime without separating the coarser particles, as directed 
by the Pharmacopoeia. Further inquiry in this direction revealed 
the fact that the available oyster-shell lime, " Put up expressly for 
pharmacists," has not been sufficiently calcined and contains ap- 
preciable quantities of carbonates, which in turn appear to have, 
enclosed, soluble chlorides that are not readily washed out in the 
ordinary way. The difficulty can, of course, be overcome by follow- 
ing the U.S.P. directions and decanting the finer particles of calcium 
hydrate from the coarse lumps that usually consist of uncalcined 
carbonate. 

Some experiments made with so-called C. P. calcium oxide, and 
also with calcium oxide from marble, did not give any appreciably 
better results than those made from ordinary lime. In ordinary 
practice, therefore, it would be perfectly safe to use commercial lime, 
providing several veiy essential precautions are observed. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm.\ 
February, 1904. j 



Lime Water, 



6 9 



The first of these is to use a lime that has been thoroughly cal- 
cined, and then to wash the resulting hydrate with distilled water, 
or at least, boiled and cooled water, until all traces of soluble salts 
have been eliminated. 

The use of distilled or boiled water is to be recommended, as it 
facilitates the production of a more uniform, as well as a more stable 
preparation. This is to a large extent due to the fact that the con- 
tained gases, particularly the carbon dioxide, have been eliminated. 
In this same connection it may be well to call attention to the fact, 
noted by several of the investigators quoted above, that slaked lime 
that contains more than from 25 to 30 per cent, of carbonate is not 
suited for making lime water, as this contained carbonate appears to 
interfere with or to impede the solution of the hydrate. 

A slight change in the Pharmacopceial directions for making lime 
water would also appear desirable. If instead of directing approxi- 
mately 1 part of lime to 300 of water, the Pharmacopoeia directed 1 
part of lime to 25 or 30 parts of the solvent and allow the water to 
be replaced from time to time, or as long as the magma contains a 
sufficient quantity of hydrate to readily yield a satisfactory product, 
the directions would correspond more closely with the practice as 
usually followed. 

The German Pharmacopoeia directs that lime water should be 
filtered and dispensed perfectly clear and free from any suspended 
carbonate. This provision might well be included in our own Phar- 
macopoeia, providing that the first portions of the filtrate be directed 
to be thrown away. This would be indicated by the fact that filter 
paper has a peculiar affinity for calcium hydrate, so much so that 
the first portions of lime water passing through a filter, lose from 
15 to 20 per cent, of the contained alkali. 

One other precaution that might well be observed in the making 
of lime water is to use cold water, and to keep the lime water con- 
tainers in a cool place where they will not be subjected to sudden 
or extreme changes of temperature. 

The more desirable Pharmacopceial changes might be summed 
up as follows : 

Increase the relative amount of lime and permit the use of succes- 
sive quantities of water. 

Direct that lime water be dispensed clear, and that when filtered 
the first portion of the filtrate be thrown away. 



Some Rare Fixed Oils. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Februarj\ 1904. 



Direct that freshly calcined lime, or lime that has been carefully 
preserved from the action of the atmosphere be used, and that it be 
comparatively free ffom carbonate. 

Indicate a minimum as well as a maximum content of calcium 
hydrate and call attention to the desirability of testing lime water, 
from time to time, with a view of keeping it within the prescribed 
standards. 



SOME RARE FIXED OILS. 
By Dr. George R. Pancoast and Willard Graham. 
There are a number of fixed oils for which there is a certain 
though limited demand in commercial circles and which for various 
reasons are difficult to classify. The best form of classification is 
probably the one based on the method of preparation. 

Thus these oils can be grouped under the following divisions: 

(1) Oils made by expression. 

(2) Oils made by extraction with volatile solvents. 

(3) Oils made by infusion with fatty solvents. 

(4) Oils obtained as by-products in pharmaceutical manufac- 
turing. 

The oils made by expression are : Oils of walnuts, hazelnuts, 
hickory nuts, pumpkin seed, larkspur seed, stramonium seed. 

The oils made by extraction with volatile solvents such as alco- 
hol, ether, benzin and acetone are : Oils of lobelia, stillingia, lark- 
spur, mullein, also in many cases, the oils given by expression. 

The oils that occur as by-products in the manufacture of pharma- 
ceuticals are : Oils of nux vomica, tonka, ergot, larkspur, strophan- 
thus. 

The oils made by infusion with fatty solvents are : Oils of lobelia, 
belladonna, stramonium, hyoscyamus, cantharides, capsicum ; also 
many of the oils as given under expression and extraction. 

The method used in making the oils by infusion in most cases 
closely resembles the formula as given by Dieterich for the making 
of oil of henbane. 

" One hundred grammes of the coarsely powdered drug is mois- 
tened with 75 c.c. of alcohol and 2 c.c. of ammonia water and gently 
packed into a percolator of suitable size ; let stand over night, then 
add 600 c.c. of olive oil and digest for 12 hours. The oil is then 



A Febru U a r rV P i904 m '} Examination of Commercial Peppers. 71 

removed by expression and the drug again treated with 400 c.c. of 
oil and this again removed by expression. Make up the product to 
1,000 c.c. with olive oil." 

We have had occasion to examine many of the above oils of which 
we give the following data : 

Specific Gravity Acid Saponification 

15 C. Number. Number. 

Oil of walnuts ' 0*925 3-5 197*0 

" hazelnuts 0*917 3*5 192*5 

" hickory nuts 0.921 2*3 I95'6> 

" lobelia 0*925 

" strophanthus 0*927 

" pumpkin 0*920 3*5 195.5 

" larkspur . 0*884 

" nux vomica 0*935 

" ergot 0*918 

Analytical Department, 

Smith, Kline & French Company. 



EXAMINATION OF COMMERCIAL PEPPERS. 
By James W. Gi<adhii,i,, A.M., P.D. 

Although indigenous to Southern India, the pepper plant is now 
cultivated in different parts of the world, most of the commercial 
article coming from the islands of the Indian Archipelago, the Phil- 
ippines and the West Indies. 

It is recorded that in ancient times pepper was used as a medium 
of exchange. It was also used as a symbol of the spice trade, and 
in Rome the dealers in spices were known as Piperorii, later, in 
France as Pebriers, and in England as Pepperers. 

The following is a description of pepper, based upon the official 
description, although the different kinds of pepper vary somewhat, 
as will be shown later. Black pepper, or the piper of the Pharma- 
copoeia, consists of the unripe fruit of Piper nigrum Linne (Fam. 
Piperacece). The fruit is globular, about 4 mm. in diameter, reticu- 
lately wrinkled on the surface from the dried and contracted sarco- 
carp, blackish-brown or grayish black externally, lighter internally, 
and encloses a single globular seed, which is whitish, mealy and 
contains an undeveloped embryo in a central cavity. 

White pepper differs from black pepper in that it consists of the 
ripe fruit ef Piper nigrum, from which the pericarp and mesocarp 



72 Examination of Commercial Peppers. { A FebiuaryTS m ' 

have been removed by immersion in water and subsequent rubbing 
with the hands ; it is also made commercially by rubbing the hull 
off of the dried black pepper by friction in a machine designed for 
the purpose, in which case it is smaller than when made from the 
ripe fruit. 

White pepper made from the ripe fruit consists of the seed, 
which is covered with a whitish coat, having 10 to 14 lines run- 
ning from base to apex ; under this is a reddish-brown testa, very 
thin, next the hard inside layer, and lastly around the central cavity 
is a mealy portion relatively thick. This is a general description of 
the two peppers. The different varieties which have been exam- 
ined will be taken up separately. 

The writer has examined 13 different kinds of peppers, all type 
samples, 9 of which were black peppers and 4 white peppers ; they 
were as follows : Black peppers — Lampong, 4 samples ; Lienburg, 4 
samples ; Singapore, 4 samples ; Tellicherry, 4 samples ; Trang, 2 
samples ; Aleppy, 2 samples ; Acheen A, 4 samples ; Acheen D, 2 
samples; West Coast Sumatra, 2 samples. 

White peppers — Coriander, 4 samples; Singapore, 3 samples; 
Penang, 3 samples; Decorticated, 3 samples. The hull was also 
examined in the same manner as the pepper. 

The following determinations were made : Ash, ether extract, 
piperin and oleo-resin as being of the highest importance. 

The following methods were used as being the simplest that could 
be devised. These can be used by almost any pharmacist without 
much expense. 

Ash. — For the determination of the ash, 1 gm. of the ground 
pepper was heated to redness in a tared porcelain crucible, and main- 
tained at that temperature for one hour, weighed, and reheated 
until the weight remained constant. 

Ether Extract. — This was determined as follows: 10 gm. of the 
ground pepper were packed in a small cylindrical percolator, which 
was connected with an Erlenmeyer flask by means of a perforated 
and well-fitted cork. Into this cork a glass tube was also inserted 
and connected by means of a rubber tubing with another glass tube 
of equal caliber, inserted in a cork fitted to the top of the perco- 
lator. This constituted the ether-extractor, and from 40 to 50 c.c. 
of ether were used for making an extraction. The percolate ob- 
tained was transferred to a weighed beaker, the flask being washed 



A Feb J rua r rVTi9 a o r 4 m '} Examination of Commercial Peppers. 73 

with a little ether, and was then set aside in a warm place, protected 
from dust, until the ether was evaporated ; then a current of air was 
conducted over the beaker, until all ethereal odor had been removed, 
after which the weight was taken. 

Piperin. — This constituent was determined as follows: 10 gm. of 
the ground pepper were exhausted with 95 per cent, alcohol, the 
percolate evaporated, then solution of potassa, about 100 c.c, 
was poured into the beaker and agitated, then set aside for twenty- 
four hours, shaking occasionally so as to facilitate the action of the 
alkali in dissolving the resin ; then the portion remaining undis- 
solved was collected on a filter, washed free from alkali and dried, 
then dissolved in 95 per cent, alcohol, the alcoholic solution filtered 
into a weighed capsule, the alcohol evaporated and the crystals 
weighed, as piperin. 

Oleo resin was determined by subtracting the piperin found from 
the ether extract. 

The peppers examined will be described in the order of their 
superiority. It is a custom in the trade to value them according to 
their weight per gallon. 

There appear in the different peppers, grains which are not 
wrinkled to any great extent, and in which the outer coatings do 
not adhere to the inner layer; these will be spoken of as un- 
wrinkled berries. 

The term hull, as herein used, refers to the sarcocarp, which has 
been knocked off in handling. The quantity present indicates 
usually the way it is attached to the perisperm, whether it adheres 
strongly or not. 

Singapore pepper comes from the island of that name. It is 
dark-brown, a few of the grains being black, with the edges of the 
wrinkles of a lighter brown or grayish color. Over 95 per cent, of 
the grains are fully mature, there being very few of the light or 
pithy grains present, i. e. y grains which are all hull and have no 
perisperm or only a pithy interior. Stems and pedicels are present, 
but not in excess of 2 per cent. The grains are large, hard, and 
have a very fine flavor. Hulls are present in very small quantity, 
their separation being due to the handling of the bags in which the 
pepper is imported. The hull is very difficult to remove from the 
inside layer. The diameter of grains is from 3 to 7 mm., and 
averages 5 mm. 



74 Examination of Commercial Peppers. {^ebruarVTiSK"* 

The following results were obtained in an examination of tour 
samples taken from different lots of this pepper. The analytical 
data herein recorded are all expressed in percentages : 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

i 3'5 976 . 7*13 2-63 

2 37 876 7-68 1*08 

3 4*2 9-52 6-58 2-94 

4 • • • 4'5 9- 6 ° 7'33 2-27 

Average,® ash, 3*975 ; ether extract, 9*41 ; piperin, yio ; oleo-resin, 2*23 ; 
color of the ether extract, greenish. 

Singapore and Tellicherry, which will be considered next, are the 
two finest peppers on the American market at the present time. 
Tellicherry pepper comes from Tellicherry in the Madras Presidency, 
British India. It is light to medium dark-brown in color, and small 
and pithy grains are almost entirely absent ; stems and pedicels are 
present in very small amount. The grains are large and well filled. 
The sarcocarp is wrinkled in all grains, and adheres very closely. 
The amount of hull present is about 1 per cent. Grains which are 
unwrinkled do not appear in these two varieties. Four samples 
were examined, as follows : 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

1 47 8-34 5*9i 2-43 

2 4*8 8-85 6-02 2-83 

3 3*8 7"26 6-56 70* 

4 4*5 7-62 6*82 *8o 

Average, ash, 4*45; ether extract, 8'or ; piperin, 6*31; oleo-resin, 1*69; 

color of the ether extract was greenish. 

Aleppy pepper, from India; color from light brown to almost 
black; small and pithy grains, about 2 per cent.; stems and pedicels 
present, 1-2 per cent.; unwrinkled grains, about 5 percent.; hull, 
2-3 per cent. The grains are smaller than the preceding, being 
from 2-6 mm. in diameter. The flavor is not so fine, and neither 
are the grains as solid. Two samples were examined : 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin, Oleo resin. 

1 47 9' 6 5 7 7o 1 '95 

2 47 9'47 675 272 

The ether extract is of a greenish color. 

Trang pepper, color light to dark brown ; small and pithy grains 
numerous, 10-15 per cent.; stems and pedicels present, but in small 
amount. The grains vary greatly in size, being from 1*5-7 mm. in 
diameter. The sarcocarp is wrinkled in almost all the grains, 
unwrinkled grains appearing only here and there. Hull is present to 



A Feb^nar'yTi™'} Examination of Commercial Peppers. 75 

the extent of 2- 3 per cent. The perisperm is small in most of the 
grains, therefore the hull is in greater proportion. Two samples were 
examined : 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

1 3'9 8-44 5*i2 332 

2 3'8 8-83 5-61 3-22 

The color of the ether extract is greenish-yellow. 

Lienburg pepper comes from Japan. It is of a brown color, some 
of the grains being much lighter than others, and some almost 
black ; about 20 per cent, are unwrinkled, and have a shiny appear- 
ance; from 15-20 per cent, have the hull knocked off, and are light 
brown in color; pithy grains are present in small amount. The 
grains vary in size considerably from the puffed up, unwrinkled ones 
to the pithy and wrinkled ones; stems and pedicels are almost 
entirely absent. Hull is present in quantity, being rubbed off from 
the unwrinkled berries, upon which the hull is very soft and brittle. 
This variety is used by some manufacturers for the decortication of 
pepper, but it does not give nearly so fine a flavor as Tellicherry or 
Trang. The diameter is 2-6 mm. Four samples were examined : 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

i 3*8 870 6-50 2-20 

2 . . . 4-0 9-48 6-28 3'20 

3 3'6 8-83 5-98 2-85 

4 4*o 878 6-31 2*47 

Average, ash, 3*85; ether extract, 8*949 ; piperin, 6*2675; oleo-resin, 2*68. 

The color of the ether extract of Nos. 1 and 2 was brownish ; of Nos. 3 and 4, 
reddish. 

Lampong pepper comes from the Dutch Presidency, Sumatra. 
It is of a brownish or black color, having a dirty appearance from 
adhering soil. The grains are all about the same diameter — 4-5 
mm. Pithy and small grains are present to the extent of from 
5-1 5 per cent.; stems and pedicels present in small quantity; 
earth and hull present in relatively large amount. Five to ten 
per cent, of the berries have the hull removed, and are of a dirty 
color. The hull adheres rather strongly. Four samples were 
examined : 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

1 5* 8*92 776 1*16 

2 5"5 10-31 8-30 2 01 

3 .............. . 5-4 876 7-00 176 

4 • 5"2 9-58 7'28 2-30 

Average, ash, 5*275 ; ether extract, 9*392 ; piperin, 7*585 ; oleo-resin, 1*8075 ; 
Ether extracts Nos. 1, 2 and 3 were of a dark green ; No. 4, a yellowish-green . 



j6 Examination of Commercial Peppers. { A Febr°ulr> P i9(M m ' 

West Coast Sumatra comes from the west coast of the Island of 
Sumatra. Color, dark brown to black; small pithy grains not so 
numerous, being about 5 per cent., but larger ones are present in 
considerable quantity ; i. e., the large pithy berries have the diame- 
ter of 4—5 5 mm. and consist of the dried sarcocarp surrounding a 
cavity containing nothing but some fine grains of a dark-brown 
color, occasionally a larger grain will be found which is of a whitish 
color internally, but which is not the perisperm. Stems and pedi- 
cels present about 1-2 per cent.; hull, 3-5 per cent. The sarcocarp 
is not wrinkled very much in about one-half of the grains ; this fact 
gives the grains a larger appearance. The large amount of oleo- 
resin in these peppers is due to the large amount of hull in com- 
parison with the inner portion ; diameter, 2-6 mm. Two samples 
were examined. 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. O'eo-resin. 

1 4*3 928 7*oo 2*28 

2 4-0 922 6 - 68 2*54 

The color of the ether extract is greenish-brown. 

Acheen pepper, variety A., comes from the Dutch province of that 
name. Dark brown in color; small pithy grains present to the 
extent of 3 per cent., but larger ones from IO-15 per cent.; stems 
and pedicels from 3-5 per cent. ; unwrinkled grains about one-half 
of the whole amount. The hull does not have the appearance of 
being stretched over the inner portion, as in Singapore and Telli- 
cherry, because the perisperm is very small and the hull is of about 
the same size as in the Singapore and Tellicherry peppers. Diameter 
of the grains, 2-6 mm. The varieties of this pepper are the poorest 
entering American ports. Four samples were examined. 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

1 4'3 10 -06 7'56 2*50 

2 4*5 io*io 796 2*14 

3 4' 9"8° 7'67 2-13 

4 47 9'20 7*IO 2'IO 

Average, ash, 5*375; ether extract, 979; piperin, 7 '57+ ; oleo-resin, 2"23-(-. 
Ether extract greenish. 

Two samples of variety C. of the same pepper : 

No. Ash. Ether Extract, Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

i 5 "5 10 "46 10*02 -44 

2 5*2 10-46 9*94 -52 

Ether extract yellowish-green. 

This variety contains almost no oleo-resin. 



A FebrTary^i9o r 4 m "} Examination of Commercial Peppers. 77 

Coriander White Pepper. — It is of a whitish color ; grains not 
wrinkled, with a black or brown speck at the base, which is slightly 
hollow ; twelve to fourteen lines are observed running from base to 
apex. The outside whitish layer is always thicker at the apex than 
at the base ; small and darker grains do not occur very frequently, 
although some appear with a light-colored coat slightly wrinkled. 
The reddish-brown testa under the whitish outside layer is very 
hard, thin and covers the seed-grain entirely. From the central 
cavity, which is about r6 mm. in diameter, a whitish mealy portion 
extends, being about one-fifth of the whole inside ; from that to the 
testa is a hard translucent layer. The diameter of the whole grains 
varies from 3-7 mm. Four samples were examined. 

No. Ash. Esther Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

i i*o 8*27 6'8i 1*46 

2 '8 1 1 '68 9*00 2 '68 

3 i" 8*i6 7-16 roo 

4 *8 7*90 6-84 1.06 

Average, ash, '9; ether extract, 9"; piperin, 7*45+; oleo-resin, i"555. Color of 
ether extract, lemon-yellow. 

Singapore White Pepper. — Color, grayish ; larger grains not 
wrinkled, but from 10-15 per cent, of smaller wrinkled grains. 
There appears a black or brown speck at the base of all grains which 
are not wrinkled ; base hollow. From ten to thirteen lines are 
observed running from base to apex. The outside grayish layer is 
thickest at the apex but not so noticeable as in the coriander pepper. 
The cavity in the center is larger than in the preceding variety, 
being 3 mm. in diameter in the larger grains. The mealy inside 
portion is from one-fourth to one-third of the whole layer. The 
layer between this and the testa is translucent and of a greenish 
color. Diameter 2 mm. Three samples were examined. 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

1 1*1 878 7*26 1-52 

2 i-o 8*45 678 1*67 

3 i'2 8 - 2o 7'io no 

Average ash, n; ether extract, 8-57+; piperin, 7 '04+; oleo-resin, 1*43. 

Color of ether extract, lemon-yellow. 



Penang White Pepper. — Color, dirty yellowish ; about 1 5 per 
cent, of the grains do not have the hull removed, but are covered 
with a yellowish clay, which in fact covers all of the grains ; eleven 



78 Examination of Commercial Peppers. { A FebruarVTi904 m ' 

to thirteen lines are observed running from base to apex. The speck 
at the base is not easily seen ; only after cleaning the grain can it in 
most cases be observed. The cavity is about 2 mm. in diameter, 
and is surrounded by a mealy portion, which is about one-fifth 
of the whole diameter; the remaining portion is of a greenish 
color and translucent. Diameter 2-5 mm. Three samples were 
examined. 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleoresin. 

1 2*1 7*04 574 1-30 

2 .... c 2'8 7'20 676 "44 

3 2-6 6 80 5 83 -97 

Average, ash, 2'38-j-; ether extract, 7*014-; piperin, 6 , n; oleo-resin, '93-}-. 
Color of ether extract, yellow. 

Decorticated White Pepper. — The color is yellowish ; the grains 
have a smooth, shiny surface and appearance, but no outside cover- 
ing, consisting of the perisperm alone. Some of the grains have a 
little of the reddish-brown testa adhering, but not many. Broken 
pieces of perisperm are present in from 5-10 per cent. ; that is, in 
that sold for whole white pepper. There is on the market what is 
known as broken decorticated white pepper. The central cavity is 
about 1-6 mm. in diameter, and is surrounded by a mealy portion, 
which constitutes about one-tenth of the whole grain ; the other 
portion is of a yellowish color and does not appear clear as in the 
other white peppers. The grains are smaller than the other white 
peppers, being about 3-4 mm. in diameter, and do not vary much. 
No lines are observed in this pepper ; a small hole is at the base, 
looking as if pricked with a needle. Three samples were examined. 

No. Ash. Ether Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

1 1 '9 7'64 6-25 ; 1*39 

2 "8 6'6o 6*30 '30 

3 1 "2 7*26 7*o2 '24 

Average, ash, 1*3; ether extract, 7"i6-f-; piperin, 6*51+; oleo-resin, '644-. 
Color of ether extract, yellow. 

The hull is that portion ot the grain known as the sarcocarp, 
which is removed in making white pepper and is sold as such. It 
varies in color from light brown to a dark brown. It has a pungent 
odor and taste, although sharper than when ground with the peri- 
sperm. The following is a statement of the analysis of several lots 
of hulls imported into this country. 



A Feb J ruYrVTi9™'} Examination of Commercial Peppers. 79 

No. Ash. E)ther Extract. Piperin. Oleo-resin. 

1 9 "4 6-39 none 6*39 



2 * . 9-6 6*39 

3 .... . 8'9 8-88 

4 . 7-0 8-93 

5 - • 77 5*36 

6 8-3 5-46 

7 8-3 5*00 

8 " 8-8 5-92 



6'39 
8-88 

8-93 
5-36 
5-46 
5 -oo 

5'9 2 



Average, ash, 8 "5; ether extract, 6*54; oleo-resin, 6 "54. Color of ether extract 
from light to dark brown. 

As will be seen, there is no piperin in the hull, only oil and resin, 
but there are on the market hulls which contain broken pepper and 
will contain from 1 to 2 per cent, of piperin, but the ash is never 
less than 7 per cent., so that the more hull the greater will be the 
oleo-resin and the less will be the piperin found in a sample of pep- 
per which has been adulterated with hull, also the ash will be 
greater. 

Conclusions. — The ash should not be above 6.5 per cent, for black 
pepper, and 3 per cent, for white pepper. None of the samples 
examined gave so high a percentage of ash ; 1 per cent, is allowed 
for sand and other material which has gotten in in the packing of the 
pepper ; the highest ash was 5-5 per cent, for black pepper, and 2-8 
per cent, for white pepper, which was a very dirty sample. 

The ether extract should be between 7 5 and 10 per cent, for 
black pepper, and 6 and 9 per cent, for white pepper. In only one 
case did the ether extract exceed 9 per cent., and that was in cori- 
ander pepper, which sometimes runs as high as 1 1 per cent., but 
this variety is never ground for white pepper, but is sold in bulk 
whole, the cost being too great to permit being ground for commer- 
cial white pepper. 

Piperin should be present in from 5-5 to 9 per cent, in a good 
black pepper. Any samples that do not show this percentage are 
not to be considered good peppers, and while they may be used to 
blend the flavor they should not be used in such quantity that the 
percentage of piperin would fall below 5-5 per cent. 

The writer examined only one of the adulterants used in black 
and white peppers besides the hull, and that was cocoanut shells. 
The result was as follows : Ash 8 per cent., ether extract -42 per 
cent.; if this is added to the pepper the ash will be high and the 
percentage of ether extract, piperin and oleo-resin will be low. Since 



Oleo-resin. 




oo cj o 

« IN <N (N 




VO 


I 

■ 

<n 
"0 
rt 
u 

ft 
ft 


00 


\r. 


rO 


On R CC? *R M 
*N N M CS 




O 8 ON <S 




g 
to 




» « N N O M ^ 2" 

mnm oo rO vN vn o 




M N * O 


VO 


VO 

io 




ro rO VN O vO 00 O Th 
VO Tj- On rO <N M CS lO Tf 




O « " O 


lO 


vo 
m 


Piperiu. 


>* 


ro ts . 00 O 

vo vo t" 




00 

vb 




00 




00 ^ « o i g- 
b vo to t>i 




vo ^ g 
io 




00 
00 




00 01 JO H M O M »0 * 
ts <b VO uo vO 00 vO On 




O 00^ vo O 

ON VO no vo 




On 

vb 




^ On R ^ !o *R 8 *tO O 
io i>- to vo r-» t-» O 




VO ^ IO 

vb to vb 




Ov 

vb 


Ether Extract. 


rj- 


° N * % S 

on r-~ oo on o> 







JS 

in 
< 




00 
60 


ro 


IN VO 0? ^ 30 

"05 r>. 00 00 b> 




-O O VO 

00 00 vo 




y* 
60 




10 ^ ^ ^ "5. ^ " £ v §- 

00 00 31 00 ON O o\ 




00 m ^0 

w 00 vb 
H 




rO 
00 




^ vo 5 ™ ^ ifl iO 

b> 00 ON 00 00 00 On O O 




r«" 0" vo 

00 CO t-» r-» 






Ash. 


Ti- 


m to <n 

V V V '«o ^t- 




00 




O 


ro 


01 00 vO 

Vj- ro ro 'm rj- 




IN VO N 




On 

00 


Cv) 


go r^oo to to <n 
W to ^ 10 ^ * 




OC _ CO 00 
*M "vN 




vp 
On 




in r-~ t~~ as 00 p to to y> 
to t w w ") + * w 




O H M OS 




b> 


Black Pepper. 


Singapore 

Trang 

Lienburg 

Lampong 

W. C. Sumatra 

Acheen A 

C 


a 

& 
<u 
Ph 
<u 


Coriander 

Penang 

Decorticated 




1 



A Feb J r°uaryT?9 a o r 4 m '} Study of the History of Materia Medica. 81 

the passage and enforcement of the new food laws there has not 
been much adulteration except in the use of hulls. This can be 
determined if the preceding method is adopted. If only about io 
per cent, have been added, recourse will have to be made to the 
microscope also. 

IN AID OF THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF MATERIA 
MEDICA, MEDICINE AND CHEMISTRY. 1 
By Fr. Hoffmann. 

Whoever has had occasion to enter upon researches in, and the 
study of, the history of drugs, aromatic spices, materia medica, or of 
medicine and chemistry, will have experienced perplexing difficul- 
ties in finding and selecting in the vast mass of the pertaining litera- 
ture of all ages and peoples, the really valuable and most useful 
standard works for information and reference, or even to obtain a 
correct estimate of their nature and relative value and usefulness. 

As in all literature, succeeding authors have more or less drawn 
upon the labors and writings of preceding generations and the 
intrinsic value of the accumulated bibliographic stock of consecutive 
centuries is to some extent a recurrent and apocryphal one. It 
therefore requires critical inquiry, intelligent discrimination and 
considerable time to obtain some familiarity with the precise value 
and authority, or the want of such, of the respective works, and it 
may not be amiss to offer some guiding advice to those who are 
about to spend time and patience in searching voluminous libraries 
and catalogues, by offering a brief list of some select works for reli- 
able reference and for study. 

List I comprises a selection of works replete with biliographic 
references and comments, as also with biographic information and 
notes ; List II, a number of miscellaneous works relating to the 
subject of the respective sciences in general, and to the history of 
organic materia medica, medicine, pharmacy and chemistry in par- 
ticular. 

1 The above list of historical reference works was prepared by Dr. Hoffmann, 
of Berlin, Germany (Charlottenburg, Schliiter Str. 64), as a result of occasional 
inquiries and to save others the perplexities often experienced of finding in the 
mass of ancient, medieval and more recent literature, the most useful books 
for historical studies in the domains of medicine, pharmacy, materia medica 
and chemistry. — Editor. 



82 Study of the History of Materia Medica. 

These works afford a comprehensive survey of the pertaining 
literature from antiquity to modern times and offer valuable infor- 
mation conducive to the ready and proper choice of the literary 
resources best suited for historical research and study in the respec- 
tive domains of knowledge. 

LIST I. 
IN CHRONOLOGIC ORDER. 

Kurt Sprengel, " Versuch einer pragmatischen Geschichte der 
Arzneikunst." 4 vols. Halle 1792-1799. 4th edition. Leipzig, 
1846. 

T. F. Gmelin, " Geschichte der Chemie bis an's Ende des 18. 
Jahrhunderts." 3 vols. Gottingen, I797~ l 799- 

L. Choulant, " Handbuch der Biicherkunde fur die altere Medi- 
cin," zur Kenntniss der griechischen, lateinischen und arabischen 
Schriftsteller im aerztlichen Fache und zur bibliographischen Unter- 
scheidung ihrer verschiedenen Ausgaben, Uebersetzungen und 
Erlauterungen. Leipzig, 1828. 2d edition under the title: "Ge- 
schichte der Literatur der alteren Medicin." Leipzig, 1841. 

A. C. P. Callisen, " Medicinisches Schriftsteller Lexicon der jetzt 
lebenden Aerzte, Naturforscher, Apotheker, etc., aller gebildeten 
Volker." 33 vols. Kopenhagen and Altona, 1830-1845. (Replete 
with details concerning the literature of medicine, materia medica and 
natural sciences). 

J. C. Poggendorff, "Bibliographisch-literarisches Handwbrterbuch" 
zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, enthaltend Nachweisun- 
gen liber die Lebensverhaltnisse und Leistungen der Naturforscher 
aller Volker und Zeiten. 4 vols. Leipzig, 1 85 8- 1 863. 

H. C. Bolton, " A Select Bibliography of Chemistry," from the 
year 1492 to 1892. Washington, D. C, 1893. Supplement, 1899. 

LIST 11. 

Lassen, " Indische Alterthumskunde." 5 vols. Bonn, 1847. 2d 
edition. Leipzig, 1858-1862. 

E. F. R. Rosenmiiller, " Handbuch der biblischen Alterthums- 
kunde." 4 vols. Leipzig, 1 830-1 83 1. (Vol. 1, pp. 1-347, describes 
the minerals and plants of the Bible.) 

Mbhsen, " Geschichte der Wissenschaften." 4 vols. 18 10. 

Whewell, " History of the Inductive Sciences " from the earliest 
to the present time. 3d edition. 3 vols. London, 1857. 



A Feb J r na r ry!f9(^ m '} Study of the History of Materia Medica. #83 

A. H. L. Heeren, " Ideen liber die Politik, den Verkehr und den 
Handel der vcrnehmsten Volker der alten Welt." 2 vols. Gbt- 
tingen, 1793-1796. 

W. Heyd, " Geschichte des Levante Handels im Mittelalter." 2 
vols. Stuttgart, 1879. 

I. C. Wiegleb, "Geschichte des Wachsthums und der Erfindungen 
in der Chemie " in der altesten und mittleren Zeit. 2 vols. Ber- 
lin, I 790-1 79 I. 

I. C. Wiegleb, "Geschichte des Wachsthums und der Erfindungen 
in der Chemie " in der neueren Zeit. Berlin, 1790-1791. 

J. Beckmann, " Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erfindungen." 4 vols. 
Leipzig, 1780-1803. 

J. Beckmann, "A History of Inventions, Discoveries and Origins," 
translated from the German by Wm. Johnston. 2 vols. London. 

H. Haeser, " Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Medicin." 3 vols. Jena, 
1852. 3d edition. 1 875— 1882. (Replete with historical and biblio- 
graphic notes.) 

J. F. Royle, " Essay on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medicine." 
London, 1837. 

J. F. Royle, "Das Alterthum der Indischen Medicin." Uebersetzt 
von Wallach und Hensinger. Cassel, 1839. 

Wiistenfeld,"Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher." 
Gbttingen, 1840. 

A. Philippe und Ludwig, " Geschichte der Apotheker" bei den 
wichtigsten Vblkern der Erde. 2d edition. Jena, 1858. (Replete 
with information on the history of pharmacy, pharmaceutical educa- 
tion and bibliography.) 

J. Berendes, " Die Pharmacie bei den alten Kulturvolkern." 2 
vols. Halle, 1891. 

Dioscorides, " De materia medica libri quinque." Kiihn's Col- 
lectio. Vol.25. Edited by Curtius Sprengel. Leipzig, 1829. 

C. H. Pfaff, "System der Materia Medica." 7 vols. Leipzig, 
1 8 18-1824. (Replete with references to earlier writings. Vol. 1, 
pp. 28-41, contains a list of the pertinent literature of the eighteenth 
century.) 

F. A. Fliickiger and Dan. Hanbury, " Pharmacographia." Lon- 
don, 1879. 

F. A. Fliickiger, " Pharmakognosie des Pflanzenreiches." 3d edi- 
tion. Berlin, 1891. (Both these works contain in an appendix a 
list of earlier works and bibliographical references.) 



84* A Basic Reaction of Aldehydes. { a ^S^mS d ' 

E. Gildemeister and Fr. Hoffmann, " Die Aetherischen Oele." 
Berlin, 1899. (Replete with historical and bibliographic notes 
and references). 

Ferd. Hofer, " Histoire de la Chimie," depuis les temps les plus 
recules jusqu'a notre epoque. 2 vols. Paris, 1869. 

Hermann Kopp, " Geschichte der Chemie." 4 vols. Braun- 
schweig, 1 84 3-1 847. 

E. von Meyer, " Geschichte der Chemie." 2 edition. Leipzig, 
1895. 

Chr. G. Schmieder, " Geschichte der Alchemie." Halle, 1832. 

Theophrastus, Eresius, " De Historia plantarum libri decern." 
Editio Wimmer. Lipsiae, 1854. 

Balfour, " The Plants of the Bible." London, 1885. 

Woenig, " Die Pflanzen des alten Aegyptens." Leipzig, 1886. 

Bretschneider, " On the Study and Value of Chinese Botanical 
Works." Foochow, 1870. 

Hehn, "Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere in ihrem Uebergange aus 
Asien nach Griechenland und Italien." 3d edition. Berlin, 1877. 

Pritzel, "Thesaurus literaturae botanicas omnium gentium." Leip- 
zig, 1872. (Contains on pp. 378-306 and p. 416 a list of the earlier 
American botanical literature.) 

Kurt Sprengel, "Geschichte der Botanik." 2 vols. Leipzig, 1817. 

Meyer, " Geschichte der Botanik." 4 vols. Konigsberg, 1854- 
1857. - 

A BASIC REACTION OF AROMATIC AND FATTY 
ALDEHYDES. 1 

By Samuei* S. Sadtler. 
While carrying on some work on oils of orange and lemon, I found 
it very difficult to get accurate determinations of the citral in certain 
of these oils. They were so-called oleo-resins of orange and lemon, 
which contain a relatively large percentage of acid resins, and have 
not to my knowledge been, as yet, described. These oils are 
obtained by extraction with a volatile solvent, which seems to dis- 
solve certain constituents from orange and lemon peel, which either 



^ead at a stated meeting of the Franklin Institute, before the Chemical 
Section, and reprinted from advance sheets of the Journal of the Franklin 
Institute. 



A Feb J r aar 7 P i^ ra -} A Ba ^ c Reaction of Aldehydes. 8$ 

are not extracted at all, or else in smaller proportion by* the pro- 
cesses of expression. It is recorded as a fact that the gravity of 
machine-expressed oil is greater than hand-pressed, and these oils 
are heavier than either. 

With the use of sodium bisulphite for determining the aldehydes 
the addition compound forms partly in the aqueous layer and partly 
in the oily layer, and further work is very discouraging when this 
stage is reached. I soon tried sulphite of soda instead of the bisul- 
phite. On heating a solution of this with the oil, the dihydrodisul- 
phonate of sodium is^ formed, which is soluble in water, and two 
molecules of sodium hydrate are split off. Tiemann, in his work on 
the aldehydes of lemon-grass oil, pointed out that the reaction could 
be indicated by phenolphtalein, and by adding as olution of sulphur, 
ous acid from time to time, the end of the reaction could be known 
and the difference of volume of the oil could be told. This, however, 
is not a method that is capable of the greatest accuracy, and requires 
a special form of flask. 

It occurred to me that the alkali formed in this reaction might be 
titrated for with standard acid, omitting the bicarbonate of sodium 
used by Tiemann. I first tried this with a standarized solution of 
sulphurous acid, but later found N / 2 HC1, or normal HC1, very 
satisfactory and more convenient. It seems to require the use of 
more sulphite solution, however, as the sulphurous acid reforms 
sulphite from the NaOH split off. I will try, however, at a future 
time, to take up all the details necessary in the determination of 
citral as a matter by itself, and speak of the general procedure more 
especially at present. 

From other tests on the oils in question, I found that they con- 
tained considerable quantities of acid resin, which would, unless 
previously neutralized, interfere with the results. In fact, I found the 
acid resin of the orange oil almost sufficient to neutralize all the 
alkali formed. This difficulty was overcome by neutralizing these 
acids first with dilute caustic potash solution (N /2KOH being con- 
venient for the purpose, and if done quantitatively, might be interest- 
ing as part of a more or less complete examination of the oil) and 
rosolic acid solution as indicator, which will serve as indicator in the 
subsequent reaction. 

Analyses were made with oil of orange, but until the mixtures of 
aldehydes of this oil are more fully studied, I will not refer to figures 



86 A Basic Reaction of Aldehydes. {^ebrn^f™' 

obtained. If citral is not found to be the predominating aldehyde, 
the results would be of little value except as comparative. 

For oil of lemon, 5 or 10 grammes are weighed into an Erlen- 
meyer flask, and after neutralization, 25 or 50 c.c. of a 20 per cent, 
sodium sulphite solution, depending upon the amount taken, is added. 
Before adding the sulphite solution, however, it is neutralized with 
a little N / 2HCI, after being heated by immersion in a water bath. 
The sulphite solution used in these experiments required about 75 
c.c. of N/ 2HCI to neutralize at boiling temperature, with rosolic 
acid as an indicator. When the solutions were mixed a red color 
formed at once in the aqueous layer. This was discharged from 
time to time with N / 2HCI. The flask is then heated and agitated 
frequently. The reaction is complete in about half an hour, if kept 
hot, and the layers mixed frequently. When the color is all dis- 
charged, or all but a very faint pink, which is not appreciably 
affected by a few drops more acid, the number of cubic centimetres 
of standard acid is noted. An emulsion forms, due to the neutral- 
ized resins, but that does not interfere with the reaction, if care is 
exercised. 

The reaction, as written by Tiemann, is : 

C 9 H 15 COH + 2H 2 + 2N3SO3 = C 9 H 17 COH 
(NaHS0 3 ) 2 + 2 NaOH 
and is probably correct, as the amount of citral and sulphite is shown 
below to be in the ratio of 1 to 2. 

The amount of standard hydrochloric acid used expressed in 
terms of citral, in the above ratio of one molecule of citral to two 
molecules of HC1, divided by the weight of oil taken, gives the 
percentage of citral. 

Analyses of citral in lemon oil, by this method, gave in two de- 
terminations : 

Per Cent. 

1 5'24 

II 5'29 

I believe results within one or two tenths of a per cent, can be 
gotten in every case, with a little practice, by this method. 

To check the accuracy of this reaction, I made some known mix- 
tures of citral, which was kindly furnished by Dr. Harry F. Keller, 
and separated lemon oil terpenes, previously freed from citral. 

Calculated. Found. 

1 8-68 8-85 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February. 1904. 



A Basic Reaction of Aldehydes, 



87 



The method was further checked by using some pure, well-crys- 
tallized vanillin (M. P., 8i° C). The phenolic hydroxyl of the 
vanillin was first neutralized with a little caustic potash solution 
until it became a faint pink, using a little rosolic acid, sulphite solution 
added and titrated hot with N/2HCI, having first neutralized the 
sulphite solution at water-bath temperature as in the case of citraL 



This was a rough check on the method, but as the vanillin had not 
been specially purified further examination of the reaction with 
vanillin, vanilla extract, and samples of vanillin mixed with coumain 
and acetanilid will be undertaken. 

The reaction is almost complete in the cold with vanillin and 
merely needs heat to complete the reaction more quickly. Stand- 
ing a short time might have given the same results. 

The reaction seems to be immediate and complete with fatty alde- 
hydes. It will indicate the presence of one part of formaldehyde 
in 1,000,000 parts of water and when contained in food products the 
formaldehyde can be detected in a distillate of the same. The 
writer was able to detect formaldehyde in a solid product, partly made 
from milk, by first distilling with steam, neutralizing any free acid 
in the distillate with alkali, adding neutral sulphite solution and 
indicated upon which the presence of NaOH found in the reaction 
is clearly shown and can be accurately titrated for by means of stan- 
dard acid. 

Besides detecting and determining formaldehyde in milk a neutral 
sulphite solution used as s reagent is very useful. 

The presence of acetone may be detected in wood spirits and 
determine acetic aldehyde in grain spirits. I noticed that a sample 
of grain alcohol, which, even after being carefully distilled over 
lime, gave a very brown color when made up into alcoholic potash, 
gave a very strong red coloration when mixed with sulphite solu- 
tion and phenolphtalein. 

Acetone and higher ketones were found to react, but further work 
on the various applications of this reaction must be taken up with 
the various substances in detail. 

Referring again to essential oils, the reaction seems to be applic- 
able to any essential oil, the single or predominating constituent of 
which is known, such as cinnamon, bitter almond oil, lemon-grass 
oil, cassia, etc. 



Calculated. 



Found. 



Vanillin 



100 *oo 



99 00 



88 



\ 

Correspondence. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1904. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

ALTERNATIVE FORMULAS. 1 

Ever since the change made in the official formulas of substitut- 
ing parts by weight, and which was subsequently followed by metric 
apportionment, trade and professional interest in the Pharmacopoeia 
has been withdrawn and transferred to commentaries. In other 
words, pharmacists, instead of indicating a preference for the work 
of authority, absolutely ignore it, and in its place we find the various 
dispensatories, companions, etc. Not that I would say aught against 
these most useful, indispensable repositories of information, for they 
do more toward instructing the student — educating him as it is 
usually expressed — than the Pharmacopoeia. Each work should 
occupy a distinct field. The Pharmacopoeia, however, must be a 
book of working formulas, and these as plain, simple and direct as 
science in her modesty can make them. 

I would like to suggest that the Committee of Revision, in antici- 
pation of the same conditions prevailing in the future which have 
predominated in the past, do all in their power to prevent a con- 
tinuance of this plight. It has operated during the past two decades 
and presumably will continue unless steps are taken to overcome it, 
and with this end in view I advisedly suggest that alternative 
formulas in definite common weights and measures be presented as 
is done by the British Pharmacopoeia. Not that I would favor 
aping that work, but that we exercise good, wholesome judgment 
in discriminating what is useful from that which is practically use- 
less. The sale of copies of the last revision were in a measure satis- 
factory, but this was due almost entirely to the fact that schools of 
pharmacy and medicine insisted upon students securing it as a text- 
book. 

To continue the work with the metric system alone is to wilfully 
relegate it to a place among useless publications. 

Very respectfully, 

F. M. Goodman. 

Chicago, III., January 7, 1904. 



x The above is an open letter to the Board of Trustees of the United States 
Pharmacopceial Convention. — Editor. 



A Feb J r O ua r ry P f9 a 04 m •} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 89 

AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

To the Editor of The American Journal of Pharmacy, Philadelphia. 

My Dear Sir : — I have been directed by the Council of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association to notify the pharmaceutical 
journals of an unavoidable delay in the issue of the 1903 Report 
of the Proceedings. Professor Diehl was prevented by prolonged 
indisposition from completing his report on the progress of Phar- 
macy within the usual time, but, having fully recovered, is now 
busily engaged in the necessary work, and the book will in all 
probability be ready for delivery early in April. 

May I ask you kindly to give publicity to this notice in the col- 
umns of your valued journal ? 

Very truly yours, Chas. Caspari, Jr., 

Baltimore, January 21, 1904. General Secretary. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Modern Materia Medica and Therapeutics. By A. A. Stevens. 
Third edition, greatly enlarged, rewritten and reset ; 8vo, pp. 663. 
W. B. Saunders & Co., 1903. Cloth, $3.50 net. 

There seems to be no end to the publication of books containing 
pretty much the same facts, the only difference being that the facts 
are presented differently. One is almost inclined to congratulate 
the man who has had no time to write books, as has been said of 
Schwendener, the great German botanist, but who has confined him- 
self to his researches and teachings. The Germans excel us because 
each author tries to write something new , he works and sweats 
until he has produced a work of originality, freshness and interest. 
Many American works on materia medica and therapeutics are so 
much alike that it seems a pity that the author has wasted his time, 
and that the physician is tempted to buy them. It is true in the 
case of text-books that the student is saved the taking of notes, or 
rather gets all of the notes, but the value of this may be open to 
question. 

In the present book the drugs are classified according to their 
pharmacological action, and there are a number of chapters on 
applied therapeutics treating of (1) acute infectious diseases; (2) 
constitutional diseases ; (3) diseases of the blood and ductless glands ; 



go Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^'^li^m^' 

(4) diseases of the digestive tract ; (5) diseases of the respiratory 
system ; (6) diseases of the circulatory system ; (7) diseases of the 
kidneys ; and (8) diseases of the nervous system. There is also a 
chapter on remedial measures other than drugs, as electricity, mas- 
sage, movement therapy for locomotor ataxia, the Schott or Nau- 
heim treatment, cold, heat, hypodermoclysis and infusion, enterocly- 
sis, lavage of the stomach, bloodletting, phototherapy and X-ray 
therapy and lumbar puncture. 

The work is clearly written and contains a great amount of valu- 
able information. 

Materia Medica Americana. By David Schopf. Reproduced 
as No. 3 of the Bulletins of the Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy 
and Materia Medica. J. U. and C. G. Lloyd, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1903. 

This work of Schopf is considered to be the rarest of American 
works bearing on the subject ot American medicinal plants. It is 
interesting that the original, from which the present copy is produced, 
was found by Dr. Charles Rice in Italy and presented by him to the 
Lloyd Library. 

An interesting biographical shetch of Schopf, prepared by Dr. 
Ed. Kremers, accompanies this volume. 

While some might question the wisdom of reproducing works of 
this kind, which are largely of historical interest, still, after all, it is 
to the earlier workers rather than their successors that the principal 
credit is due of recording and preserving the knowledge of medici- 
nal plants and their uses. It has been much easier to rewrite the 
earlier work, which has been the starting point of the contempora- 
ries and immediate successors of Schopf, than to arrange the scattered 
facts into the first volume. 

The Latin Grammar of Pharmacy and Medicine. By D. H. 
Robinson, with an introduction by L. E. Sayre. Fourth edition, 
with elaborate vocabularies, thoroughly revised by Hannah Oliver. 
Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1012 Walnut Street. 1903. 

The present edition retains the essential features of the earlier 
ones, but has been carefully revised. In accordance with the 
expressed wish of some pharmacists and physicians, the English 
method of the pronunciation of Latin has been explained. Professor 
Sayre has contributed chapters on prescription writing and chemical 



A Febiuaryff9o r 4 m 'f Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 91 

terms, and has prepared a list of pharmaceutical and medical terms 
with their definitions. 

The book is a good one and would make a valuable addition to 
every pharmacist's library, and should be in the hands of every clerk 
and student. 

Missouri Botanical Garden. Fourteenth Annual Report. St. 
Louis, Mo. Published by the Board of Trustees. 1903. 

This volume contains besides the various reports of the officers 
of the Board and the Director, Dr. William Trelease, a valuable 
monograph on the genus Lonicera by Alfred Rehder, which is the 
first complete systematic treatment of this family since it was 
described by De Candolle. There is also a supplementary catalogue 
of the Sturtevant Prelinnean Library by C. E. Hutchings. 

Universite de Paris. Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie. Theses 
for obtaining the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy of the University 
of Paris during 1902-1903. 

The following theses have been published by graduates of the 
Superior School of Pharmacy of the University of Paris : 

" De la Multiplicite des Produits fournis par un microbe patho- 
gene," by Paul-Amable Antoine. The biochemical characteristics 
of the Bacillus pyocyaneus are given. 

" Separation Quantitative de la Brucine et de la Strychnine," by 
Alexis Blancher. The author precipitates the alkaloids in acid 
solution by silico-tungstic acid, the salt formed is decomposed by 
ammonia and the displaced bases extracted by chloroform and 
weighed, nitric acid being afterwards employed in decomposing the 
brucine. 

" Recherches Histologiques sur la Famille des Hypericacees," by 
Georges Weill. A monogram on the inner morphology of the 
Hypericaceae. 

" Contribution a l'Etude chimique de l'Urine chez les Herbiv- 
ores," by Eurgale Grotard. A chemical examination of the urine 
of various domestic animals. 

" Etude des Hydrates de Carbone de Reserve de quelques graines 
de Palmiers," by Ernest- Henri Lienard. A chemical study of the 
reserve carbohydrates of some of the palm seeds. 

" Etude sur l'Essence de Rue et sur la Methylnonylcetone," by 



92 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { A FebnmrVTi9 a w m ' 

Denis-Honore Carette. An investigation on the composition of oil 
of rue and methylnonylcetone. 

" Recherches sur l'Appareil Secreteur interne des Composees," by 
Marc-Alphonse Col. A study on the distribution of secretion reser- 
voirs in the Compositse and their importance in systematic work. 

" De 1'Extrait de Fougere Male," by Ed. Schmidt. A chemical, 
physiological, and pharmacological study of aspidium. 

" Recherches sur la Famille des Oxalidacees," by Fr. Chauvel. 
A consideration of comparative morphology of this family together 
with the history from a botanical as well as economic point of view. 

" Contribution a l'Etude de la Constitution du Tannin de la Noix 
de Galle," by Alexandre Vournasos. A monograph on the consti- 
tution of the tannin of nutgalls. 

" Etude sur les Preparations Officinales des Loganiacees," by 
B. Hebert. A study of official preparations of nux vomica and 
Ignatia seed. 

" L'lodure d'Hexyle," by A.-Ch.-P. Lecorneur. A study of iodide 
of hexyl obtained from mannite. 

" L'Acide Paraoxyphenylsalicylique et ses Sels," by Jean Faure. 
A thesis on paraoxyphenylsalicylic acid and its salts. 

" Quelques cetones obtenues au moyen de l'acide caproi'que nor- 
mal," by G.-E. Poissonnier. A study on some of the ketones ob- 
tained from normal caproic acid. 

" Sur quelques cetones derivees du Metacymene," by Francois 
B. Reyes. A monograph on the ketones derived from meta- 
cymene. 

" Methode generale de preparation des Ethers Oxydes Pheno- 
liques symetriques et dissymetriques," by E.-R. Lerat. On the 
symmetric and asymmetric oxide ethers of phenol. 

Sinonimia vulgar y Cientifica de las Plantas Mexicanas. Arreglada 
por el Dr. Jose Ramirez, con la colaboracion del Gabriel V. Alcocer. 
Mexico : Oficina Typografica de la Secretan'a de Fomento. Calle 
de San Andres, num. 15. (Avenida Oriente 51.) 1902. 

This is a very valuable book, containing nearly 10,000 synonyms 
and common names of Mexican plants. The author gives the cor- 
rect botanical origin, family name and distribution of every plant. 
A valuable bibliography accompanies the work. There is a large 
amount of Mexican, Central and South American material in various 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1904. J 



Obituaries. 



93 



collections in the United States, the specimens only having common 
names ; and this classification by Ramirez of Mexican plants, together 
with that oi Peckolt on Brazilian plants, will be helpful in their 
identification. The work is of special interest to botanists and others 
interested in the plant products of Mexico. 



OBITUARIES. 

Dr. Henry Carrington Bolton. — A well-known chemist and 
occasional contributor to pharmaceutical journals, died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, on November 19, 1903, in the sixty-first year of his age. 

Dr. Bolton was born in New York, January 28, 1843. He gradu- 
ated from Columbia College in 1862, and obtained his degree of 
Ph.D. from Gbttingen some time after. 

Dr. Bolton was a member of a number of scientific societies, a pro- 
lific writer, and a scientific investigator of acknowledged merit. At 
the time of his death he was connected with the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. 

John Dwight, one of the pioneer manufacturers of sodium bicar- 
bonate, was born in South Hadley, Mass. He died in New York on 
November 25, 1903, in his eighty-fourth year. 

Mr. Dwight began the manufacture of sodium bicarbonate about 
1846, with his brother-in-law, Dr. Austin Church, and succeeded in 
building up a very large and lucrative business. 

Dr. Cyrus Edson. — At one time president of the old New York 
City Board of Pharmacy, and prominently identified with the manu- 
facture of several well-known proprietary medicines, died in New 
York on December 2, 1903. 

Dr. Edson was born in Albany, N. Y., he graduated from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in 1881. He was 
prominently identified with and occupied several important public 
positions. 

Thomas P. Languon. — At one time a member of the firm of Gilpin, 
Langdon & Co., Inc., died at his home in Baltimore, November 
23, I903- 

Edward Leon Milhau. — One of the oldest and best known phar- 
macists of New York, died in New Brighton, Staten Island, at the 
home of his daughter, Mrs. Royden Vosburgh, May 26, 1903. 



94 



Obituaries. 



( Am. Jour. Pbarrn. 
1 "February, 1904. 



Mr. Milhau was born in New York City in 1834, an( 3 was a gradu- 
ate and subsequently a member of the College of Pharmacy of the 
City of New York, which institution he served in several important 
official capacities. He was also a member of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, joining in 1858. 

Edward H. Ogden, who was at one time actively engaged in the 
drug business in Philadelphia, died in Riverton, N. J., on December 
9, 1903, in the seventy-second year of his age. 

Mr. Ogden, an apprentice of Jenks & Ogden, was a graduate of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Class of '53. He was in 
business for a number of years on Market Street below Seventh 
with T. Morris Perot, the firm name being T. Morris Perot & Co. 
At the time of his death Mr. Ogden was the President of the 
Francis Perot's Sons Malting Company. 

Charles S. Ogden, a brother of Edward H. Ogden, was at one 
time engaged in the wholesale drug business with the now ven- 
erable Vice-President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Wm. J. Jenks. Mr. Ogden was born in Philadelphia, November 21, 
1822, and died January 12, 1904. 

He was interested in a number of beneficial and relief associa- 
tions, and despite his age, 82, still took considerable interest in 
local and municipal affairs. 

Robert C. C. Walker, a member of the firm of Powers & 
Weightman, died in Philadelphia on December 19, 1903, in his 
sixty-sixth year. 

Mr. Walker was a graduate of the law department of Harvard 
University, and followed his profession for some years as a member 
of the Philadelphia Bar. He also occupied several important politi- 
cal positions. 

Mr. Walker was admitted as a partner in the house of Powers & 
Weightman in 1893, an d continued to take an active interest in its 
affairs to the time of his death. 

Henry Martin Whitney died at North Andover, Mass., on 
December 2, 1903, in his seventy-fifth year. 

Mr. Whitney was an active member of the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association, the Massachusetts State Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, the Boston Druggists Association. He was, for a number of 
years, president of the State Board of Pharmacy, and was also an 
ex-president of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

M. I. W. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1904. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



95 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The fourth of the Pharmaceutical Meetings of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, of the present series, was held on Tuesday 
afternoon, January 19th, at 3 o'clock. Mr. E. M. Boring, a member 
of the Board of Trustees, presided. 

The first speaker was the well-known manufacturer of thermome- 
ters, Mr. Gustavus Pile, of this city, who read a paper on the subject 
of " Thermometers," which was illustrated with models of the earliest 
forms used, as well as those of more recent manufacture, some of 
which he presented to the College. In addition to the paper, Mr. Pile 
also remarked concerning the earlier systems of weights and measures 
in which the divisions appeared to be in eighths and fourths in 
contrast to the decimal system later adopted. In regard to the boil- 
ing point of water he said that the deviations in the barometer made 
a difference of as much as two to three degrees. Mr. Pile also 
spoke of the difficulty of blowing bulbs of the correct size, particu- 
larly in attempting to make a new bulb for an old scale, and said 
that a glass-blower might work several days before he made a bulb of 
the proper size. In using thermometers it is important to heat 
the whole length of the tube, as in their construction they are 
surrounded by steam. He pointed out that the value of mercury 
over alcohol in the construction of thermometers was (1) that it 
will record a much higher temperature ; (2) that it possesses a uni- 
form rate of expansion for each increment of heat ; (3) it is more 
easily freed from air; and (4) has a greater conducting power. The 
alcohol used in spirit thermometers is 95 per cent., wood alcohol 
answering the purpose as well as grain alcohol. 

Mr. Pile referred to the ignorance of many people with regard to 
the use of thermometers, and related an incident of a physician in 
whose hands a clinical thermometer always registered 10 1°, due 
to the fact that the mercury was held in the tube and the physician 
was not sufficiently informed to shake it down before using the 
thermometer. He showed an order which he had received which 
read as follows : " Kindly express us at once one Foreign height ther- 
mometer for factory use." 

Mr. Boring said that the presence of Mr. Pile took him back to 
the time when his father, Dr. W. H. Pile, came to these meetings 
and presented papers of both chemical and pharmaceutical interest 



9 6 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1904. 



as well as those relating to his own specialty, that of making in- 
struments of precision for chemical, pharmaceutical and medical 
work. 

The subject of clinical thermometers was brought up by Mr. 
Boring, who said that many persons had an impression that a two- 
minute thermometer was not reliable, because they do not give 
it time to respond. In reply to Dr. Lowe, Mr. Pile said that 
the one-minute thermometers were of thinner glass, and there- 
fore conducted the heat more rapidly. Mr. Pile said that owing to 
the variation in thermometers, particularly those used for clinical 
purposes, the Government at Washington had asked all manufac- 
turers to send their standards for comparison, as there is considerable 
difference in the expansion of different kinds of glass as well as a 
difference of expansion of mercury and glass. In this connection, 
Mr. Wilbert stated that the Bureau of Standards at Washington 
offer to standardize clinical thermometers for pharmacists at the rate 
of six for twenty-five cents each, and that the work is quite accurate. 

On motion of Mr. Wiegand, a special vote of thanks was tendered 
Mr. Pile for his paper and the apparatus which he presented. 

A paper on " Some Rare Fixed Oils," by Dr. George R. Pancoast 
and Willard Graham (see page 70), was presented by Mr. Graham. 
In the discussion of this paper Mr. Boring asked if oils of the 
various nuts were articles of commerce, to which Mr. Graham 
replied that they were but were not easily obtainable. Mr. Boring 
also spoke of an early experience of his in making fluid extract of 
ergot. He said that he followed the U.S.P. directions and packed 
the drug very thoroughly in the percolator and obtained at first a 
colorless liquid which was the oil of ergot. He also stated that 
they used to powder the ergot in cold weather. Dr. Lowe called at- 
tention to the fact that the German Pharmacopoeia directs the oil of 
ergot to be extracted from the drug before using it. Mr. Wiegand 
called attention to some experiments that were made by the late 
Mr. Charles Bullock on the oil of nux vomica and said that the oil 
gave the alkaloidal reactions. 

Mr. Wilbert read a paper on " Lime Water " (see page 66) and 
exhibited some specimens of commercial oyster-shell lime. Mr. 
Boring said that if he was not mistaken Professor Procter recom- 
mended the filtering of lime water. Mr. Wiegand said that his 
custom had been to remove the lime water by means of a syphon, 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. 1 
February, 1904. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



97 



as he considered the air, on account of the carbon dioxide, to be 
prejudicial. 

Mr. Boring said that his method was to make 5 gallons of lime 
water at a time, keeping it in half-gallon bottles, which are tightly 
stoppered, and the solution being filtered as wanted. Mr. William 
Mclntyre said that he followed the usual method of using the lime 
over again and marking the lots as they were decanted, and he 
thought that the second lot was better than the first. Mr. C. H. 
LaWall said that most pharmacists considered that as long as there 
w T as any precipitate in the stock bottle that it could be employed for 
making lime water. Mr. Boring called attention to the fact that 
some pharmacists make up large quantities of lime water, dispens- 
ing it from containers which are not air-tight, and which they give 
away free of charge. This custom is to be deprecated not only on 
account of the worthlessness of the product, but because good lime 
water requires care in its preparation and the pharmacist should be 
recompensed for his skill. 

James W. Gladhill presented a paper on the " Examination of 
Commercial Peppers," which was illustrated with a large number of 
specimens (see page 71). Dr. Lowe referred to the fact that hard- 
tack was used at one time as an adulterant of pepper. Professor 
Kraemer stated that at the present time some of the cheaper grades 
of ground pepper which he had examined contained the endocarp or 
stone of the olive, cayenne pepper and pepper hulls, and showed by 
means of drawings how these adulterants might be quite easily de- 
tected by the use of the microscope. 

Mr. Gladhill commented on the Government standards for pep- 
per; and also said that the decorticated black pepper was largely 
used for making commercial ground white pepper. 

Some remarks, on the making of paste for the pharmacist's use, 
were made by Professor Lowe, who said that he found a paste con- 
sisting of equal parts of the following : Powdered acacia, tragacanth 
and dextrin, to be quite satisfactory, i. e. y yielded a paste which, 
though adhesive, permitted the labels to be easily removed. He 
also recommended the flour paste, the formula for which is given in 
Remington's Practice of Pharmacy. He stated that in his store 
they had some trouble recently in making this paste from some of 
the commercial flours, as it would not properly thicken, and found 



98 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

that Millbourne flour was the most satisfactory. He also referred to 
the importance of pasting labels on bottles and packages. 

At the next meeting, February 16th, the following provisional 
programme will be presented : 

" Technical Analysis of Water," by W. E. Ridenour. 

"Some Refined Methods in Water Purification," by Wm. G. 
Toplis. 

" The Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Water, with 
Interpretation of the Results," by Dr. Albert Robin, Wilmington, 
Del. 

" Progress in Pharmacy — a Quarterly Review," by M. I. Wil- 
bert, Ph.M. 

Henry Kraemer, 

Secretary. 



THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members was held December 28th, at 4 p.m., 
in the library. The President, Howard B. French, presided. 
Thirteen members were present. 

The minutes of the semi-annual meeting held September 28th were read and 
approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the meetings held September 1st, 
October 6th and November 5th, were read by the registrar, and approved. 

Mr. Beringer, for the Historical Committee, reported verbally that the work 
was going on; the enquiries were being mailed and replies were being received. 
The card index was completed; the amount appropriated was nearly exhausted, 
principally for postage. 

Mr. Rumsey, for the Committee on Membership, presented a list of names for 
election to honorary membership in the College in recognition of their distin- 
guished services in the professions of medicines, pharmacy and allied sciences. 
The report was received and approved. 

The President announced the death of Dr. William H. Webb, who was a 
graduate of the Class of 1868 and a member of the College since 1868. Dr. 
Webb had practised medicine for many years in Philadelphia. His death 
occurred on December 20th. 

Mr. Krewson announced the death of Gustav A. Appenzeller, Class of 1877, 
and Edward H. Ogden, Class of 1853. These gentlemen were not members of 
the College but were well known in the city, and it was fitting that a record of 
their deaths should be made. 

The thanks of the College were tendered to H. K. Mulford & Co. for their 
donation of vaccine virus and shields used in the recent vaccination of the 
students. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 
Secretaiy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
February, 1904. j 



Personal Notes. 



99 



PERSONAL NOTES. 

C. Lewis Diehl, Professor of Pharmacy in the Louisville College of Phar- 
macy, has retired from the retail drug business and will in the future devote 
himself to his literary and professional work. Professor Diehl has had an 
interesting career. He was apprenticed to the late Dr. John R. Angney, Fifth 
and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, in April, 1858, and graduated from the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy in March, 1862. Then, until the early fall of 1862, 
he had Charge of the laboratory of John Wyeth & Brothers, who at that time 
had large army contracts, and he may thus claim to have been their first chemist 
in the manufacturing line — leaving them only because he considered it his duty 
to serve in the Army. Having returned early in 1863, discharged on account 
of wounds, he secured a position as chemist under Maisch in the U. S. A. Labo- 
ratory at Sixth and Oxford Streets, ^in Philadelphia, remaining until January, 
1865, when it became evident that the work in the laboratory would languish, 
or cease. Taking his way to Chicago, which he at that period claimed as his 
home, he secured a position with the firm of Bender, Mahla & Co., manufac- 
turing chemists, but left them in July, having received an invitation to reor- 
ganize and manage the Louisville Chemical Works, an enterprise which had 
been called into life by the late Dr. J. Lawrence Smith and organized by the 
late Dr. Edward R. Squibb. He remained in charge of this concern until 
January, 1869, when, owing to a business disagreement of the owners, the 
Chemical Works passed into other hands, and he severed his connections with 
them. 

In the early summer of 1869 he purchased a store at the southwest corner of 
First and Walnut Streets, Louisville, where he continued until June, 1874, when 
he sold out, preparatory to opening the store at Third and Broadway, which he 
has recently (November 28th) disposed of with the intention of relinquishing 
active participation in the practice of pharmacy. 

Professor Diehl joined the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1863 and 
attended its meetings for the first time at Detroit in 1866. He was elected 
chairman of the Committee on the Progress of Pharmacy, and re-elected at 
New York in 1867. He made a volunteer report on the Progress of Pharmacy 
at Richmond in 1873, in consequence of the inability of the chairman, elected 
at Cleveland, to serve ; was elected to the newly created office of Reporter on 
the Progress of Pharmacy, and re-elected annually until 189 r, when he declined 
re-election ; but was again elected in 1895, and annually since then. In 1874 
he had the honor of being elected President of the Association, holding that 
office in addition to that of Reporter. 

In 1871 Professor Diehl assisted in organizing and establishing the Louisville 
College of Pharmacy, served as its President during the first decade, and also 
as one of its teachers for many years — resigning as Professor of Pharmacy about 
the middle of the eighties, but again entering upon its duties in 1894. He was 
a member of the Kentucky Board of Pharmacy for quite a number of terms — 
serving on the first board appointed under the law, and is now a member, 
serving a second consecutive term of five years, after having been out of the 
board for quite a period. He has also been a member of the Kentucky Phar- 
maceutical Association from its birth, and honored by being elected its President 
several years ago. 



IOO 



Personal JVotes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
t February, 1904. 



Professor Diehl has also been connected with th e Revision of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia for many years. He was elected a delegate to the Con- 
vention of 1870, from the Chicago College of Pharmacy, of which institution he 
was then a member, and subsequently delegated by the Louisville College of 
Pharmacy to the Pharmacopoeial Conventions of 1880, 1890 and 1900, serving 
now his third term as a member of the Committee of Revision of the U.S.P. 

Frank G. Ryan, formerly Instructor in Pharmacy in the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, and for the past four years chief pharmacist for Parke, 
Davis & Co., having supervision over the manufacture of all their chemical, 
pharmaceutical and biological products, was recently elected to the Board of 
Directors of that firm, which position was made vacant by the death of Mr. 
Warren, late general manager. 

The Society of Pharmacy of Paris. — The following corresponding mem. 
bers were elected at the annual meeting of the society: Professor Bruylants, 
University of Louvain; C. Burhen, Clarens (Switzerland); Codina y Langlin, 
Barcelona; Professor Dambergis, Institute of Pharmacy of Athens; Prof. Don- 
ald MacAlister, University of Cambridge ; Mr. Duliere, Brussels ; Professor 
Greenish, London School of Parmacy; Professor Greshoff, Harlem; Mr. Pouls- 
son, Christiana; Mr. Roemers, Aarhus (Denmark), and Mr. Waller, Vexio 
(Sweden). 

Gustav Pfingsten, editor of Deutsche-Amerikanische Apotheker-Zeitung ■, 
died at his home in New York City on January 7th. He was born in Ranzel, 
near Cologne, May 25, 1843, an & studied in Germany, coming to this country 
in 1869. He received the degree of M.D. from the New York University Med- 
ical College in 1889. He entered the drug business soon after coming to this 
country, and continued the same until the time of his death. He was very 
active in the work of the German Apothecaries Society, with which organiza- 
tion he became early allied, being president for two terms, and was editor of 
the organ of the society since 1896. 

Phii.adei.phia Association of Retail Druggists.— At the annual meet- 
ing of the association, held January 8th, the following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: President, Thomas H. Potts; Vice-Presidents: William L. 
Cliffe, William E. Lee and David J. Reese; Recording Secretary, Nathan A. 
Cozens; Financial Secretary, Carl W. Shull; Treasurer, George W. Fehr. 
Executive Committee: A. T. Pollard, W. H. Gaao, Charles Leedom, Richard 
H. Lackey, H. C. Blair, A. J. Frankeberger and H. A. Nolte. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, 1Q04. 




METHODS AND INTERPRETATION OF WATER 
ANALYSIS. 

By A. Robin, M.D., 
Bacteriologist to City Water Department, Wilmington, Del. 

The average consumer judges of the quality of the drinking 
water by means of his special senses of sight, smell and taste. 
Water which is turbid or emits a disagreeable odor is unreservedly 
condemned, while clear, sparkling water free from odor is just as 
unqualifiedly pronounced " pure." Those of us who are familiar 
with the history of typhoid epidemics and have had opportunity to 
examine drinking waters by means of special methods know how 
fallacious such a crude judgment is. Water that is clear and spark- 
ling may contain the germs of typhoid fever or may be polluted 
with sewage which, in the course of decomposition, gave rise to 
carbonic acid. It takes many billions of bacteria to render a glass 
of water perceptibly turbid, and it requires considerable fresh sewage 
to impart to it a fecal odor. On the other hand, a turbid water, 
although objectionable from an esthetic point of view, may be en- 
tirely wholesome, and a disagreeable odor may be due to inoffensive 
vegetable compounds or harmless algae. 

This evident inability to form a ready judgment of the quality of 
a drinking water has led the sanitarian to seek the aid of the chemist, 
who, it was supposed, could readily detect by means of chemical 
analysis the injurious substances in the water under suspicion. 
However, it soon became evident that a chemical analysis of water 
for sanitary purposes differs essentially from any other kind of 

(IOI) 



102 



MetJwds of Water Analysis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1904. 



analysis which the chemist may be called upon to make. The find- 
ing of arsenic or some poisonous alkaloid in a suspected fluid is 
decisive, and a report on such finding is merely a statement of fact. 
In the analysis of water, on the other hand, the findings are purely 
relative and must be properly interpreted before they can be of any 
value. A drinking water, if I may borrow the legal phraseology, 
is indicted on circumstantial evidence, and it depends on the erudi- 
tion and ability of the chemist to so interpret and connect the 
evidence as to make out a clear case for or against the suspected 
water. 

The object of a chemical analysis of water is to discover whether 
or not pollution with objectionable organic impurities has taken 
place. By " objectionable organic impurities " we understand those 
which are from human or animal sources and are capable of convey- 
ing the germs of disease. In other words, we look principally for 
fecal contamination, inasmuch as the germs of typhoid fever, cholera, 
dysentery and other intestinal disorders are excreted with the feces 
and together with the feces gain access to the water. By itself, 
organic matter in the minute quantities in which it is present in 
water, is not injurious to health, even if derived from sewage. It is 
only because this organic matter may be the carrier of disease germs 
that it becomes a matter of serious consideration. Therefore, organic 
matter derived from plants or vegetables removed from the possi- 
bility of infection with disease-producing bacteria has no significance 
from a sanitary standpoint, and its presence in drinking water in no 
way renders it unwholesome. 

It is thus evident that the aim of the sanitary chemist is to dis- 
cover, first, the presence of organic matter, which would indicate 
pollution, and, second, to determine the source of this organic 
matter. How well these two requirements are fulfilled by a chemi- 
cal analysis will be made clear later. 

Dead organic matter in water, as elsewhere, is not in a state of 
stability. Through the agency oi certain bacteria, in the presence 
of oxygen, it continuously undergoes material changes, becoming 
resolved into simpler inorganic compounds. The nitrogenous sub- 
stances are converted into ammonia, and the latter into nitrous and 
finally nitric acid, the two acids combining with bases usually present 
to form nitrites and nitrates, respectively. These changes may be 
best illustrated by the following scheme: 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March. 1904. 



Methods of Water Analysis. 



103 



Carbon — Carbon dioxide. 



Organic matter 




{ Ammonia \ ( 
1 U 



Nitrous acid 
(Nitrites) 
Water 



Nitric acid 
(Nitrates). 



This process, may it be remarked in passing, is a beneficial one, 
since by its means purification of polluted water is accomplished and 
the decaying organic matter converted into useful plant food. 

These changes, under favorable conditions, take place incessantly 
so long as there is a supply of dead organic matter and the neces- 
sary bacteria are present. Therefore, the amount of organic matter 
in water represents that portion which has not yet undergone disin- 
tegration — the organic nitrogen or so-called albuminoid ammonia — 
as well as the various intermediary products of the portion which 
has undergone or is undergoing disintegration — free ammonia, 
nitrites and nitrates. The quantitative relation of these products of 
oxidation to each other as well as to the unoxidized nitrogenous 
matter will depend on the original amount of the organic matter 
and the rapidity with which oxidation has taken place. Therefore, 
an analysis which discloses these various stages of oxidation reveals 
also not only the presence but the retrogressive course of the 
organic matter. Given a water containing relatively large amounts 
of albuminoid and free ammonia, together with nitrites and nitrates, 
the indications would be that such water contains a large amount of 
organic matter in a state of incomplete oxidation ; in other words, 
the contamination is recent. On the other hand, the presence of 
nitrates, in the absence of nitrites, with only small amounts of free 
and albuminoid ammonia, would indicate complete oxidation or a 
previous pollution. It goes without saying that pure water should 
contain only traces of albuminoid and free ammonia and should be 
free from nitrites and nitrates, the latter, if in small quantity, being 
rapidly appropriated by the water plants. It is to be expected that 
in deep wells removed from the possibility of pollution, the water 
will contain very slight amounts of ammonia and no nitrites or 
nitrates, or mere traces, although free ammonia may sometimes be 
present in large amounts as a result of oxidation of vegetable matter 
or nitrates by ferric oxide. 

In addition to organic matter, water contains various salts, the 
most important and constant of which is sodium chloride or, occa- 
sionally, magnesium and calcium chloride. These chlorides are 
derived from the sea or geological formations rich in salts. The 



104 Methods of Water Analysis. ' { Am MS,iS5y m ^ 

amount of chlorides will vary with the natural source and remains 
fairly constant. However, when the water is polluted with sewage 
or household refuse the chlorides will increase in proportion to the 
degree and nature of the pollution, and this increase serves as a 
reliable indication of past or present pollution. This index, how- 
ever, is of value only when the normal chlorine contents of the water 
in question or of waters in the immediate neighborhood is known. 

On the foregoing considerations are based the various methods 
employed in the chemical analysis of water. As these methods are 
fully described in books on the subject, I shall not dwell on them 
here, but will mention the modifications which I found useful in my 
work. For the determination of turbidity, free and albuminoid 
ammonia, nitrates, nitrites and iron I employ Jackson's standards, 
which are used in the Mt. Prospect Laboratory, Brooklyn, and are 
described by Mr. Jackson in the Technology Quarterly, Vol. XIII, No. 
4, 1900. A constant use of the standards convinced me of their 
accuracy and convenience. They offer the great advantage of being 
always on hand and presenting a uniformity of composition (color) 
not attainable when the standards are made up extemporaneously. 
However, in the determination of turbidity I depart somewhat from 
Mr. Jackson's recommendations and make use of 100 c.c. xx tincture 
bottles, glass stoppered (W. T. & Co.), instead of 100 c.c. Nessler 
tubes. I found that by means of these bottles it is possible to 
determine the turbidity with much greater accuracy. In determining 
nitrates and nitrites I treat 200 c.c. of the water with an excess of 
precipitated and washed aluminum hydrate, decanting the clear 
supernatant fluid. This brings about complete decolorization of the 
water, a condition most desirable in the case of surface waters which 
are frequently colored, the color interfering with the proper determi- 
nation of nitrites and nitrates. I do not determine the loss on 
ignition for the reason that it is not a reliable method of determining 
the organic matter in the residue. When the latter is subjected to 
heat, the nitrates are decomposed and the chlorides volatilized to a 
considerable extent, while some salts retain the water of crystalliza- 
tion despite the heating. The loss on ignition, therefore, does not 
represent the amount of organic matter burned. I do, however, 
heat the residue, but only to observe the charring on ignition. The 
degree of charring of the residue does indicate, roughly, of course, 
the amount of organic matter. 



A tn. Jour. Pharm. V 
March, 1904. J 



Methods of Water Analysis. 



UNRELIABILITY OF CHEMICAL DATA. 

There are a number of serious objections to the data obtained by 
a chemical analysis, (i) Excessive free ammonia in ground waters 
may be the result, as has been mentioned, of the oxidizing action 
of iron or other metals on the nitrates present, while in surface 
waters it may be produced by the action of a fungus Crenothrix 
(Brown). (2) The nitrites found in deep-well water may be the 
result of the reduction of nitrates normally present in the soil and, 
consequently, in no way represent organic pollution. One of the 
chief objections, however, is that a chemical analysis does not reveal 
the nature of the organic matter, whether of vegetable or animal 
origin. Admitting that a certain water contains an excess of organic 
matter, the question arises, Does this organic matter represent 
harmless vegetables or dangerous sewage? The chemist cannot 
answer this question with a certainty which would preclude a 
u reasonable doubt." Yet a water contaminated even with large 
amounts of vegetable matter, while not the best kind of water to 
drink, is, nevertheless, free from danger. It is true, that if the am- 
monia on distillation is given off rapidly and the nitrites and chlorine 
are excessive, the indications that the organic matter is derived from 
sewage are reasonably clear, but the rapidity with which ammonia 
even from animal matter is given off is only comparative and there 
is no way of gauging it, while the excessive amount of chlorine as 
compared with the normal chlorine standard of that particular 
locality presupposes a previous study of unpolluted waters which is 
seldom made and which often cannot be made. 

The other objection, one of a much more serious nature, is that 
water may be organically pure and yet contain germs of disease. 
Instances are cited by a number of authors showing that water- 
supplies pronounced on chemical evidence to be above suspicion 
have been proved to have caused serious epidemics of typhoid fever 
or dysentery. Thus Dr. Thresh, in his well-known book on " Water 
and Water Supplies," cites a number of such instances, a few of 
which I will quote. 

The water from the river Ouse, below where it receives- the sewage 
of Buckingham, to which an epidemic of typhoid fever was attrib- 
uted, was analyzed by the public analyst, who reported that it 
" does not appear from the analysis to contain sewage matter." 



106 Methods of Water Analysis. {^Sam 111, 

The Beverley water-supply, which became polluted with infected 
sewage from an asylum, giving rise to a typhoid epidemic, was pro- 
nounced by the chemist to be " of a very high degree of purity, and 
eminently suitable for drinking and domestic purposes." 

Analysis of water from the sewage-polluted Trent showed that 
" there is no evidence of the product of sewage contamination." 

The well-water supplying Houghton-le-Spring became contami- 
nated with sewage from a farm, causing a sudden outbreak of typhoid 
fever. The chemist who analyzed the water reported that " this 
water is very free from indications of organic impurity. ... It 
is a good water for drinking purposes." 

The reason for this evident failure on the part of the chemist to 
detect dangerous pollution is not difficult to find. A generally pure 
water may become contaminated with an amount of sewage too 
small to give evidence of its presence when diluted with several 
million gallons of water, yet this small amount of sewage may con- 
tain numerous specific germs the presence of which cannot be detected 
by a chemical analysis. Again, the sewage may have undergone 
complete oxidation and the end products taken up by the plants, 
leaving no perceptible evidence of the pollution, while many of the 
specific germs which may have been present in the original sewage 
remain viable and capable of causing disease. 

Before leaving this phase of the subject, I wish to point out the 
value of chemical analysis in comparing different waters in the same 
locality or a certain water at different times. In this connection, 
the data obtained by a chemical analysis are both accurate and 
valuable. Also in the study of filtration, especially of the slow-sand 
type, chemical analysis of the raw water and effluent made from 
time to time furnishes valuable evidence of the efficiency of the filter 
in removing turbidity and color, and bringing about the nitrification 
of organic matter which is the essential feature of this process of 
water-purification. 

BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 

With the advent of bacteriology, and especially after the intro- 
duction of Koch's plate method of isolation of bacteria, the hope of 
the sanitarian had been revived. It was supposed that at last we 
have a method by means of which we may detect the specific causes 
of disease in water, and thus place the examination of water on the 



^M J SS m *} Methods of Water Analysis. 107 

same certain basis as the detection of poisons. With the knowledge 
that typhoid fever is usually caused by the drinking water and after 
the discovery by Koch that cholera is of similar origin, it was ex- 
pected that the typhoid bacilli and the cholera spirilla could be 
detected in the suspected water. Unfortunately, disappointment 
followed all attempts in this direction. It soon became evident that 
while a certain water has been the cause of either a cholera or 
typhoid epidemic, as established by all evidence at hand, neither the 
cholera spirillum or the typhoid bacillus could be detected in such 
waters. The cause for this failure was found in the great predomi- 
nance of water bacteria which overgrow and obscure the few specific 
parasites, rendering their discovery impossible. The effort may be 
compared to looking for a needle in a haystack. While not entirely 
abandoned, the search for specific microorganisms has not been 
made the object of routine examinations ; and until some satisfactory 
method is devised by which the saprophytic bacteria may be entirely 
eliminated and the number of the specific microorganisms increased 
so as to have them present in very small quantities of the water, the 
bacteriologist must depend upon other data upon which a conclusion 
as to the quality of the water may be reasonably based. It was 
thought for a time that the number of bacteria in the water could 
serve as an index of pollution, and a number of standards of bacte- 
rial purity have been suggested by various authorities. Thus, Koch 
considers 100 bacteria per cubic centimetre as the safe limit for 
drinking water; Miquel raises the standard to 1,000; Crookshank 
agrees with this standard, while Mace and Migula claim that 250 to 
500 bacteria is the highest limit for a good drinking water. These 
or any other arbitrary standards based on mere number of bacteria > 
are as fallacious as the " standards " proposed from time to time for 
ammonias, nitrites, nitrates, etc. In the first place, the number of 
bacteria in water will vary greatly with the medium, the reaction of 
the medium, the length of time the colonies, are allowed to develop, 
dilution, etc., as may be seen by the following data: 

(1) Time of Plating. — It makes considerable difference whether 
the water is plated immediately upon collection or is allowed to stand 
for some time before plating. At room temperature, the bacteria 
multiply enormously, so that if the plating is done several hours 
after collection of the sample, an originally pure water may be con- 
demned on the bacterial count. On the other hand, if packed in 



108 Methods of Water Analysis. {^Mareh,iSS. rm * 

ice, the bacteria decrease in number sometimes to a very marked 
degree. This is clearly shown by Jordan and Irons {1 tans. Am. 
Pub. B. Ass., Vol. XXV, 1899) in the following table: 





A. 


B. 


C. 




0* 
O 

d 

a 

V 


No. Bacteria 
per 1 c.c. 


0' 

U 

d 

a 

U 

{H 


No. Bacteria 
per 1 c.c. 


0' 
O 

d 

a 


No. Bacteria 
per 1 c.c. 


Immediately after collection . . 


2075 


176 


23"5 


950,000 


29 


385,000 




9 


123 . 


9 


510,000 


29 




" 6 " 


6 


93 


6 


90,000 


(4hrs.) 66 


130,000 




8 


8 7 


6 


430,000 


(8hrs.) 2 


210,000 


"24 " 


7 


72 


7 


380,000 


(22hrs.) 6 


136,000 


"3* " 


8 


46 


8 


340,000 








4 


27 




429,000 


(46hrs.) 8 


305,000 


"72 " 


1 


39 


3 '5 


480,000 







This marked decrease the authors ascribe to the effect of sudden 
chilling. 

(2) Dilution. — It is by no means a matter of indifference whether 
the water is plated as it. is or diluted; also the degrees of the dilu- 
tion employed has an effect on the number of bacteria per 1 c.c, as 
shown by Jordan and Irons (/. c.) in the following table : 



A. 



Undiluted 218 

Diluted i-to 470 



C. 

Undiluted i,5°o 

Diluted 1-10 4.34° 

Diluted 1-100 8,800 



B. 

Diluted 1-1,000 844,000 

Diluted 1-10,000 . 2,630,000 

Diluted 1-100,000 4,300,000 

D. .•'•«- 

Diluted 1-1,000 479,000 

Diluted 1-10,000 1,123,000 

Diluted 1-100,000 1,300,000 



This variation in number, dependent on dilution, is due to the 
obscuration of colonies through inhibition of growth when undiluted 
water is plated. In the matter of dilutions, the number and vigor 
of shakes to which the vessel is subjected before the I c.c. is with- 



%2;5 m '} Methods of Water Analysis. 109 

drawn affects the numerical results, also whether distilled or tap-water 
is used as a diluent. The method I employ is to have on hand 50 
and ioocx. graduated flasks half-full of tap water. These are sterilized 
in the autoclave. One cubic centimetre of the water is added to either 
the 50 or 100 c.c. flask, and contents subjected to ten vigorous 
shakes. The flask is then filled to the mark with sterile tap-water 
and inverted twenty-five times. If higher dilutions are required 
portions of diluted water are similarly treated. 

(3) Composition of Media. — That the constituents, reaction and 
character of the medium influence the number of bacteria to a very 
great extent is a well-known fact attested by numerous experimental 
data. The marked variations in the number of bacteria in the same 
water plated on different media is shown by the following data 
obtained by Jordan and Irons (/. c.) : 

(i) SURFACE WATER (UKE MICHIGAN). 

Reaction No. of Colonies. 

(Fuller's scale). Eight days. 

Ordinary Witte's peptone agar ........ -f-10 50 

Ordinary Witte's peptone gelatin -fio 130 

Somatose gelatin (no broth) o 110 

Nahrstoff Heyden gelatin (no broth) o 460 

Somatose agar (no broth) o 470 

Nahrstoff Heyden agar (no broth) o 570 

(2) SURFACE WATER (MISSISSIPPI RIVER). 

Reaction No. of Colonies. 

(Fuller's scale). Seven days. 

Ordinary Witte's peptone agar + 10 2 °6 

Somatose agar (no broth) o 543 

Nahrstoff Heyden agar (no broth) o 6 [2 

(3) SEWAGE (DILUTED t^oo)- 

Reaction No. of Colonies. 

(Fuller's scale). Ten days. 

f 127 

Witte's peptone agar , . -f-10 < ' 

S 127 

Somatose agar o 198 

Nahrstoff Heyden agar o • j 

(4) GROUND WATER (ARTESIAN WEEE). 

Reaction No. of Colonies. 

(Fuller's scale). Nine days. 

Ordinary Witte's peptone agar -\-\o 15 

Ordinary Witte's peptone gelatin + IQ 21 

Nahrstoff Heyden gelatin o 700 

Somatose agar o 584 

Nahrstoff Heyden agar . o 920 



no Methods of Water Analysis. { A ^Sa& rm " 

Equally marked variations were obtained by Gage and Phelps 
[Centralbl. f. Bakt, Paras, u. Infek. y Abt. I, Bd. xxxii, No. 12, 1902 ; 
Irans. of the Am. Pub. H. Ass. of the Twenty. ninth Annual Meeting, 
1 901). They experimented with thirteen different media and various 
waters. Fuller and Johnson (Trans. Am. Pub. H. Ass., Vol. XXV, 
1899) experimented with a medium composed of meat infusion and 
12 per cent, gelatin, omitting the peptone and salt, with the follow- 
ing comparative results: 



NUMBER OF BACTERIA PER CUBIC CENTIMETRE. 



Reaction (per cent ). 


Regular Nutrient Gelatin. 


Meat Infusion and Gelatin. 


00 


no 


200 


o"5 


no 


210 


I'o 


120 


100 


l"5 


80 


130 


2*0 


75 


70 



This table also shows the effect of the reaction. The optimum 
reaction in this case was -J- 5 for the meat intusion gelatin and -f- 
i-o for the regular nutrient gelatin. The optimum reaction, how- 
ever, will differ with different waters. Generally -f- 10 to -j- 15 
(Fuller's scale) is recommended. In my own experimental work I 
found equally striking variations as shown in the table, page in. 

The gelatins Nos. I and 9 were prepared according to the direc- 
tions given by the Laboratory Committee of the American Public 
Health Association on Standard Methods. Gelatin No. 2 was pre- 
pared in accordance with the same method, with the exception that 
Armour's extract of beef was used instead of meat. The reaction in 
each case was -j- 15. An extended series of observations on the 
Gelatins Nos. 1 and 2 showed that the latter invariably gave twice 
the number of bacteria. 

(4) Condition of Cultivation. — An atmosphere saturated with 
moisture, as shown by Whipple {Technology Quarterly ', Vol. XII, No. 
4, December, 1899), favors a greater development of bacteria. The 
temperature also plays an important role, since fewer bacteria will 
develop at iO° C. than at 20 C. The difficulty of maintaining a 
constant low temperature is well known. 

(5) Length of Cultivation. — The day on which the colonies are 
counted influences the numerical results, perhaps, more than any 



f m -} Methods of Water Analysis. in 



Series. 


IVXedium. 


Day of 
Count. 


No. Bacteria 
per 1 c.c. 




Gelatin No. i 


2 


3.000 


A 


" "2 


2 


8,000 




Nahrstoflf Heyden agar 


10 


55,000 




Gelatin No. 1 


2 


10,000 


B 




2 


24,000 




Nahrstoflf Heyden agar 


10 


30,000 


C 


Gelatin No. 2 


2 


87,000 




Nahrstoflf Heyden agar 


10 


172,000 


D 


Gelatin No. 2 
Nahrstoflf Heyden agar 


2 

10 


70,000 
108,000 




Gelatin No. 1 


2 


8,000 


n 


" "2 


2 


14,000 




Nahrstoflf Heyden agar 


10 


53.500 




Gelatin No. 1 


2 


2.350 


p 


" " 2 
i< 9 


2 
2 


4,800 
2,150 




Nahrstoflf Heyden agar 


10 


8,850 




Gelatin No. 1 


2 


2,050 


G 


" 9 


2 


4,75o 




Nahrstoflf Heyden agar 


10 


34.500 



other factor. Given a certain medium and environment, some 



species of bacteria will develop more rapidly than others. I could 

illustrate this fact by numerous instances, but will cite only a few 
from my own records : 

Gelatin plates, third day count 3,050 

" " fourth " " . . . 5,350- 

" " third " " . 4,75° 

" " fourth " " 12,150 

f " second " " 8,000 

" " third " " 50,000 

" " second " " . . 2,350 

" " sixth c< " 4j50o 

" " second " " 4,800 

44 V sixth " (i 13,150 



112 



Methods of Water Analysis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1904. 



Gelatin plates, second day count 



2,150 
7,350 
2,050 
11,000 



sixth " 
second " 
sixth 1 ' 



The committee of the American Public Health Association on 
Standard Laboratory Methods recommends that plates be counted 
on the second day. The difficulty, however, of establishing a uni- 
form practice lies in the variability of saprophytic bacterial species 
not only in different waters, but in the same water at different times. 
Thus a certain water may contain species which develop rapidly 
at 20° C, while another water, or the same at another time, may 
contain species which develop slowly at that temperature. As a 
matter of fact, waters containing large numbers of bacteria whose 
optimum temperature is 37 C. (fecal and other pathogenic organ- 
isms) will show a lower count, owing to the fact that these species 
develop slowly at 20° C, and the colonies could be readily overlooked 
on the second day count. In the case of testing the efficiency of a 
filter, the difficulty is augmented by the fact that the raw water does 
not contain, in point of numbers, the same species as does the 
effluent. On the other hand, prolonging the final count to the 
third or fourth day endangers the integrity of the gelatin plate, which 
often becomes liquefied at the end of the second day, unless kept at a 
temperature lower than 20° C, when the error, occasioned by a still 
lower temperature, is introduced. 

The investigations of others, as well as my own, demonstrate 
conclusively that Nahrstoff Heyden agar permits the development 
of the maximum number of bacteria, very likely all the bacteria 
found in a given quantity of water. This medium, according to 
Hesse and Niedner, who were the first to suggest it (Zeitschr.f. 
Hyg , Vol. XXIX, p. 454) is prepared as follows : 



The Nahrstoff Heyden, which is an albumose, is dissolved in 
water, mixed with the agar and the whole boiled until the agar is 
completely dissolved. It may then be filtered through absorbent 
cotton. The medium requires no adjustment of reaction, nor any 
other manipulations which, in the case of other media, interfere with 
the uniform composition of the finished product. Nahrstoff Heyden 



Per cent. 



Agar-agar . . . 
Nahrstoff Heyden 
Distilled water . . 



1.25 

o.75 
98.00 



A Varch,T9 h o4. rm '} Methods of Water Analysis. 113 

agar is of uniform composition; and offers the additional advantage 
that the colonies developing on it never spread nor grow so large as 
to obscure their smaller neighbors. The plates are usually counted 
on the ninth or tenth day, although the count may be made on the 
fifth or sixth day without any great error being introduced. The 
colonies developing on this medium are, as a rule, not characteristic, 
but chromogenesis is brought out remarkably well. A plate con- 
taining a number of chromogenic species looks like a field bedecked 
with early spring flowers. It is quite likely that this medium may 
prove of great use in the grouping of bacterial species according to 
chromogenesis. 

But even if in NahrstofT Heyden agar we possess a medium which 
will show all the bacteria found in a given sample of water, we are 
still unable to pass definite judgment on its hygienic quality. After 
all, the number of bacteria in water indicates the presence of bacterial 
food, or organic matter, but does not reveal to us the nature of that 
organic food, whether of vegetable or animal origin. Therefore, the 
same objection that is raised against the chemical analysis of water 
pertains with almost equal force to the mere counting of the number 
of bacteria. To remedy this defect, bacteriologists introduced the 
presence or absence of B. coli communis, a normal resident of the 
intestinal tract of man and animals, as the criterion for the presence 
or absence of fecal pollution. The presence of the B. coli communis 
indicates the presence of feces, and the contamination with the latter 
makes it possible for the typhoid bacilli to be present. Consequently, 
the investigation of water supposed to have been the cause of a 
typhoid epidemic rests on the presence of the colon bacillus as the 
indirect but certain evidence. However, the mere presence of the 
colon bacillus, which is so widely spread in nature, is no certain 
indication of fecal pollution, unless the number of B. coli is large. 
Unfortunately, the methods for the enumeration of this micro- 
organism are either too complicated for routine work or inaccurate ; 
and, besides, bacteriologists are not quite agreed as to what con- 
stitutes a genuine B. coli communis, there being a number of species 
not found in feces which closely resemble it. 

It would seem from the foregoing considerations that we possess 
no certain means of detecting dangerous pollution in cases in which 
a mere sanitary inspection does not make the source of the pollution 
evident (proximity of privy, discharge of sewage into the stream, etc.). 



114 Methods of Water Analysis. {^mI^iwT™- 

Fortunately, however, this is not the case. While it is true that no 
single factor establishes definitely the character of the water under 
suspicion, a combination of factors with their proper grouping and 
interpretation is capable of forging a chain of evidence, placing the 
verdict ** beyond a reasonable doubt." The procedure, which will 
yield satisfactory results, is as follows : 

The water is subjected to a chemical analysis, and an adequate 
portion, I c.c. or a fraction of a cubic centimetre, plated in gelatin, 
Nahrstoff Heyden agar, litmus lactose agar, carbolic acid lactose 
agar and neutral red lactose bouillon. 1 The carbolic acid lactose agar 
is made by the addition to 5 c.c. of the medium of 05 — O-i c.c. of 
Parietti's solution (hydrochloric acid 4 c.c, 5 per cent, carbolic acid 
solution 100 c.c). The neutral red lactose bouillon is made by 
adding 10 c.c of a 1 per cent, solution of neutral red to 1 litre of 
lactose bouillon (1 per cent.). The gelatin and NahrstofT Heyden 
plates are kept at 20 C, and the others at 37 C. The gelatin 
plates are counted at the end of two days, the Nahrstoff Heyden 
agar plate at the end of nine days, the litmus lactose agar plate at 
the end of twenty-four hours and the carbolic acid lactose agar plate 
at the end of forty-eight hours. 

Interpretation of Results. — By using these several media we aim 
to demonstrate: (1) The presence of organic pollution by the com- 
bined chemical analysis and bacterial count, the count on gelatin 
serving as a comparate with the counts obtained by other observers 
who have used gelatin, while the Nahrstoff Heyden agar shows the 
total number of bacteria. 

(2) The presence and number of bacteria which develop at 37 C. 
and the presence and number of red colonies which may be either 
B. coli communis, Houston's streptococcus or some other sewage 
organism producing acid. This information is furnished by the 
litmus lactose agar plate. 

(3) The presence and number of bacteria which resist the addition 
of carbolic acid, as B. coli communis or some other equally resistant 
microorganism which could not be an ordinary water saprophyte. 
This is indicated by the carbolic acid lactose agar. 



^he neutral red lactose bouillon was suggested by Dr. Stokes, of the Balti- 
more City Board of Health, at the meeting of the American Public Health 
Association, at Washington, D. C, 1903. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm.") 
March, 190i. / 



Methods of Water Analysis. 



115 



(4) The absence or possible presence of B. coli communis as indi- 
cated by the production or non-production of gas and characteristic 
reaction with the neutral red dye. 

Given a water which shows on chemical analysis organic pollution 
and which shows a large number of bacteria on gelatin and a con- 
siderable number of bacteria on the litmus lactose agar and Parietti's 
solution lactose agar plates together with red colonies on the former 
and production of gas plus characteristic reaction with the neutral 
red in the neutral-red lactose bouillon, such a water may be pro- 
nounced polluted with sewage, beyond a reasonable doubt. 

The practical application of this method is illustrated in the 
following instance. 

Water from the race carrying Brandywine water was examined 
with the following results (in 1 c.c.) : 

No. of bacteria on gelatin, second day count 1,000 

" " " " Nahrstoff agar, tenth day count 9,000 

" " <f " litmus lactose agar, twenty-four hours ... 57 

" " red colonies (proved to be B. coli) 8 

Neutral red lactose bouillon (1 c.c. of water), typical reaction. 

At the same time the water from the Cool Spring Reservoir, con- 
taining the same water, was examined and showed (in 1 c.c.) : 

No. of bacteria on gelatin, second day count ......... 3,400 

" " " " Nahrstoff agar, tenth day count 75, 000 

" " " " litmus lactose agar, twenty-four hours ... 26 
" " " " red colonies 1 

Neutral red lactose bouillon (1 c.c. of water) showed production of gas 
without characteristic change of color. 

Subsequent study of the single red colony showed that it belonged 



to the proteus group. 

At another time the race-water showed (in I c.c.) : 

No. of bacteria on gelatin ■ . 13,000 

" " " " lactose litmus agar 97 

" " red colonies (proved to be B. coli) 33 

" " bacteria on carbolized lactose agar 46 

Neutral -red lactose bouillon, typical reaction. 

The water from the reservoir showed (in 1 c.c.) : 

No. of bacteria on gelatin 16,350 

" " V " lactose litmus agar 37 

" " red coloniesX proved to be B. coli ) 7 

" " bacteria on carbolized lactose agar 37 

Neutral-red lactose bouillon, typical reaction . 



Ii6 Refined Methods in Water Purification. { Km ^^™ m ' 

The Brandyvvine water is an extremely polluted stream, receiving 
the sewage from Coatesville and other places. The water in the 
reservoir receives but little sedimentation and is drawn near the 
bottom. We would expect, then, that the water from the reservoir 
would contain more saprophytic bacteria, while the race-water would 
contain more sewage organisms. This is admirably demonstrated 
by the above examinations. Yet, were we to depend on the bacte- 
rial count on gelatin alone, the reservoir-water would appear many 
times worse than the race-water. It is thus seen that by the proper 
combination of laboratory methods a definite and accurate conclusion 
may be reached, and it is also evident that in the examination of 
water reliance on any single method will lead to grave errors. 



SOME REFINED METHODS IN WATER PURIFICATION. 
By Wiuiam G. Topus. 

Two years ago it was my privilege to bring to the attention of 
this body some observations on the hygienic purification of water. 
Since then, several advances in technique have been achieved that 
serve to give more accurate data with greater economy in time. 

Bacteriological investigation directed to water work has, in the 
main, a different end from that which is sought, ordinarily, when 
applied to pathological determinations. The latter effort seeks 
almost wholly to isolate and identify organisms, where with water 
the principal study is to determine the number of individual organ- 
isms in a definite volume of water, regardless of their kind or char- 
acter. The assumption being that an impure water will favor the 
development of a greater number of organisms than a water with 
little contamination, since organic impurities constitute the food 
supply for bacterial growth. That this is a fact can readily be 
demonstrated by a comparative count, on equal quantities of sewage 
and any potable water. Therefore, in this line of investigation the 
determination of numbers becomes the principal work, and much 
energy has been directed to perfecting methods and media calcu- 
lated to develop the greatest numbers of organisms contained in the 
water under examination. But while this is the principal effort in 
the sense of having more time devoted to its study, it does not 
monopolize the whole importance. It is necessary that a frequent 
search should be made for a certain organism of the commensal 



Am Mi°rch\f9M. rm '} Refined Methods in Water Purification. 117 

species, not in the water applied to the filter, but in the effluent. 
The presence or absence of the organisms here, being a certain indi- 
cator of the efficiency of the filter. 

The organism sought is known as the Bacillus coli communis, 
invariably found in sewage. This organism has many features in 
common with the Bacillus typhosa, and it is almost identical with 
several organisms found naturally in grain. It is desirable to be 
possessed of a speedy certain means of identifying the colon bacillus. 
Several plans have been used, based upon its peculiarities. Among 
its cultural characteristics is this property, when grown in neutral 
milk, containing enough blue tr. litmus to decidedly color the milk, 
the blue color becomes red and a firm coagulum occurs in the test- 
tube, after eighteen to twenty-four hours' cultivation in the incu- 
bator. This red color is due to a change in the reaction of the 
milk, caused by the transition of the sugar of milk to lactic acid 
through the agency of the colon bacillus. Advantage is taken of 
this feature. Plates are made of agar-agar, containing in addition to 
beef bouillon, sugar of milk, and strongly colored with blue litmus. 
The plates are prepared by fusing a tube of the media, and when 
cooled to blood heat, 1 c.c. of the filtered water is added, gently but 
thoroughly shaken together and poured into the plate. After it is 
set hard it is placed in the incubator and cultivated at 37^° C. for 
eighteen to twenty-four hours, when any colon bacilli developed will 
be made manifest by red colonies on the plate with a considerable 
red area surrounding them. 

Another means of the identification of the colon bacillus is found 
in its property of causing fermentation when cultivated in a fluid 
medium containing 1 or 2 per cent, of a fermentable carbohydrate, 
such as grape sugar. The products of fermentation are conserved 
and subjected to analysis. The operation is facilitated and best car- 
ried out in a special device known as the Smith fermentation tub?, 
devised by Theobald Smith. 

An experiment conducted under these conditions yields a gaseous 
product of from 30 to 50 per cent, of the volume of the liquid used. 
On examination of this gas it is almost uniformly found to contain I 
part C0 2 and 2 parts of an inflammable gas akin to hydrogen. The 
two features briefly described were formerly the principal reliance 
for the identification of the colon bacillus, but it has been so fre- 
quently demonstrated that other organisms duplicated these phe- 



n8 Refined Methods in Water Purification. { Km ij£^m£ m 

nomena that further light was diligently sought for more positive 
means of identification of this germ, and a decided advance has been 
made in a modification of the Smith tube reaction described by 
Irons and others. 

It has been found that when neutral aniline red is added to lactose 
bouillon medium in the Smith tube and a culture of the colon bacillus 
added, after twenty-four hours' cultivation at 37^° C, a charac- 
teristic color reaction is caused by the growth of the organism. The 
liquid in the stem of the tube assumes a decidedly canary color with 
fluorescence, while that portion of the medium remaining in the 
tube retains its original bright red color. If, then, all of the results 
appear, namely, the volume of gas, the proper percentages of it, the 
acidity and the typical yellow-red contrast reaction, then the organ- 
ism may be considered Bacillus coli communis. This method can 
be carried out in twenty-four hours, and the colon bacillus identified 
with reasonable certainty ; whereas the same result with isolation 
in pure culture would take from five to seven days. The culture to 
carry out this experiment may be selected from one of the red 
colonies grown on the litmus lactose agar plates previously described. 

The science of bacteriology is so new and its application to water 
filtration on a large scale so recent that it is still largely in the experi- 
mental stage, and it is quite natural that questions should be con- 
tinually presenting themselves for solution in every branch of the 
work. One such problem is of interest, and it involves my personal 
experience. It concerns the preservation of the plates from prema- 
ture destruction by growths c certain liquefying organisms, too 
irequently found in river water. As previously stated, no pains 
have been spared in devising media calculated to coax into active 
growth all, or as many as possible, of the organisms contained in 
the water under examination. Wide experience has shown that 
nutrient gelatin medium fills most requirements better than any 
other, but it falls down in one respect, at least. There is always 
present a class of germs in river water, called liquefying organisms. 
During their life process, they excrete a principle known as an 
enzyme. This substance, in many cases, is exceedingly active, so 
great at times as to digest and completely liquefy the entire con- 
tents of a plate before its time for incubation had expired. It became 
necessary to prevent the very Irequent appearance of the word 
" lost " in the report, and, alter some experimenting, the problem 



Am k J a°rch.T9w!' m- } Refined Methods in Water Purification. 119 

unwound itself in this fashion: The plates are of gelatin; gelatin is 
the principle in hides that is acted upon during the process of tan- 
ning to make leather. Leather is not acted upon by enzymes, or, at 
most, but sparingly. Then, why not tan the plate at the point of 
attack ? This was attempted, and a favorable result followed the 
use of a strong solution of chrome alum, producing a sort of chrome 
tannage. The procedure was simple and rapid, and consisted in 
removing the fluid portion from the gelatin with a pipette and 
replacing it with the chrome alum solution. The effect was instanta- 
neous. The action of the enzyme was arrested, and, in addition, 
the reduced chromium made a green area around the colony just as 
far as the tanning process had penetrated, and thus served as a true 
indicator of the amount of the plate destroyed. At the same time, 
being transparent, it permitted the counting of any colonies pre- 
viously developed within its zone of encroachment. 

Enzymes seem to be more or less misunderstood ; at least there 
are statements from authoritative sources concerning them that do 
not agree entirely. For example, on page 650, Sadtler and Trimble's 
Pharmaceutical and Medical Chemistry, will be found the statement 
that the activity of all enzymes is destroyed by boiling with water, 
and not destroyed by antiseptics. From other sources we have 
been taught that antiseptics do destroy enzymes. The light of 
recent investigation inclines to the belief that these horizontal state- 
ments cannot be wholly sustained. 

Drs. Abbott and Gildersleeve, University of Pennsylvania, have 
definitely shown that proteolytic ferments produced during the 
growth of such bacteria as Bacillus pyocyaneus, or Bacillus subtilis, 
etc., are not destroyed by boiling water and are not prevented from 
exercising their digestive function by antiseptics — at least, by such 
an antiseptic as carbolic acid. They found that these enzymes 
resisted the temperature of boiling water when exposed to it from 
fifteen to thirty minutes, and afterwards attacked and completely 
digested a medium consisting of 

Gelatin 8" c.c. 

Phenol -25 " 

Water ioo* " 

and did this with but slightly diminished vigor. 

The science of water purification is a many-sided one, and each 
side has its peculiar difficulties. This seems especially true of the 



120 Refined Methods in Water Purification. { Am Mi?S;F^" m - 

Philadelphia project, and from an engineering point of view, that 
which has given the heads of departments in this city the most con- 
cern is perhaps turbidity. The wide limitations and the constantly 
varying amounts of suspended matter carried by, particularly, the 
Schuylkill River, served to make a very complicated problem. 
There is no great difficulty in filtering water carrying suspended 
matter up to 40 parts per million, but above that figure the scrap- 
ings become inconveniently frequent, and the effort has been to pre- 
pare the water by sedimentation and other means before passing it 
to the filters. 

At times of freshet the Schuylkill River carries every kind of sub- 
stance from coal dust to microscopic clay particles, the amount run- 
ning well up into the hundreds of parts per million, and here is 
where the great problem lay to supply water of uniformly low 
suspended matter to the filters. Sedimentation alone, such as was 
possible, was inadequate, and to build for this purpose not econom- 
ical. But a chain is no stronger than its weakest link. Those 
freshets were a stubborn fact, and must be met. Yet how ? The 
answer most hopeful was sedimentation with preliminary fil- 
tration. Then came the struggle for a proper preliminary filter. 
Its great office to remove mud and do it regularly, whether the 
suspended matter be 500 parts or 50 parts per million, — that was a 
task to stagger the most optimistic. Still they have gone quite a 
long way on the road toward its realization. At the lower Rox- 
borough filter plant there is in operation a preliminary filter doing 
very satisfactory work in a practical way, and at the testing station 
there has been one of the same type at work for a long time, from 
which experience was gained as to its durability and efficiency ; it 
has given great promise of good and permanency. 

It presents some novel features. The walls of the container are of 
concrete construction, and it is divided into about ten elements ; 
these are controlled separately. That enables the cleaning of each 
without interfering with the others. The filtering material con- 
sists of several sizes of broken slag ; the larger at the bottom 
and the smaller sizes toward the top. On the surface of the slag is 
placed a layer of sponge clippings I foot in thickness. This is com- 
pressed to about 6 inches and held down by a lattice of woodwork 
over all. This sponge or elastic layer, as it is called, really consti- 
tutes the strainer, while the slag divides the water into innumerable 



Am Ma°rc&,T9w. rm -} The Technical Analysis of Water. 121 

small streams before it reaches the sponge layer, because the water 
is entered at the bottom and passes upward through the various 
layers. This device filters water at the rate of 45,000,000 gallons 
per acre per day, of such a quality that it enables the hygienic 
filters to deliver clean and wholesome water at the rate of 6,000,000 
gallons per acre per twenty-four hours — exactly doubling the 
capacity of these filters. The commonly accepted rate consistent 
with good work is not over 3,000,000 gallons per acre in twenty- 
four hours. As a measure of economy the device is well worth its 
cost. The cleaning of the sponge layer is accomplished by the aid 
of machinery, and the outfit bears a strong resemblance to a well- 
equipped laundry establishment. 

At each washing there is some loss of sponge material, but it is 
not serious. The cost of the sponge clippings is about 5 cents per 
pound. 

To the drug-store mind sponges would not seem to be a desirable 
substance to apply to this purpose, basing an opinion on experience 
gained with the drug-store sponge in active service, but as the 
sponges in the filter are constantly submerged, they do not seem to 
be subject to the same deterioration. 



THE TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER. 
By W. E. Ridenour. 
The manufacturer of special chemicals requires the analysis of a 
water to be stated in grains per U. S. gallon and that two analyses 
of the same water made at the same time shall not vary more than 
tV § ra ^ n on eacn constituent. 

As upon the chemist's report he determines the chemicals to be 
used and also the quantity per 1,000 gallons or per 1,000 cubic 
feet. 

The different bases and acids found in solution in the water must 
also be combined according to chemical affinities, as the elements 
themselves have no meaning in the business mind: i. e. f the chlorine, 
sulphuric anhydride, carbon dioxide, lime, magnesia, soda, etc., must 
be combined. That is, the elements found in solution must be 
stated as they exist in combination in the water. 

The scheme of water analysis used in the laboratory of the Geo. 
W. Lord Company is as follows : 



122 The Technical Analysis of Water. { Am M2S,i£f m * 

Total Solids. — ioo c.c. of the filtered sample of water are evapor- 
ated to dryness in a platinum dish on a water bath, and the residue 
dried at ioo c.c. in an air-bath to a constant weight. 

Milligrammes of residue multiplied by -583 equals grains per 
United States gallon. (U' S. gallon contains 58329-6 grains.) If 
this residue is taken up in a small quantity of water and tested with 
phenol-phthalein, it will often give an alkaline reaction when no 
sodium carbonate is present. This is due to a slight decomposition of 
the magnesium carbonate into magnesia, while drying in the air-bath. 

A sample of Lake Michigan water shows this reaction : 

Grains per 
U. S. Gallon. 



Sodium chloride • . -578 

Sodium sulphate 709 

Calcium carbonate 4*316 

Magnesium carbonate . . . 1 -985 



Total solids . 8*162 

Free carbonic acid . 7761 



Silica. — The total solid's residue is taken up in dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, evaporated to dryness, and taken up again in dilute 
hydrochloric acid. The liquid is filtered, the insoluble residue 
washed, dried, ignited and weighed, which is the silica. 

Milligrammes of residue multiplied by -583 equals grains per 
United States gallon. Nitric acid should not be used to dissolve 
the total solid's residue, as in the presence of sodium chloride there 
is an action upon the platinum dish, due to the formation of free 
chlorine. 

Iron Oxide and Alumina. — 200 c.c. of the filtered sample of water 
are acidified with hydrochloric acid, a few drops of nitric acid added 
and boiled to remove all carbonic acid. The liquid is allowed to 
cool, ammonium chloride added and then ammonia to alkaline reac- 
tion; allow to stand for ten minutes, then filter. The precipitate 
washed, dried, ignited and weighed, is the iron oxide and alumina. 

Milligrammes of residue multiplied by -2916 equals grains per 
United States gallon. 

Calcium Oxide. — The filtrate from the iron oxide and alumina is 
treated with ammonium oxalate, heated and allowed to stand over 
night. The liquid is then filtered, the precipitate washed and dis- 
solved in warm dilute sulphuric acid, which is then titrated with 
standard decihormal permanganate of potash solution. The number 



Am M J a°rch.f9M rm '} The Technical Analysis of Water. 123 

of cubic centimetres required multiplied by -8162 (500 X '583 X 
•0028) equals grains of calcium oxide per United States gallon. 

Magnesia. — To the filtrate from the calcium oxalate add ammonia 
and solution of sodium phosphate, allow to stand over night. The 
liquid is then filtered, the precipitate washed with ammonia water, 
dried, ignited and weighed, which is magnesium pyrophosphate. 

Milligrammes of residue multiplied by -2916 equals grains per 
United States gallon. 

The Sulphates. — 200 c.c. of the filtered sample of water are acidi- 
fied with hydrochloric acid and barium chloride added until it 
ceases to give a precipitate. Allow to stand over night. The liquid 
is then filtered, the precipitate washed, ignited and weighed, which 
is barium sulphate. 

Milligrammes of residue multiplied by -2916 equals grains per 
United States gallon. 

Sodium Chloride. — Titrate 100 c.c. of the filtered sample of water 
with standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as 
indicator. The number of cubic centimetres required multiplied by 
•68(1 c.c. AgN0 3 equals -ooi 1674 X 1000 X '583) equals grains 
of sodium chloride per United States gallon. 

Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium Carbonate and Sodium Carbonate 
Combined. — Titrate 200 c.c. of the filtered sample of water with 
standard decinormal sulphuric acid, using methyl orange as indi- 
cator. The number of cubic centimetres required multiplied by 
1-4575 (500 X '583 X '005) equals combined calcium carbonate, 
magnesium carbonate and sodium carbonate expressed in grains of 
calcium carbonate per United States gallon. 

Free Carbonic Acid.— -1 00 c.c. of the sample of water are taken, to 
which is added 3 c.c. of a solution of barium chloride, 2 c.c. of a 
saturated solution of ammonium chloride, and 95 c.c. of lime-water, 
the strength of which has been previously ascertained. This is 
allowed to stand over night in a flask, the 1 00 c.c. is filtered, titrated 
with decinormal hydrochloric acid. The number of cubic centi- 
metres so found must be deducted from the quantity required for 
the lime-water. The remainder multiplied by 2-565 (2000 X '583 
X *0022) equals grains of free carbonic acid per United States 
gallon. 

The Combination of the Acids and Bases. — Different chemists have 
different schemes of uniting the bases and acids, which should not 
be. The most rational method would be to state the acids and 



124 The Technical Analysis of Water. { Am Mirch,T9M rm ' 

bases separately, but this method would not be accepted by the 
manufacturer. 

The statement of results of an analysis of the same water as inter- 
preted by different chemists is often so different that it reflects dis- 
trust upon the profession. When if the analyses were resolved into 
their acids and bases, they would be found to agree. 

Fresenius states that " a certain latitude is here allowed to the 
analyst's discretion." 

As a general rule I state the magnesium as magnesium carbonate 
as far as possible, this combination has been proven to exist in 
preference to mag-nesium sulphate by the following series of experi- 
ments : 

Two waters were mixed in the proportion of 10 parts of artesian 
and spring water to I part of city water and passed through a 
heater and a purifier. Samples were collected and examined at the 
different stages and also a sample of sediment from the purifier. 





City 
Water. 


Springs and 
Artesian Wells. 


After going 
through heater. 


After going 
through 
purifier. 

1 


Organic and volatile undetermined 


2-734 




3-797 


3-557 


1 160 


NaCl 


6-12 




1-836 


■782 


•952 


Na 2 So 4 






2-032 






CaCo 3 


1-398 




i-355 


. '795 


.649 


CaSo 4 


3'403 




7*o68 


3 233 


3 573 


Mg.Co 3 


1-764 




1-985 


1*544 


•662 




9-911 




18-073 


9911 


6 996 




9-055 




4 139 


5*174 


2-587 


CaCo 3 by titration 


3 '498 




3'7'8 


2-633 


1-521 



Grains per United States gallon. 

SEDIMENT FROM PURIFIER. 

Per Cent 



Organic and volatile (undetermined) 15-1 

CaC0 3 12-6 

CaS0 4 17 

MgO 15-5 

Fe 2 3 19-6 

A1 2 3 . . 4*6 

Oil 3*o 

Silt 27-9 



Am Mi?ch,f904. rm "} Herbert Spencer and the Metric System. 125 

If the magnesium existed as a sulphate in the water the deposit 
of magnesia could not have formed in the purifier, as magnesium 
sulphate is a stable compound under the influence of heat. 

The remainder of the calcium carbonate determined by titration 
is stated as calcium carbonate and deducted from the amount of 
calcium oxide found. The remainder of the calcium oxide is stated 
as calcium sulphate, and deducted from the barium sulphate found, 
and if any barium sulphate remains, it is stated as sodium sulphate. 
Each water requires individual study, and if a sample of sediment 
formed by the water is also examined, it will decide how a certain 
base and acid exist in the water. 



HERBERT SPENCER AND THE METRIC SYSTEM. 
By Florence Yapi,e. 

The question of the adoption and use of the metric system of 
weights and measures in the United States being the subject of so 
much debate at the present time, it seems fitting that the position of 
the late Herbert Spencer with regard to this system should be made 
more generally known, more especially as his opposition to the 
general adoption of this system was a life-long one, and also because 
he may be said to have occupied a position such as enabled him to 
correlate the views of men of science and men of business. 

Without considering the origin and history of the metric system, 
it may be said that in view of the strong national prejudices, 
which exist in many countries, as well as other impeding influences, 
it has made comparatively rapid progress, particularly for scientific 
purposes. The question arises, is this wholly due to the intrinsic 
merits of the metric system itself, or is it due in part to the need for 
a system of weights and measures which is international or universal 
in its application, as indeed the metric system was intended to be ? 
Or, going a little further, may not a better system than the metric 
system be found, and may not the universal adoption of the metric 
system prevent finally the adoption of this better system ? This was 
the question which concerned Spencer. He frankly admitted the 
advantages of a decimal system to the man of science, but thought it 
was " ill adapted for industrial and trading purposes." 

While perhaps it may seem like taking a step backward to give 
even so much sanction to Spencer's views as to publish them, still 



126 Herbert Spencer and the Metric System. { Am M J a S im! m ' 

the question remains whether a better system than the metric 
system could have been devised, and whether we are justified in 
abandoning our entire system of weights and measures in favor of a 
decimal system. The time has probably gone by for the introduc- 
tion of a better system, in view of the general use of the metric 
system for scientific purposes (if such were possible), but inasmuch 
as our old system of weights and measures is still adhered to by the 
vast majority of trades people, a full and free discussion of the 
subject is desirable. 

In view of the efforts being made in England to obtain govern- 
mental sanction of the use of the metric system, and being strongly 
opposed to its adoption, Herbert Spencer, in 1 896, communicated 
four letters to The Times (London) setting forth his objections to the 
system, These letters were immediately afterward embodied in a 
pamphlet and distributed to all of the members of the House of 
Commons, a few of the members of the House of Lords, and also to 
the members of our own Congress. They have since been made 
more accessible as well as more permanent by being incorporated in 
Spencer's book, entitled " Various Fragments." 

After taking up the derivation of the metric system, Spencer then 
goes on " to show that its fundamental principle is essentially im- 
perfect and that its faults are great and incurable." 

One of the first of the arguments used against the decimal system 
by Spencer is the fact that although its adoption in France " has 
been in the main compulsory," there is evidence to show " that the 
old customs have survived where survival was possible." Not only 
so, but in the United States, one of the countries of its partial 
adoption, and on the English Stock Exchange as well, the decimal 
divisions of the dollar are ignored, " and the division into parts by 
halving, re-halving, and again halving is adopted." 

Arguments are then taken up to show how the order of nature 
has established certain measures and divisions for us ; such as, for 
instance, the division of the circle into 360 degrees, this being " the 
outcome of the Chaldean division of the heavens to fit their calen- 
dar ;" of the year into twelve months, and also into four seasons or 
quarters, for astronomical reasons ; of the compass into thirty-two 
points, depending upon the " natural relations of the cardinal points." 

The practical need for divisions of quarters and thirds in every.day 
life is also discussed and their inconsistency with a decimal system 
pointed out. 



%S,ST') • Herbert Spencer and the Metric System. 127 

Having shown that a " mixed system would in large part remain," 
and that it is impossible to avoid certain incongruities which 
necessarily result from the use of a decimal system, the author pro- 
ceeds as follows : " We agree in condemning the existing arrange- 
ments under which our scheme of numeration and our modes of 
calculation based on it, proceed in one way, while our various 
measures of length, area, capacity, weight, value, proceed in other 
ways. Doubtless, the two methods of procedure should be unified ; 
but how ? You assume that, as a matter of course, the measure 
system should be made to agree with the numeration system ; but 
it may be contended that, conversely, the numeration system should 
be made to agree with the measure system — with the dominant 
measure system, I mean." This " dominant measure system " is, 
according to Spencer, the duodecimal system. It is shown that it 
is quite as easy to form a numerical system based upon twelve as it 
was originally to build up a system having ten as a basis. It is 
claimed also that " It needs only a small alteration in our method of 
numbering to make calculation by groups of twelve exactly similar 
to calculation by groups of ten ; yielding just the same facilities as 
those now supposed to belong only to decimals." But perhaps the 
strongest of the claims for a duodecimal system is the need for easy 
division into aliquot parts, twelve being divisible into halves, quar- 
ters, thirds and sixths, while the divisibility of ten is of the smallest. 
That such a claim is not without foundation is evident if we look 
into the history of weights and measures. While " numeration by 
tens and multiples of tens has prevailed among civilized races from 
early times," they have departed from this system in their tables of 
weights, measures and values, the tendency being toward " systems 
of easily divisible quantities." 

That Spencer was cognizant of the peculiar merits and aims of 
the metric system cannot be denied, nor, on the other hand, was he 
unmindful of the difficulties which would attend the introduction of 
a new system of numeration and measure like that of the duo- 
decimal. 

He objected to the metric system " on the ground that it is incon- 
venient for various purposes of daily life, and that the conveniences 
it achieves may be achieved without entailing any inconveniences." 

Lest Spencer's position should not be rightly interpreted from 
this necessarily condensed treatment of his article, the following is 
quoted in extenuation: 



128 Herbert Spencer and the Metric System. { Am Mi?^;f^f. rm * 

" Evidently moved by the desire for human welfare at large, scien- 
tific men have been of late years urging that the metric system 
should be made universal, in the belief that immense advantages, 
like those which they themselves find, will be found by all who are 
engaged in trade. Here comes in the error. They have identified 
two quite different requirements. For what purpose does the man of 
science use the metric system ? For processes of measurement. For 
what purpose is the trader to use it ? For processes of measurement, 
plus processes of exchange. This additional element alters the prob- 
lem essentially. It matters not to a chemist whether the volumes he 
specifies in cubic centimetres, or the weights he gives in grammes 
are, or are not, easily divisible with exactness. Whether the quan- 
ties of liquids or gases which the physicist states in litres can or 
can not be readily divided into aliquot parts is indifferent. And to 
the morphologist or microscopist, who writes down dimensions in 
subdivisions of the metre, the easy divisibility of the lengths he states, 
is utterly irrelevant. But it is far otherwise with the man who all 
day long has to portion out commodities to customers and receive 
money in return. To satisfy the various wants of those multitudes 
whose purchases are in small quantities, he needs measures that 
fall into easy divisions, and coinage which facilitates calculation and 
the giving of change. Force him to do his business in tenths, and 
he will inevitably be impeded." 

Finally, it may be said that Spencer was well aware of the advan- 
tage to be derived from the application of the decimal method o f 
calculation to quantities and values; that he was in favor of a uni- 
form system of weights and measures, but held that this was no 
possible with the metric system, believing that it would necessarily 
be traversed by other systems, and, notwithstanding the difficulties 
which would oppose the introduction of a duodecimal system, he 
believed that its merits were such as to warrant the use of our pres- 
ent mixed system until such time as this more perfect system could 
be adopted. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1904. / 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



129 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE RECENT LITERATURE 
RELATING TO PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

By M. I. Wii,bert, Ph.M., 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The necessity of a higher, or a more thorough technical educa- 
tion for the coming generations of pharmacists, is being actively- 
discussed in several European countries, particularly in Germany 
and in England. In these countries it is generally conceded that if 
apothecaries or pharmacists are to retain any professional standing, 
their education must be in keeping with the advances that have 
been made in the several departments of science more or less closely 
related to their occupation or profession. 

The general trend of this discussion, in England, is well illustrated 
by several papers recently published in the Pharmaceutical Journal 
(1904, pages 78 and 82). 

" University Education for Pharmacists " is the title of the 
paper contributed by Prof. Robert B. Wild, of Victoria University, 
Manchester. In this paper the writer recognizes the necessity of a 
further and, ultimately, a complete, separation of the trade or com- 
mercial branches from the professional or scientific portion of the 
pharmacist's occupation. 

One of the reasons for the present depressed condition of phar- 
macy Mr. Wild finds in the fact that pharmacists, as a class, have 
not maintained the intellectual superiority over the general public, 
possessed by them a generation ago. He believes that pharmacists 
must adapt themselves to the advancing scientific requirements of 
the present and the future, and unless they are willing to allow the 
legitimate development of the scientific portion of their profession 
to be taken up by others, they must appreciate and provide the 
equivalent of a university training for the pharmacist of the future. 

This paper by Professor Wild contains many suggestions that are 
applicable to the conditions existing at the present time in our own 
country. Here, as in England, we have come to the parting of the 
ways, and in the very near future there will be a need for, and also a 
due appreciation of, the scientifically inclined and properly educated 
pharmacist who is willing and able to occupy relatively the same 



130 Progress in Pharmacy. { A %4rct?m m 

position to the medical profession and to the general public as did 
the pharmacist of a generation or more ago. 

The Metric System of Weights and Measures in American 
Pharmacy. — An open letter, headed " Alternative Formulas," pub- 
lished on page 88 (February, 1904) of the American Journal of 
Pharmacy, may possibly represent the ideas of a number of so-called 
pharmacists, but it certainly cannot represent the opinions of any 
one that has tried to keep in touch with the progress in chemistry 
and other sciences allied to pharmacy. In this connection it would 
be preposterous, indeed, to assert that the average American phar- 
macist is not as progressive, or as capable of progressing, as is his 
fellow craftsman of Germany, Italy or even Russia. 

The writer of the letter noted above makes one uncontrovertible 
statement when he says that " the Pharmacopoeia must be a book 
of working formulas, and these as plain, simple and direct as science 
in her modesty can make them." 

If we compare the formulas of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
with those published in the Dispensatories, or even with the formu- 
las for corresponding preparations in the British Pharmacopoeia, it 
will not be dificult to decide as to which of the three should be 
designated as being plain, simple and direct. 

There is, however, much more to be said in favor of retaining the 
metric system alone in the coming United States Pharmacopoeia. 
The Pharmacopoeia is, or should be, intended for pharmacists, and 
not for drug-sellers or patent-medicine vendors. 

To be a pharmacist, one must be conversant with the chemical 
tests that are available for the quantitative as well as qualitative 
examination of drugs, chemicals and preparations. 

Any one that has ever attempted quantitative chemical analysis, 
particularly when volumetric processes are involved, will appreciate 
the advantages of a decimal system of weights and measures. 

So far as known, the metric system of weights and measures is 
the only decimal system available or in use, and this system, in 
addition, has the advantage of being universally used by chemists 
and scientific investigators generally. 

If these assertions are based on facts, the Pharmacopceial Revision 
Committee would be making a very serious mistake to deviate, in 
any way, from the now well-established practice of having a very 
high-class book, intended only for such as are willing or anxious to 
do high-class work. 



Am Jour. Pbarm.\ 
March, 1904. j 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



How the better class of English pharmacists feel about the coming 
revision of their national standard, is evidenced by a paper on 
" The British Pharmacopoeia," by J. W. Turner (Phar. Jour., 1 904, 
page 96). This writer not only recommends that the General Medi- 
cal Council adopt the metric system only, in the formulas of the 
Pharmacopoeia, but also that the doses be given in metric quantities 
alone. 

The Bureau of Standards of the Department of Commerce 
and Labor, under date of December 15, 1903, has issued a circular 
in reference to the testing of clinical thermometers, that will no 
doubt be of interest to such pharmacists as sell or handle these 
very essential requisites for the sick-room. 

The series of tests that have been devised by this bureau will 
insure satisfactory instruments under all conditions, as no thermom- 
eter that is defective or that exceeds the allowable limits of error 
will be given a certificate by the Bureau. The proposed charges 
are quite reasonable, and are according to quantity : 

(1) In lots up to 8, each $ 25 

(2) Any number between 8 and 12, total fee '. ... 2 00 

(3) In lots of 1 dozen or over and less than 4^ dozen, per dozen 2 00 

(4) Any number between \ l / z and 6 dozen, total fee 9 00 

(5) In lots of 6 dozen or over, per dozen 1 50 

In this connection it may be of interest to give some extracts 
from a circular letter issued by the bureau, under date of December 
J, 1903: 

" The functions of the Bureau of Standards are as follows : The 
custody of the standards; the comparison of the standards used in 
scientific investigations, engineering, manufacturing, commerce and 
educational institutions, with the standards adopted or recognized 
by the Government; the construction, when necessary, of stand- 
ards, their multiples and subdivisions; the testing and calibration 
of standard measuring apparatus ; the solution of problems which 
arise in connection with standards ; the determination of physical 
constants and the properties of materials. The Bureru will also 
furnish such information concerning standards, methods of measure- 
ments, physical constants, and the properties of materials as may be 
at its disposal, and is authorized to exercise its functions for the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, for State or municipal governments 



132 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



("Am. Jour. Pharni 
I March, 1904. 



within the United States, for scientific societies, educational institu- 
tions, firms, corporations or individuals engaged in manufacturing 
or other pursuits requiring the use of standards or standard meas- 
uring instruments. 

" For all examinations, calibrations, tests or investigations, except 
those performed for the Government of the United States or State 
governments, reasonable fees will be charged." 

The Bureau at the present time occupies temporary quarters in 
the city of Washington. Permanent laboratories are in process of 
construction, and when completed the Bureau will be enabled to do 
even more extensive work than is undertaken at the present time. 
The present schedule of testing includes measures of length, weights, 
measures of capacity, polariscopic apparatus, hydrometers, ther- 
mometers, photometric standards, and a variety of determinations as 
to the accuracy of electrical instruments. 

The Bureau is desirous to co-operate with those interested and to 
supply them with such information on the subject of weights and 
measures as may be in its possession. 

All communications should be addressed, " Bureau of Standards, 
Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C." 

Pharmacy in Chicago. — Under the title " Reminiscences of Early 
Chicago and its Druggists," Mr. Albert E. Ebert is now publishing 
a very interesting and readable series of articles in the Western 
Druggist, Chicago. 

The first instalment of this very valuable contribution to the 
history of American pharmacy appeared in the December, 1903, 
number of the Western Druggist, and includes, among other interest- 
ing material, an outline sketch of the founding of Chicago, and also 
some reference to the first settlers. 

Atomic Weights. — The International Committee on Atomic 
Weights reports but two, unimportant, changes in the list of atomic 
weights. Caesium is given as 132-9, to accord with the determina- 
tions made by Richards and Archibald, while cerium, according to 
the measurements by Brauner, is said to have an atomic weight of 
140-25. Both of these are the weights as compared to oxygen = 16. 
A number of the other elements are known to be more or less 
uncertain as to the accuracy of their atomic weights, but it was not 
considered advisable to make any radical changes while work was 
still under way. {your. Am. Chem. Soc., 1904, page 1.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
March, 1904. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



133 



Bottles, from What Are They Fashioned ? is the title of a 
paper recently contributed by Mr. E. O. Rowland to the Edinburgh 
Chemists' Assistants and Apprentices Association. The writer of 
the paper, after giving an interesting historical account of the origin 
and development of glass manufacture, gave a detailed account of 
the various materials and processes employed in the making of 
glass. The composition of the several kinds of bottle glass was 
given as follows : 

White glass for ordinary moulded bottles, sand, 64; lime, 6; 
carbonate of sodium, 23 ; nitrate of sodium, 5. 

White flint glass containing lead, sand, 63 ; lime, 5 ; carbonate of 
sodium, 21 ; nitrate of sodium, 3 ; red lead, 8. 

Ordinary green glass, sand, 63 ; carbonate of sodium, 26; lime, 11. 

Sand, lime and sodium carbonate are the ordinary bases of glass, 
the sodium nitrate is added as a decolorizing agent or wash. 

The blue tint of poison bottles is obtained by the addition of 
black oxide of cobalt to the molten glass. The green tint of actinic 
glass is obtained in the same way by adding potassium bichromate, 
while the amber tint is usually obtained by the addition of manga- 
nese dioxide. (Phar. Jour., 1904, page 96.) 

Achroin. — This is said to be an aromatic liquid having a specific 
gravity of 1-055, an ^ a boiling point of 21 8° C. 

It is to be given in capsules of 25, as an antiseptic in affections 
of the urinary tract. {Slid. Deut. Apoth. Zcit., 1903, page 904.) 

Adulterated Spike Oil. — E. J. Parry and C. J. Bennett {Chem. 
and Drug., 1903, page 1011) report that large quantities of adul- 
terated oil of spike are found on the English market. The specific 
gravity, optical rotation and solubility are within the limits given 
by most authorities, but careful examination will usually reveal the 
presence of one or more foreign bodies. 

The usual adulterants are oil of turpentine, oil of rosemary and 
safrol. 

Adulterated Citronella Oil — Parry and Bennett (Chem. and 
Drug., 1903, page 1061) found 20 per cent, of alcohol in a shipment 
of citronella oil recently imported into England. 

This adulterant, the writers think, is a particularly dangerous one 
when the oil is bought or sold by Schimmel's test. 

Schimmel's test for citronella oil : The oil should give a clear 
solution with 1 or 2 volumes of 80 per cent, alcohol at 20° C, and 



134 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1904. 



should remain clear even when 10 volumes of alcohol of the same 
strength are added. 

Determination of the Adulterant in Citronella Oil. — M. 
K. Bamber suggests that a mixture of 2 c.c. of pure cocoanut oil, 
free from acid, and 2 c.c. of oil of citronella be shaken for one 
minute with 20 c.c. of 83 per cent, alcohol, in a graduated tube. 
This container is then centrifugated for one-half to one minute. 
The volume of the remaining undissolved oil, minus 2, the amount 
of cocoanut oil used, indicates the impurity. To eliminate any pos- 
sibility of error, a standard oil may be compared with the suspected 
sample. {Phar. Jour., 1904, page 28, from Proc. of Chem. Soc.) 

Austrian Turpentine. — Tschirch and Schmidt {Arch. d. Phar., 
I 9°3> P a g e 583), report finding 25 per cent, ot laricopinic acid. 
This is an amorphous acid having the formula C 22 H 30 O 3 ; 34 per 
cent, of laricopinonic acid, a crystalline substance having the for- 
mula C 20 H 28 O 4 ; 35 per cent, of essential oil having specific gravity 
of 0-872 and boiling between 154 and 164 C ; 2 per cent, of indif- 
ferent resene and 3 or 4 per cent, of impurities which were not 
determined. 

Bismutose This is a colloid bismuth albuminate, having a yel- 
low color, and said to contain 21.7 per cent, of metallic bismuth, 
about 3-3 per cent, of chlorine and 68 per cent, of albumin, the re 
mainder being water. It is made, under a German patent granted 
to Kalle & Co., by dissolving 242 grams of crystallized bismuth 
nitrate in 1-200 c.c. of a concentrated solution of common salt, and 
then filtering the solution into a solution of 500 grams of pure egg 
albumen in 5 liters of water. The resulting gelatinous mass is then 
washed with hot water until free from acid and salt ; it is then 
pressed, dried and reduced to a powder. The dose is from ro to 
5-00. {Chem. and Drug. , 1904, page 106.) 

Bismuth Oxyiodo-Agaricinate. — This bright grey, amorphous, 
insoluble powder is an iodo compound of bismuth and agaricinic acid. 
Like dermatol, it is intended to be used as an astringent antiseptic. 
It is also recommended as a remedy in the treatment of the gastric 
and intestinal complaints that complicate tuberculosis. {Phar. Jour., 
1903, page 924, from Phar. Zeit) 

Eumydrin-Atropine Methyl Nitrate is produced by the con- 
version of the tertiary base of atropine into a quaternary base. 
Eumydrin is a white, odorless, water-soluble powder that may be 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "1 
March, 1904. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



135 



used as a mydriatic in place of atropine. In action it is said to be 
intermediate between homatropin and atropine. (Phar. Post, 1903, 
page 780.) 

Exodin. — This is the trade name for a new aperient that is being 
marketed in Germany. It is said to be an Oxy-anthra quinone de- 
rivative. It is a yellow powder, insoluble in water and only slightly 
soluble in alcohol. The adult dose of exodin is from 1*00 to 1-50 
gm. (Apothek. Zeit., 1904, page 16.) 

Iboga. — A Congo plant bearing this name has been examined by 
Landrin and Dybowsky. Iboga is said to possess properties similar 
to both coca and kola. Its physiological properties are due to an 
alkaloid, named by the investigators, ibogaine. Ibogaine in a pure 
state is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform 
and benzene. Ibogaine causes local anaesthesia like cocaine, while 
in its action on the medulla oblongata it resembles kola. (Phar. 
Jour., 1904, page 107, from Schweiz. Woc/t.) 

Iodterpin. — If equal parts of iodine and terpin hydrate are finely 
powdered, mixed, and then gently heated on a water bath, they 
readily unite to form a new compound, called by Mas and Grindel 
iodterpin. Iodterpin is a thick viscid liquid, having a specific 
gravity of 1-19 at 15 C.,and boiling between 165 and 1 75 C. It is 
readily soluble in ether, chloroform, benzine and benzol, and has a 
characteristic odor, somewhat resembling terpin hydrate. 

Iodterpin may be used in place of iodine, and has also been sug- 
gested as a substitute for iodoform. (Apothek. Zeit., 1904, page 14.) 

Musk, Artificial. — The price of this in Germany has dropped 
from 1900 marks to 125 marks a kilo. This decline is due to the 
fact that the German patents have expired. The Pharmaceutische 
Centralhalle, in commenting on this marked difference in price, 
expresses the hope that the now comparatively low price will not 
be sufficient inducement for the too liberal use of this particular 
perfume. 

Artificial musk should not be confounded with the natural pro- 
duct, as, despite the somewhat striking musk-like odor, it is quite 
different in composition and in its physiological action. Chemically, 
it is said to be a trinitrobutyl derivative of toluol, xylene or an allied 
substance. One of the commercial brands that is said to have an 
especially fine odor, closely resembling that of musk, is said to be 
trinitro-iso-butyl-xylene. 



136 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/Am. Jour. Pharra. 
X March, 1904. 



Pharmacotherapy of the Essential Oils. — This is the subject- 
matter of a lengthy essay in the latest Semi-annual Report of Schimmel 
& Co. Much of the original work contained in this essay was done 
under the personal supervision of the well-known pharmacologist, 
Professor R. Kobert, of Rostock. The essay is particularly interest- 
ing from the fact that the various oils have been arranged in groups 
or classes according to their physiological action or possible uses in 
medicine. Thus, the different essential oils are enumerated as 
odor corrigents, odorous taste corrigents, stomachics, uterine reme- 
dies, diuretics, diaphoretics, antihydrotics, antiseptics, leukotactics, 
antiparasitics, antidotes, dermerethistics, excitants, sedatives and 
expectorants. 

It will readily be seen, from this list, that essential oils may, and 
do, have a very wide field of usefulness in medical as well as in 
pharmaceutical practices, and that it is quite probable that further 
investigations along these lines may even enlarge on the uses of 
these very interesting and valuable remedial agents. 

Ponticin is the name given by Gilson to a new glucoside which 
he has extracted from two species of rhubarb — Rheum rhaponlicum 
and Rheum undulatum. 

Ponticin occurs as white crystals that gradually become yellow or 
even rose colored ; are insoluble in water, alcohol and most other 
solvents, but soluble in a mixture of warm acetone and water. On 
hydrolysis it yields dextrose and a new body which the author 
terms pontegenin. Ponticin melts at 23 1° C. and pontegenin at 
187 C. [Chem. and Drug., 1904, page 1 5, from Rept. de Phar.) 

Rhein from Aloe Emodin. — O. A. Oesterle (Schwezz. Woch. f 
Chem. u. Phar., 1903, page 599) reports that he has been able to 
oxydize a portion of an acetic acid solution of aloe emodin into 
rhein by means of chromic acid. From the analytical data furnished 
the product appears to be identical with the rhein obtained from 
rhubarb. 

Rhomnol. — This is the name given by a French firm to a nucle- 
inic acid obtained from the thymus gland of calves. [Phar. Centralh., 
1904, page 6.) 

Salibromin is a white unctuous powder, insoluble in water and 
acids, but soluble in alkalies. It contains 44-5 per cent, of salicylic 
acid and 5 1*6 per cent, of combined bromine. It is given in doses of 
0-50 to 1-50 as an antirheumatic. {Phar. Centralh., 1903, page 480.) 



Am M J a°rch,X rm '} Progress in Pharmacy. 137 

Soluble Adrenalin Powder.— Mansier (Schweiz. Woch.f. Chem. 
u. Phar., 1904, page 46), gives the following formula for a compound 
powder of adrenalin that he claims to be readily soluble in water: 
Adrenalin, 05 ; citric acid, o-io; boric acid, 4-85; mix. One 
centigramme of this powder corresponds to 10 drops of a I /1000 
solution. 

Subcutine is the name given to the paraphenol sulphonate of 
anaesthesine, or the paraphenol sulphonate of para amido benzoic 
ethyl ester. Subcutine occurs in small white needles, melting at 
I95'6° C, and is soluble in 100 times its weight of water. Subcutine 
is not decomposed by boiling, so that solutions of it may be steril- 
ized. It is said to be a powerful local anaesthetic and quite devoid 
of any toxic action. {Phar. your., 1904, page 99, from Muench. Med. 
Wochenschr.) 

Synthesis of Nicotine.— Pictet and Rotschy have succeeded in 
producing nicotine synthetically. This has been accomplished by 
treating nicotyrine in alkaline solution with iodine, thus producing 
a monoiodnicotyrine ; by treating this with tin and hydrochloric 
acid they are able to produce a dihydronicotyrine, which, when 
treated with bromine, is converted into a perbromide. The per- 
bromide is then reduced with tin and hydrochloric acid, and is con- 
verted into inactive nicotine. 

For splitting this inactive nicotine into its optically active com- 
ponents, tartaric acid is used. The physical properties of synthetic 
nicotine are said to be identical with those of the natural. (Phar. 
Centralh., 1903, page 756.) 

Trigemin is produced by the action of butyl chloral hydrate on 
pyramidon. It occurs as white needle-like crystals readily soluble 
in water. Trigemin when given in doses of from 0-50 to 1-20, is 
said to be particularly effective as a remedy in migraine and facial 
neuralgia. (Phar. Centralh., 1903, page 680.) 

Paraganglin is one of a number of trade names for the active con- 
stituent of suprarenal glands. (Phar. Post, 1903, page 781.) 

Yeast Extract Substitutes for Meat Extracts appear to have 
found their way into the English market. A. Searl (Phar. Jour., 
1903) gives the following ready means of detecting yeast extracts: 

Prepare a modified Fehling's solution by dissolving 12 gm. of 
cupric sulphate and 15-0 gm. of neutral sodium tartrate in 1200 
gm. of water; add to this 15-0 gm. of sodium hydrate that has 



133 



A Symposium. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm 
t March, 1904. 



been dissolved in 150*0 gm. of water. Then dissolve o-6o gm. 
of the suspected extract in 45 c.c. of water, add one-half of the alka- 
line cupric sulphate solution and boil for one or two minutes; genu- 
ine meat extract does not produce any precipitation, while yeast 
extract produces a copious bluish white curdy precipitate. 

New Process for Zinc Oxide. — The Chemist and Druggist (1904, 
page 40) credits Sir William Ramsay with devising a process for 
making zinc oxide direct from ore or tailings by dissolving the zinc 
in the ores in sulphuric acid, precipitating with ammonia and sub- 
jecting the resulting hydrate to intense heat in a muffled furnace. 



A SYMPOSIUM ON THE MEANING OF THE TERMS, 
PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACOGNOSY, MATERIA 
MEDICA AND RELATED TERMS. 

Owing to the recent developments in the study of pharmacology, 
and also owing to the confusion which seems to exist in the minds 
of a good many people in regard to the meaning of this and other 
terms, applied in the study of drugs and medicines, it occurred to 
the editor of this Journal that it would be interesting and profitable 
to have these terms denned according to their modern acceptation 
and uses ; and with this end in view letters have been sent to a 
number of physicians and professors in these branches, in various 
parts of the country. The replies follow in the order of the dates 
on which they were written or received : 

Dear Professor Kraemer : 

The use of pharmacological terms by writers has been so various 
and often so absurd that custom may be said to favor anything 
except unity of employment of terms of this character. The fol- 
lowing scheme seems to me as near the original meaning of the 
terms as can be at this time guessed, and to be the proper use of 
them from the scientific point of view. 

Pharmacology. — The science which treats of drugs in all their 
properties and possible relations; and includes as subordinate terms 
Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 

Materia Medica. — The science which treats of the natural and 
commercial history of drugs, their physical properties and their 
chemistry. 



Am. J our. Pharm. \ 
March, 1904. j 



A Symposium. 



139 



Pharmacy. — -The art which has for its province the preparation 
of drugs for practical use in medicine. 

Therapeutics. — The science and art whose province is the use of 
medicines for the relief of disease. 

Materia Medica has never been divided, so far as I know, into 
component parts in terminology, but has for a subordinate term, 
Pharmacognosy t which is the science and art of the recognition of 
drugs. 

Therapeutics is divided — 

(1) Pharmacodynamics, the science which treats of the action of 
drugs upon living forms, especially upon the animal creation. It is 
equivalent to the term, Physiological actio?i of drugs. 

(2) Practical Therapeutics, the art of applying the knowledge ac- 
quired in Pharmacodynamics to the relief of disease. 

Horatio C. Wood. 

Philadelphia, January 15, 1904. 
Dear Sir: 

In reply to your letter of inquiry let me state that I use the 
word " Pharmacology " to describe what might be called the Labo- 
ratory or Experimental Method of Studying the Action of Drugs. 
I apply the term " Materia Medica " to the list of medicinal mate- 
rials which are employed for the relief or cure of disease, and the 
term " Pharmacognosy " to the study of the individual constitu- 
ents of the Materia Medica, pharmaceutically, botanically and 
chemically. 

Very truly yours, H. A. Hare. 

Philadelphia, January 15, 1904. 

My dear Dr. Kraemer : 

Your desire to bring about a sharper definition of the terms relat- 
ing to the branches of science dealing with drugs, is most laudable. 
Its necessity is shown, for instance, by the fact that Webster's 
Dictionary gives as one of the definitions of pharmacology : The art 
of preparing medicines. This meaning of the word is now so obso- 
lete that its retention can only lead to ridiculous mistakes. The 
Century Dictionary gives a much more acceptable definition ; but it 
fails to differentiate between pharmacology, pharmacognosy and 
materia medica. The etymology of these words, indeed, does not 
furnish any basis for their differentiation. The development of the 



140 



A Symposium. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. March, 1904. 



science, however, has made specialization necessary ; and the older 
generic names have been applied to these specialties. This special- 
ization did not always occur along the same lines of cleavage ; and 
the use of the terms has accordingly been rather loose. This con- 
fusion was enhanced by the original similarity of meaning, which 
made it optional to use one term or the other for any of the very 
different specialties. At present, however, the use of these terms 
has become fairly definite, at least with specialists, although not with 
the general public. The time seems at hand when a common 
agreement to their definitions could and should be reached. 

The entire branch of science dealing with drugs may be called 
pharmacology, materia medica or pharmacognosy. To avoid con. 
fusion with the restricted meaning of these words, the adjective 
" general " may be prefixed. Either pharmacology or materia medica 
may be preferred, according to which of these subjects, in their 
restricted sense, is emphasized. Pharmacognosy, in this sense, 
appears superfluous, and should be abandoned. 

The specialization has occurred along the lines of the special 
objects and methods of the study of the science, and may be divided 
into four groups, which, together with the terms commonly applied 
to them, are briefly as follows : 

(1) The action of drugs on living structures: Pharmacology. 

(2) The physical and chemical characters of drugs : Materia 
Medica. 

(3) The preparation of drugs for medicinal use : Pharmacy. 

(4) The application of remedies to the treatment of disease : 

Therapeutics. 

These divisions and their further sub-divisions can be conveniently 
presented, as in the following table : 



Pharmacology 

(General). 
Synonyms : 
Materia Med- 
ica. 

(Pharma cog- 
nosy). 



Materia Medica. 

Synonyms : Pharma- 
cognosy, Fharmacogra- 
phia : The physical and 
chemical characters of 
drugs and their prepara- 
tions ; their constitution, 
structure, history, deriva- 
tion, dosage, etc. J 

Pharmacy : The prep- 
tion of drugs. 

Pharmacology (Physio- 
logic). Synonym : Pharma- 
codynamics. Reaction be- 
tween drugs and living 
structures. 

Therapeutics: The medi- 
cinal application of reme- 
dial agents. 



Comprises : 
Crude Organic Drugs. 
Organic Chemic Princi- 
ples. 

Inorganic Chemic Prin- 
ciples. 
Pharmaceutic Products. 



Constitutes : 
Organic Ma- 
teria Medica 
( s y n o n y m 
Pharm acog- 
nosy). 
Includes : 
Gross Anat- 
omy. 
Histology. 
Che m i c 
Character. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1904. 



A Symposium. 



141 



This would lead to the following definitions: 

I. Pharmacology: (i) Wider sense (also General Pharmacology): 
All that scientific knowledge pertaining to drugs. This term should 
be preferred to its synonym, materia medica, if the emphasis is put 
on the action of drugs. 

(2) Restricted sense (al>o Physiologic Pharmacology), or Pharma- 
codynamics) : All scientific knowledge pertaining to the reactions 
between drugs and living structures. (The science so defined will 
utilize materia medica and therapeutics, as it does physiology, 
physics and chemistry; but does not include them.) 

II. Pharmacodynamics: A little-used synonym of physiologic 
pharmacology. 

III. Materia Medica: (i) Wider sense: Synonymous with gen- 
eral pharmacology; being preferred when the emphasis is on the 
physical and chemical characters of the drugs. 

(2) Restricted sense : All scientific knozvledge pertaining to the 
physical and chemical characters of drugs y their source, preparation and 
dosage. 

This includes their designation, source, habitat, collection, etc. ; 
gross and microscopic structure ; chemical constitution and charac- 
ters ; physical properties (appearance, odor, taste, solubility, specific 
gravity, etc.) ; and dosage. 

The subject may be sub-divided into the materia medica of crude 
organic drugs ; of organic and inorganic principles; and of pharma- 
ceutic products. 

Organic Materia Medica (also Pharmacognosy) treats of the materia 
medica of crude organic drugs. It is often convenient to sub- 
divide it into their gross anatomy, histology and chemic properties. 

IV. Pharmacographia : A practically obsolete synonym of Materia 
Medica. 

V. Pharmacognosy: (i) In the wider sense, an objectionable 
synonym of General Materia Medica. 

(2) Restricted sense : Synonymous with Organic Materia Medica. 

(3) Often further restricted to the science of identifying drugs. 

VI. Pharmacy : The science and art of preparing drugs for medici- 
nal use. 

VII. Therapeutics : The application of drugs and other remedial 
agents (such as electricity, etc.) to the treatment of disease. 

Very sincerely yours, Torald Sollmann. 
Cleveland, O., January 20, 1904. 



142 



A Symposium. 



/Am. Jour. Pharrru 
t March, 1904. 



Dear Professor Kraemer : 

I agree with you thoroughly that there is a decided haziness sur- 
rounding the term " pharmacology," although perhaps not as much 
around, the other two words mentioned. I will not refer to any 
dictionary, but give you my definition or conception of the three 
terms : 

Pharmacology is the science which treats of the physiological 
effects of drugs upon the several parts of the living organism. 

Materia Medica is that branch of medicine which describes drugs,, 
their therapeutic effects and doses. 

Pharmacognosy is the science which treats of the history, deriva- 
tion, physical properties, adulterations and chemical constituents of 
drugs, and methods of recognizing the same. 

Therapeutics is the art of applying drugs in disease. 

Very truly yours, A. R. L. Dohme. 

Bai/TimorE, Md., January 21, 1904. 

My dear Dr. Kraemer: 

I am fully aware of the uncertain and confused use of the terms 
materia medica, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmacography 
and pharmacodynamics. Custom is just as apt to fix a term as is 
correct etymology. It is furthermore true that as we advance in 
the knowledge of a subject we cannot appropriately retain and apply 
the terms of the past. Without, however, entering into lengthy 
explanations and discussions I would offer the following : 

Materia medica (there is no plausible reason why we should con- 
tinue to follow the old custom of beginning these two words with 
capitals), which means medicinal things or substances or agents, 
from the standpoint of the pharmacist should be applied to that 
course in the curriculum of pharmaceutical studies treating of sub- 
stances (animal, vegetable, mineral, imponderables as light, air,, 
electricity, etc.) used in the practice of medicine, giving the major 
attention to physiological action and the doses of the various 
preparations. 

Pharmacology has a broad, extensive meaning and includes phar- 
macy or the art of preparing medicinal substances as well as their 
action and uses. The term cannot well be applied to any one course 
or one department of a college of pharmacy. It could be applied 
to pharmacy and pharmacography as distinct from chemistry and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1904. 



A Symposium. 



botany. Pharmacognosy is in my estimation synonymous with 
pharmacology, although many teachers use it in a more restricted 
sense as applying to a description of drugs, animal and vegetable. 
Organic materia medica is by some teachers given the same applica- 
tion or meaning as pharmacognosy. 

Pharmacography, which simply means a description of drugs, is, 
in my opinion, especially applicable to that course of instruction 
treating of the morphology (crude or gross morphology and his- 
tology), history, origin, habitat, commerce, constituents, collecting, 
drying, garbling, curing and powdering of crude drugs ; cultivation 
of drug-yielding plants, etc. This course must of necessity be dis- 
tinct from pharmacy, chemistry, and materia medica. I have ap- 
plied the term pharmacodynamics to that course which treats of 
drug action based on laboratory tests or experiments on animals. 
Colleges of medicine usually designate such a laboratory course as 
pharmacology, it seems to me erroneously for reasons given above. 

The following tabulation will perhaps aid in making clear the 
relationship and relative importance of the terms referred to in the 
above. I would suggest discontinuing the use of the term pharma- 
cognosy entirely, because of the indefinite way in which it is 
applied. 

I. Pharmacology. 

(1) Pharmacy (including a course in dispensing). 

(2) Pharmacography (vegetable and animal). 

(3) Materia medica (general). 

(4) Pharmacodynamics (principally toxicology). 

II. Chemistry (general and pharmaceutical). 
III. Botany (general and pharmaceutical). 

It is of course understood that vegetable pharmocography is spe- 
cial botany. 

In conclusion I would express the hope that the conference of 
teaching faculties may take this matter up and decide upon a 
uniform nomenclature to be used by colleges of pharmacy. 

Yours very truly, Albert Schneider. 

San Francisco, Cat,. , January 25, 1904. 



Dr. Henry Kraemer, Editor American Journal of Pharmacy. 

Dear Sir: In reply to your letter of the 15th inst., I would say 
that there is much confusion in the use of the terms mentioned, 



144 A Symposium. { A Va^i9& r ^ 

due to the application of words in defiance of their derivation, and 
regardless of their meaning. This is seen in the employment of 
the synonymous terms Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy for two 
different subjects, and in the extension of the term Materia Medica 
to include matters wholly beyond its proper scope. A comprehen- 
sive and correct schema would be about as follows : 

Pharmacology or Pharmacognosy, the science of medicines, 
divided into : 

(1) Materia Medica, their description, physical properties, chem- 
istry and dosage. 

(2) Pharmacodynamics, or Pharmadynamics, their powers and fate 
in the body, divided into : 

(a) Physiological Action, in small and full doses. 
(&) Toxicology ,in lethal doses, including their antidotes and physi- 
ological antagonists. 

(3) Pharmacy, the art of their preparation for medicinal use. 

(4) Therapeutics, their use in disease. 

Of course many subdivisions could be made, but the above would 
form the main schema, would be consistent and readily understood. 
Under Materia Medica, a subdivision, Pharmachemics, would include 
solubilities and incompatibility. Therapeutics might be divided 
into natural, empirical and rational therapeutics, so as to make the 
subject systematic in all its ramifications, but these refinements are 
outside the limits of your question. 

Very truly yours, 

Samuel O. L. Potter, M.D. (Jeff.), 

M.R.C.P., London. 

San Francisco, Cai,., January 25, 1904. 



My dear Kraemer : 

The following are excerpts from papers which I have already 
published : 

It would seem unnecessary to define in the columns of a medical 
journal what is meant by pharmacology, but the frequent confusion 
of this term with pharmacy by those who are not teachers of medi- 
cine must serve as a reason for a brief statement of the methods and 
aims of this branch of medical science. 

The vague and often erroneous use of the word pharmacology 
seen in earlier writings, as in the definition of Nathan Bailey (1736), 



^MMchifm™*} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 145 

"a treatise concerning drugs," or in that of Samuel Johnson (1755), 
" an equivalent of pharmacy or pharmaceutics," is still frequently 
met with in our own time. Briefly stated, pharmacology tries to 
discover and explain all of the more obvious functional, and the less 
noticeable chemical and physical changes that occur in a living 
thing that has absorbed a substance capable of producing such 
changes, and it is also its province to learn the fate of the substance 
thus incorporated. It is not, therefore, an applied science like thera- 
peutics; it is one of the biological sciences, using that term in its 
widest sense. 

Now what does this revival of an old word mean ? One of the 
most eminent investigators in this field, Professor Schmiedeberg, of 
Strassburg, has defined pharmacology as " The study of the changes 
brought about in living organisms by chemically acting substances 
(with the exception of foods), whether used for therapeutic purposes 
or not." 1 It is to be noted that these changes induced in the body 
are not merely such as can be expressed in the terms of an equation, 
but include those varied molecular processes which lie in that ever- 
widening borderland between physics and chemistry, where hide the 
secrets of vital activity. 

Like its sister sciences, physiology, physiological chemistry and 
pathology, it is making great progress along certain physical and 
chemical lines, which is pioneer work of a necessary kind toward 
an explanation of vital processes. 

Yours faithfully, 

John J. Abel. 

Baltimore, Md., February r, 1904. 

[To be continued.^ 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Elementary Dispensing Practice, for Students of Pharmacy 
and Medicine. By Joseph Ince, F.C.S., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Pharma- 
ceutical Chemist, Associate of King's College, London, late Lecturer 
in Pharmacy to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, for- 
merly Member of Council and Examiner. Published at the offices 
of the Ihe Chemist and Druggist, 42 Cannon Street, London E. C, 
1903. Price, 3*. 6d., net. 



1 Schmiedeberg, " Grundriss d. Arzneimittellehre." II. Aufl., s. 1. 



146 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^MSm 111, 

This book, as suggested by the title, is composed of a very large 
number of examples intended for the practical instruction of pros- 
pective dispensers of medicines. As indicated by the price, the book 
is not a very large one, and being published in England, and the 
contained examples being based on the preparations of the British 
Pharmacopoeia, the book is not particularly well adapted for begin- 
ners in pharmacy in this country. For more advanced students, 
however, or for such pharmacists or teachers of pharmacy as are 
willing or anxious to learn by having thoughts and ideas suggested 
to them, this little book will be worth many times the moderate 
price that is asked for it by the publishers. 

Mr. Ince, the author of the book, is well known to the English- 
speaking pharmacists throughout the world, having been a liberal 
contributor to pharmaceutical journals for more than half a century. 
During this long period of time Mr. Ince has naturally profited by 
his experiences, and has acquired a large and evidently well assorted 
collection of miscellaneous knowledge bearing on pharmacy in all 
its branches. That he is well fitted to give an exposition of the 
art of dispensing is evidenced by every page in the book. 

It must be remembered, of course, that many of the contained 
suggestions are not applicable to practice in this country, and also 
that many of the ideas and opinions are the expressions of a man 
that has long since passed the time when he was ready or anxious 
to take up with what might be termed new ideas or new methods. 
The book consists of about 150 pages, and is divided into twenty- 
one, generally short, chapters, and a liberal, well-arranged index. 

Among the more interesting or more important chapters we may 
enumerate those on : Precautions in Dispensing, Simple Solutions, 
Pilulae, Emulsiones, Linimenta, Ungenta, Suppositoria, Pulveres, 
Emplastra, and Definitions. 

Pills and emulsions are given the greatest amount of attention ; 
the chapter on pills occupying 30 pages, while 22 pages are devoted 
to the consideration of emulsions. It will be generally admitted 
that a thorough familiarity with these two classes of preparations 
should be, quite properly, considered to be of greatest importance 
to a prospective dispenser. 

Altogether it may be said that the number and variety of exam- 
ples given, with the accompanying directions and explanations, will 
contribute materially to make a student familiar with, and also teach 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1904. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



him how to avoid, many of the difficulties that arise in everyday 
practice, while, as noted before, to the pharmacist or the teacher 
this book should be an almost inexhaustible fund of ideas and sug- 
gestions. 

The book throughout bears evidence of the originality and indi- 
viduality of Mr. Ince, and this fact alone should recommend it to all 
that have seen or become familiar with any of his interesting, and 
always sprightly, contributions to pharmaceutical literature. 

M. I. WlLBERT. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The fifth of the Pharmaceutical Meetings of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy of the present series was held on Tuesday, 
February 16th, at 3 o'clock. Mr. Mahlon N. Kline, chairman of 
the Board of Trustees, presided. In opening the meeting Mr. Kline 
remarked that the papers to be presented would be of great interest 
to Philadelphians, as upwards of $25,000,000 are being spent to 
secure a pure water supply for this city. 

The first speaker on the programme was W. E. Ridenour, a 
specialist in the chemical analysis of water, who read a paper on 
the "Technical Analysis of Water." (See page 121.) 

In answer to a question by Mr. E. M. Boring, Mr. Ridenour stated 
that it required about three days to complete an analysis of water, 
but that usually four analyses were conducted at the same time ; and 
in reply to Prof. C. B. Lowe he stated that while a quart of water 
was sufficient for analysis, he preferred to have a gallon submitted. 

Mr. Ridenour said in addition that the following is the scheme of 
analysis, used by the chemist of the Northwestern Railroad, for the 
separation of the scale-forming constituents from the non-scaling 
matter : 

Five hundred cubic centimetres of water is evaporated to dryness 
and dried to a constant weight at ioo° C. in an air bath. The residue 
is exhausted with 66 per cent, solution of 96 per cent, alcohol. This 
gives a residue containing CaC0 3 , MgC0 3 , CaS0 4 , Si0 2 , and a solu- 
tion which contains the soluble salts of calcium, magnesium and 
sodium. 

He had not had time to test this method in comparison with the 
scheme given in his paper, but said that it was a very useful method 



148 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1904. 



for determining how the magnesium actually exists in the water, as 
the combination of the different bases and acids to represent their 
existing, forms in solution in the water, is often a very hard question 
to decide. 

Wm. G. Toplis, a well-known expert in the examination of 
drinking water, read a paper on "Some Refined Methods in Water 
Purification" (see page 116), which was illustrated with specimens 
of cultures, which he presented to the College. The paper 
elicited considerable discussion. In reply to a number of questions 
by Warren H. Poley, Mr. Toplis stated that there were hardly likely 
to be any bacteria growing in the service pipes, that the effluent 
waters from the filters contained as low as six bacteria per cubic 
centimetre, also that the number varied from fifteen to fifty as 
against the river water before entering the filter, which contained 
from 5C0 to 1,500, or even more organisms per cubic centimetre. 
Mr. Toplis spoke highly of the competency of the engineer corps 
connected with the filtering plant in Philadelphia, and thought that 
ultimately the citizens of Philadelphia would be proud of the finished 
work. 

He also stated in reply to Mr. Poley that the magma formed by 
the addition of \y 2 grains of alum to a gallon of water would 
remove even as much as 95 per cent, of the bacteria. 

Mr. Toplis stated, in answer to a question by Mr. Kline, that the 
river-bottom sand is preferable to sand from other sources in that the 
particles of sand are already surrounded by the gelatinous envelope 
formed by bacteria, which is serviceable in the purification of 
water and so serves as a naturally prepared material for filtration 
purposes, thus saving time in the so-called ripening of the filter. 

The subject of the origin of outbreaks of typhoid fever was 
discussed and in the main it was thought to be due to sewage 
contamination in water and milk. Professor Lowe spoke of an out- 
break among the members of one of the fraternities at Yale Uni- 
versity some years ago, which was traced to raw oysters which had 
been gathered in beds exposed to sewage contamination. Professor 
Kraemer referred to the fact that during the past summer he had 
an opportunity of visiting a number of the truck gardens in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia, and that the usual way of enriching the 
land was by the use of " privy manure," which is not infrequently 
collected in large pools on the farms. He stated that he thought 
that this might be a source of disease in certain cases, as the sewage: 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1904. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



149 



is brought in direct contact with the vegetables, as lettuce, celery, 
etc. He also alluded to the fact that it has been proved that 
certain bacteria even enter into the tissues through the stomata. 

The next paper was one on " Methods and Interpretation of Water 
Analysis," by Dr. A. Robin, bacteriologist to the Water Department 
of Wilmington, Del. (See page 101.) The paper was illustrated with 
a number of cultures, one of which, Bacillus violaceus, he presented 
to the college. In the discussion of the paper afterwards Dr. Robin 
stated that in 1893 a semi-mechanical filter was built in Wilmington, 
Del., in which the oxidation was carried to an extreme, and in the 
same year a slow sand filter was established in Lawrence, Kan., 
where the water was also badly polluted. As proving the superiority 
of the slow sand filter the death-rate from typhoid in Lawrence has 
been reduced very considerably, whereas in Wilmington the rate has 
not diminished appreciably. 

Professor Kraemer called attention to the fact that this was the 
third meeting in recent years at which there had been a discus- 
sion on the subject of water analysis. The first paper was by Dr. G. 
T. Moore, who had studied the subject of water contamination in 
Boston, and was entitled "Algae as a Cause of the Contamination 
of Water" (see this Journal, 1900, page 25); the second was by 
Mr. Toplis, on the "Filtration of Water" (see this Journal, 1902, 
p. 67), and he said that on the present occasion we were for- 
tunate in having a symposium on water analysis from a chemical 
and biological point of view, and moved that a vote of thanks be 
tendered the several speakers who contributed the papers, which 
motion was unanimously carried. 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., read some extracts from a quarterly review 
on " Progress in Pharmacy." (See page 129.) 

The following provisional programme has been arranged for the 
next meeting : 

"Aromatic Elixir," illustrated with samples, by Prof. Wilbur L. 
Scoville, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. 

"A Percolator Stand," by Harold Bertram Morgan, P.D. 

" A Physician's Experience with Pharmacists," by Dr. Carl 
Freese, L.S.A. 

Notes from Joseph Ince's book on " Elementary Dispensing," by 
M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M. 

" Price Lists of Forty Years Ago," by William Mclntyre, Ph.G. 

Henry Kraemer, Secretary. 



Notes and News. 



/Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
I March, 1904 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Heavy Losses by Drug Firms.— The loss sustained by the drug trade of 
Baltimore as a result of the recent disastrous fire there, is estimated as not far 
short of $i,ooo,ooo. Various wholesale houses were burned out, and also a 
large number of retail stores, including the two leading ones in the city. The 
three leading wholesale firms whose properties were entirely destroyed, were 
Muth Brothers & Co., the Stanley & Brown Drug Company, and James Bailey 
& Son. These firms all had a large local patronage, and the loss has been 
seriously felt by the retail druggists of Baltimore. Fortunately, the large 
manufacturing firms of Sharp & Dohme, and Gilpin, Langdon & Co., were not 
reached by the fire, and these firms are able to carry on business as heretofore. 
The Baltimore branch of Parke, Davis & Co. was destroyed, the loss being 
$50, coo. 

The St. Louis Exposition.— The list of European savants who have accepted 
invitations to deliver addresses at the International Congress of Arts and 
Science at the St. Louis Exhibition are the following : In Department 9 
(Physics), Professor Dewar, the Royal Institution, London; M. Becquerel, 
member of the Institute of France. In Department 10 (Chemistry), Professor 
Moissan, Paris ; Professor Fittig, Strassburg ; Professor Van t'Hoff, Berlin ; 
Professor Kossel, Heidelberg ; Professor Mendelejeff, Technical School, St. 
Petersburg. In the biological section, the name appears of Professor Bower, of 
Glasgow, one of the examiners in Scotland to the Pharmaceutical Society. — 
The Pharmaceutical Journal. 

The Scientific Attitude in Everyday Life. — Prof. Francis E. Lloyd, of 
Teachers' College, Columbia University, in an address to the recent graduating 
class of Northwestern University, described the method of thought used by the 
scientist, and showed that this method is used by all of us in everyday life ; 
that it is the method which we use as children. When used by the scientist, 
it comes under careful scrutiny and control. We therefore see the meaning of 
Huxley's statement that the method of the scientist is refined common sense. 
All studies may be prosecuted by this method, since it is common to all. Any 
advantages which one study may offer beyond another must be due to its 
subject matter 

The strict application of the scientific method makes for ideals in life and 
character, since it enforces upon the mind standards of honesty which are of 
the highest, and are impersonal. Those who have had the advantage of 
scientific training, should see clearly that they are under the obligation to 
carry the ideals thus gained into their everyday lives. 

The pharmacist, who stands in a peculiar relation to human life, must have, 
with the physician, the same impersonal attitude. His scientific training should 
bring him to recognize this obligation. The oath of Hippocrates, which binds 
the physician to do no mischief, is binding also upon the pharmacist, who 
shares the responsibility of the physician. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



APRIL, i go 4. 



A CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE SEED OF RHUS GLABRA. 
By G. B. Frankforter and A. W. Martin. 

The Anacardiacese or Cashew family contains about 450 species. 
Most of these occur in the tropical regions. The genus Rhus or 
sumac represents about the only members of the order occurring in 
Northern United States. Of the 120 species of Rhus, about 20 
are considered as having medicinal or commercial value. An 
infusion of the leaves, the bark and the pubescence of the seed of 
several species, is used in both the dyeing and the tanning industries. 
Sixteen species are mentioned in the United States Dispensatory. 

Rhus glabra, the species under discussion, is one of the most com- 
mon in the Northern States. It has been studied several times. 
Watson made an examination of the bark of the root, recording the 
following constituents : gum, resin, caoutchouc, starch, albumin, 
gallic and tannic acids and coloring matter. (Amer. Jour, of 
Pharm., 25, p. 194.) The amount of tannin in the leaves has been 
found to vary widely. Analyses of the leaves from the Northern 
States show an average of 16 per cent., while the leaves from the 
same species growing farther south contain as high as 25 per cent. 
An examination of the galls of the same species showed nearly 
62 per cent, of tannin. (Amer. Jour, of Pharm., 62, p. 564.) 

The seed of the Rhus glabra has been mentioned ; but, so far as 
could be ascertained, only the briefest preliminary examination has 
been made. Tannin has been recognized in the seed and malic acid 
in the pubescence. In addition to these constituents, fixed oil, a 
volatile oil and coloring matter have been mentioned. 

(151) 



152 



Seed of Rhus Glabra. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April. 1904. 



Experimental Part. — The seed used in the following experiments 
was gathered about the 1st of September, after it had become fully 
matured and the husk had begun to dry. A large amount of seed 
was gathered and preserved in as near the condition it existed when 
gathered as possible. 

Moisture. — The determination of moisture was made on the whole 
seed, which was found to be quite different from results obtained 
from the seed after it was ground. In both cases the husk was 
included. 

Weight of seed, including husk 100 grammes. 

Loss, after heating two hours at 105 C. to no° C. . . 6*862 " 
Percent, of moisture 6.862 

Ash. — The unusually high percentage of ash led to a somewhat ex- 
tended examination as to the cause. The unhusked seed gave an 
average of 2-65 per cent, of inorganic matter. Upon examining the 
husk under the microscope, it was found that the pubescence of 
the husk had collected a large amount of dust. This was subse- 
quently verified by an ash determination of the husk. 

Acidity of the Seed. — A preliminary examination showed the pres- 
ence of several acids. The complex nature of these acids led to a 
simple determination of the total acidity of the seed by means of 
sodium hydroxide. The acids were extracted by means of hot 
water. Two sets of experiments were made — one on the whole or 
unground seed and the other on the pulverized seed, the object 
being to locate the acids. It was found that the kernel was almost 
impervious to boiling water, so that any acid extracted from the 
whole seed would come largely at least from the husk. 

Extract from 5 grammes of unground seed, in- 
cluding husk, required. . 0*052 grammes NaOH. 

Extract from 5 grammes of ground seed, in- 
cluding husk, required M 0*059 " 

These results were later verified when a satisfactory method of 
separating the husk from the seed was found. In fact, the husk 
seemed to contain practically all of the acid. 

Extracts from the Whole Seed.— In order to determine the amount 
of extract material in the whole seed, it was pulverized and extracted 
with ether, alcohol and water in the order named. 

50 grammes of seed gave n'193 grammes of extract 

with ether, or . 22*36 per cent. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



Seed of Rhus Glabra. 



153 



50 grammes of seed gave 3*37 grammes of extract with 
alcohol, or 

50 grammes of seed gave 2 38 grammes of extract with 
water, or 



476 



674 per cent. 



An examination showed that these extracts were of complex 
nature. The extract obtained from the ether consisted chiefly of an 
oil of peculiar properties and a reddish solid substance. This solid 
substance, on precipitating from ether, appeared as a yellowish 
crystalline mass and gave tests for tannic acid. The alcoholic ex- 
tract was a dark amorphous mass with a peculiar astringent and 
slightly acid taste. There was present a small amount of oily sub- 
stance. The aqueous solution contained, in addition to the bitter 
principle, an appreciable quantity of acid. 

The results of the above experiments, with other preliminary tests, 
showed that the husk was of unusual interest, besides having 
entirely different properties from the seed proper. 

The separation of the husk from the seed was a difficult problem 
and up to the present experiments had not been successfully accom- 
plished. It was found that by passing the whole seed through a 
carefully-adjusted pulp-mill, the husk could be completely removed 
from the seed without crushing the latter in the slightest degree. 
An exact determination gave the following proportion of the seed 
and husk : 

Seed 60 • 1 per cent. 

Husk 39*9 " 

The Seed Proper — An examination of the husked seed showed 
quite different results, as will be seen from the following determina- 
tions : 

Moisture 4*93 per cent. 

Ash . 1*98 " 

The acidity was reduced to a minimum, 5 grammes of the seed 
requiring only one-fourth of the amount of sodium hydroxide neces- 
sary to neutralize the same weight of unhusked seed. 

Rhus Seed Oil. — In the first examination of the seed for oil, the 
whole or unhusked seed was used. The very complex nature of the 
oil obtained made it necessary to seek some method of obtaining a 
simpler substance. An examination of the seed and the husk sepa- 
rately, revealed the fact that the complex nature of the oil obtained 
from the whole seed came largely from the husk, and that the oil of 
the seed was a single comparatively pure substance. 



154 Seed of Rhus Glabra. { Am A P °r U ii;F904 arin " 

This oil was obtained in considerable quantities by extracting the 
ground seed with ether. Five exact determinations were made 
giving an average of 9-1 per cent, of oil. 

The oil obtained is a light yellow mobile liquid with a peculiar 
odor and a pleasant taste. At — 18 C. it becomes viscous and at 
— 24 C. it is a solid. The specific gravity at 20 C. is 0-9203 and 
at o°, o 9312. The oil is soluble in nearly all of the organic solvents, 
including ether, chloroform, benzene, carbon disulphide and acetone. 
The index of refraction at o° is 1-48821 and at 15 , 1-48228. It is 
optically inactive. 










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(1) Rhus oil ; (2) Wheat oil ; (3) Corn oil ; (4) Linseed oil. 

The absorption spectrum is peculiar. Even with comparatively 
thin layers, 4 to 6 m.m., the violet rays of the continuous spectrum 
are entirely cut off and in the red portion about the position of the 
lithium band there appears a perfectly black band. The above 
is a simple diagram as compared with linseed, corn and wheat oils. 

Drying Properties of Rhus Oil. — Rhus oil is essentially a non-dry- 
ing oil. In quantities, the loss on exposure to the air is very small, 
but when a thin film of oil is exposed the increase in weight is such 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
April, 1904. / 



Seed of Rhus Glabra. 



155 



as would almost place it in the semi-drying group. The following 
table is a comparison of rhus oil with wheat and linseed oils. The 
increase in weight is given in parts per hundred, the time extending 
over a period of thirty days : 

Number of days 5 10 15 20 25 30 

Rhus oil, gain . . . 0*005 0*027 0'054 0-071 0*104 0*142 

Wheat oil " . .0*037 0*077 ° ,][ 5 °" 2 4 °'3° °*37 

Linseed oil " . .0*037 0*13 0*28 1*74 4*82 7*55 

Saponification Value. — The determination of the saponification 
value was made by the common method of saponifying a known 
quantity of the pure oil with standard alcoholic potassium hydroxide, 
calculations being made in milligrams of hydroxide per gramme of 
the oil. Three determinations gave the following: 

I. 2*0005 grammes of oil required . . 0*39086 gramme of potassium hydroxide 
II. 1*8923 " " " " . . 0*26817 " " " " 
III. 1*9096 " " " " . - 0*3707 " " " 

1. n. in. 
Calculated in milligrams of KOH per gramme of oil . .195*3 i'94"9 I 947 

These values indicate a non-drying oil, the range of which is from 
190 to 200. 

Iodine Value. — The iodine value was determined by the Hiibl 
method. The time required for the complete absorption of the 
iodine was much greater than in the common oil. Three determi- 
nations gave the following : 

I. 0*1611 gramme of oil absorbed .... 0*014155 gramme of iodine 
II. *i668 " " " .... 0*014339 " " " 

III. -1737 " " « '* .... 0*014848 

1. II. in, 

Per cent, of iodine absorbed 87*86 85*96 86*4 

Determination of Glycerol. — Glycerol was determined by the well- 
known method of Benedict-Zsigmondy, which consists in saponifying 
the oil and oxidizing the glycerol by means of alkaline potassium 
permanganate to oxalic acid according to the simple reaction, 

C 3 H 8 3 + 3 2 = C 2 H 3 4 + C0 2 + 3 H 2 0. 

The oxalic acid was then determined as calcium oxalate and the 
per cent, of glycerol calculated. 

I. 2*6859 grammes of oil gave ....... 0*2493 gramme of glycerol 

II.2*53I4 " " " " 0-2TI4 " " 

i. in. 

8-35 



156 



Seed of Rhus Glabra. 



{ 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



Unsaponifiable Matter. — The determination of unsaponifiable mat- 
ter was made by a method used for the determination of the choles- 
terols in oil, namely, the complete saponification of the oil, drying 
and extracting the unsaponifiable matter by means of ether. Two 
determinations gave an average of -696 per cent, of substance. By 
repeating the process on a large scale a considerale quantity of sub. 
stance was obtained. A chemical study of the substance is in 
progress. The work done so far would indicate that the substance 
belongs to the cholesterols, being a monatomic alcohol. From the 
analyses, it would appear that the molecule is larger than that of the 
cholesterols, though belonging to the same class. 

The Examination of the Husk. — The husk and the pubescence 
were removed from the seed by the method already mentioned and 
examined. The material was of a reddish color, the coloring mat- 
ter being soluble in ether, alcohol and water. It has a slightly 
acid and a peculiar astringent taste. These solutions gave strong 
tests for tannic acid. By shaking out the dried aqueous extract 
with ether, a large amount of impure tannic acid was obtained. This 
was subsequently purified and examined. 

On evaporating the aqueous extract to a thick syrup and allowing 
to stand several days, a reddish granular mass appeared in the bot- 
tom of the dish. This was removed, washed several times with 
water and recrystallized. The substance then appeared as small 
white cubical crystals, which were identified as acid calcium malate. 
They had a melting point of 8i° C. The filtrate was found to con- 
tain practically all of the tannic acid, but there seemed to be no free 
malic acid, as reported by Reinsch. [Zeitschrift f. Chemie, 1886, 



From the aqueous extract, which represented exactly one-quarter 
of the weight of the husk, the tannic acid and the acid calcium malate 
were determined. The results were as follows : 



Rhus Husk Oil. — The husk, which had been extracted with 
water, was dried and extracted with ether. The substance remain- 
ing after the evaporation of the ether, appeared as a black oil. At 
the ordinary temperature, it was a semi-solid. An average of several 
determinations gave 8-5 per cent, of oil. 

An examination of the oil indicated that it was quite different in 



p. 221.) 



Tannic acid .... 
Acid calcium malate 



7 "32 per cent. 
i*35 



Am A P r"fi9w" m "} Seed of Rhus Glabra. 157 

many respects from the oil which occurs in the seed. Its specific 
gravity was taken at 20° C. as a semi-solid and at 35 C. as a liquid. 
The former was 09412 and the latter was 0-933. Like the Rhus 
seed-oil, it is non-drying, but a single test indicated that it had more 
of the drying properties than the seed-oil. This may have been due 
to the fact that more foreign matter existed in this than in the seed- 
oil. This statement is probable, inasmuch as the iodine values in 
the two oils are about the same. Three iodine determinations gave 
the following : 

I. '1816 gramme of husk-oil absorbed . "01584 gramme of iodine 
II. '1560 " " " . . "01364 " " 

III. -1638 " " " . . -CI422 

I. H. III. 

Per cent, of iodine 87*1 87-4 86*7 ; average, 87*2 

Two determinations of saponification value gave the following 
results : 

I. 1*5044 grammes of husk-oil required, "2699 gramme of potassium hydroxide 
II. 1*6205 " " " '2917 " " " 

1. 11. 

Calculated in milligrammes per gramme of KOH, 179*3 i8o"i ; average, 179*7 

The chief difference between these two oils is due to unsaponifiable 
matter, to an easily oxidizable substance and to the fact that the 
husk oil contains two distinct oils. It was found that by treating 
with acetone, about 80 per cent, of the oil dissolved, and by evapo- 
rating off the acetone was obtained as a light-yellow liquid. The 
insoluble substance appeared as a black semi-solid. The light- 
yellow oil was compared with the seed-oil, but was found to differ 
in various ways. The black oil and the unsaponifiable substance pres- 
ent in it are under examination at the present time. 

The Cholesterols. — The cholesterols are among the most mysteri- 
ous compounds with which the plant and physiological chemist has 
to deal. Little more can be said of them than the simple fact that 
they are complex mon-atomic alcohols of aromatic nature, and that 
they are widely distributed in both the plant and animal world. 
There is, at the present time, no good reason for their existence, and 
yet as plant and animal analyses progress, the more widely they 
appear to be distributed. It was formerly supposed that common 
cholesterol was almost or entirely of animal origin, and that phytos- 
terol, an isomeric form, was of vegetable. Such an idea is no longer 



158 



Aromatic Elixir. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



tenable for cholesterol, as well as its iso- and para-form {Jour. Am. 
Chem. Soc. y 21, p. 766), has been isolated in the vegetable oils. 

The complexity of the molecule, the difficulty in obtaining them 
in quantities and the inactivity toward other substances, are some of 
the causes of our meagre knowledge of the cholesterols. From ex- 
aminations of a number of vegetable and animal oils, there seems 
little doubt but these four or five forms represent only a small por- 
tion of the group. 

Both of the substances obtained from the above oils, according to 
analyses, are mon-atomic alcohols, but with a higher molecular 
weight than cholesterol. The unsaponifiable substance above ob- 
tained is at present under examination. The purified substance 
obtained after repeated crystallizations had a melting point of 63-5° C. 
to 64 C. Like cholesterol, it does not readily react with other 
reagents, but enough has been done to indicate that both of these 
substances, although of a more complex nature, belong to the 
cholesterol group. 

Chemical Laboratory, University of Minnesota. 



AROMATIC ELIXIR. 

By Wilbur Scovh,i,e. 

Ten years ago the interests of pharmacists in elixirs was centred 
mainly in the question, What is the best flavor for an elixir for gen- 
eral use ? Our drug journals offered prizes for elixir formulas, and 
the formulas offered differed mostly in the character of the flavor. 

To-day an orange flavor is generally adopted as, all things con- 
sidered, the best adapted for a basal elixir. No flavor blends so 
well with all kinds of medicaments, or covers disagreeable tastes to 
better advantage. Seldom is there heard a demand for any other 
fundamental flavor. 

As a type of an orange elixir, the aromatic elixir of the Pharma- 
copoeia stands at the head of published formulas. It is a well-blended 
mixture which contains just enough aromatics to bring up the softer 
orange. But as compared with some commercial elixirs it lacks 
power and freshness. Many pharmacists seek to supply this lack 
by the addition of other aromatic oils in liberal quantity, and thus 
lose the chief characteristic of the original flavor. These highly 
aromatic combinations are not wholly satisfactory, since they 



Am A J p°rn r ;i P 9S rm -} Aromatic Elixir. 159 

often fail to cover well the taste of disagreeable substances, A 
strongly flavored elixir will not be as generally successful in conceal- 
ing unpleasant tastes as a milder and softer quality that appears 
bright and pronounced. What is now desired is an orange elixir 
that will have the fresh and bright qualities of fresh oranges, with 
just sufficient aromatics to bring up the flavor without making it 
spicy. 

The first failing in the official formula lies in the unreliability of 
the orange and lemon oils in common use. That these are very 
much adulterated is well known, and when to this is added an ex- 
treme sensitiveness to air which causes a destruction of the flavor, 
even in the elixir itself, the difficulty of securing the desired results 
are the more marked. A pure oil changes much less rapidly and 
markedly than an impure in the elixir. 

The best means of securing an undoubtedly pure oil is to use the 
fresh fruits. Oranges and lemons can be obtained in all parts of the 
country at reasonable prices, in their season, and for the pharmacist 
a tincture of the fresh peel is the best means of obtaining the flavor. 
This plan is already followed in many pharmacies with much satis- 
faction. The usual method is to grate off the outer yellow layer of 
the peel, in which are the oil cells, and macerate the gratings in 
alcohol for an indefinite time. In the writer's experience, it is im- 
possible to grate the peel without tearing off some of the inner, 
white layer, which contains the bitter principle, and which spoils the 
softer orange flavor. The exercise of care, with some sacrifice of 
the oil cells to be on the safe side, will reduce this danger to a mini- 
mum, and produce a tincture which will be very satisfactory. But 
if the peel be shaved instead of grated, taking care to cut only 
through the oil cells, and not include any of the white portion, the 
results are more satisfactory in several particulars. Shaving the 
peel can be accomplished more quickly and easily than grating, if 
the following plan be followed : The fruit is peeled, and the peel cut 
into strips not exceeding half an inch in width. These are laid in 
turn upon a board or other flat surface, held with the fingers of one 
hand, and the yellow layer can be shaved off at almost a stroke, 
with a sharp knife. When one has become accustomed to the opera- 
tion it can be done rapidly, and with no danger of getting the bitter 
flavor. If a large number of oranges are to be treated at a time, 
there is a machine in the market which is not expensive and is 



160 Aromatic Elixir. { Am Atrium™' 

operated by hand, and which will shave off the peel from a box of 
oranges or lemons, in any desired thickness, at the rate of about a 
box an hour. 

Furthermore, a tincture made from the cut peel seldom separates 
oil globules on standing, while one made from grated peel always 
does. Shaving the peel thus has a three-fold advantage : in ease and 
rapidity of operation, in greater security of flavor, and in a more 
permanent tincture. 

To secure uniform results the strength of the tincture should be 
definite. The shaved portions of the peel are weighed, and 2 c.c. 
of alcohol are poured over them, in a wide-mouthed bottle, for each 
gramme of peel. After macerating forty-eight hours, the liquid is 
drained off through a filter, and the peel rinsed well with just suffi- 
cient alcohol to obtain a 50 per cent, tincture through the filter. A 
tincture so made will keep without change of flavor many months, 
and produce superior results in elixirs and other uses. 

But while the use of tinctures of fresh fruits will improve the 
elixir, there is still a lack of vigor and freshness in the flavor. 
Flavors, like perfumes, need to be developed and strengthened t© 
produce the best results. 

Wine is the agent needed in this case. What musk is to a per. 
fume, so will wine be to our elixir. A moderate amount will develop 
and brighten the orange flavor without imparting a vinous quality. 
Twelve and a half per cent, of wine in the elixir will bring out the 
orange and freshen its qualities without the wine being itself notice- 
able. If more than this be added the wine becomes prominent and 
the orange is reduced. 

Then comes the question of the quality and kind of wine to be 
preferred. 

Through the kindness of Messrs. Duroy and Haines, I have been 
enabled to compare the effects of ten different varieties of wines on 
this elixir. The wines tried were a port, malaga and claret of the 
red wines, and muscatel, tokay, angelica, sweet and dry catawba, 
two qualities of sherry and a " non-sparkling " champagne. 

These were all used in the same proportions, and with the same 
tinctures of orange and lemon, and have been compared repeatedly 
during the past three to four months. 

There is first a notable difference between the light and the heavy 
wines in the elixirs. The light wines blend perfectly with the 



Am, 



l. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



Aromatic Elixir. 



161 



orange, and lose their individuality, while brightening the elixir. 
The heavy wines impart a heavy quality to the elixir which is 
foreign to an orange, though the wines themselves are not prominent. 

My own preference is as follows : First, the muscatel, and this 
preference has been shared by most of the friends whom I have 
asked to make comparison. Next, the tokay, catawba (no real dif- 
ference between the sweet and dry varieties) and angelica. These 
four are difficult to choose between, the preference depending largely 
upon the order in which they are examined. In fact, they are all 
a close second to the muscatel, and an elixir made with any one of 
these five light wines is satisfactory. 

The sherry and " champagne " are less satisfactory. They do not 
blend as well, and they impart the heavier quality. If the two quali- 
ties of sherry tried can be taken as a criterion, the quality of wine 
used is secondary to the variety, so far as securing a bright and 
smooth flavor is concerned. The orange softens the rawness of a 
new wine, and the quality is less noticeable in the blend. 

The red wines would not be chosen unless a colored elixir is 
desired. Like the sherry, they impart a heavy flavor and do not 
blend perfectly. The malaga blends the best of the three, but its 
color is not as good, having a marked brownish tinge. Claret pro- 
duces a brilliant red elixir, but its flavor is not good. It is the 
poorest of the whole list in this regard. Port is fairly satisfactory in 
both color and flavor. But many would prefer to make the elixir 
with a white wine and color it to suit. 

An elixir made with tinctures of the fresh fruits will, without wine, 
have a yellow or straw-tint, and the addition of the whitest wine 
(which is never white or colorless) will, of course, deepen the shade, 
making an amber or straw-colored elixir. Color is not of itself 
objectionable so long as it is fairly uniform. 

The following formula will produce an elixir corresponding to the 
official aromatic elixir in character and strength, but improved in 
vigor and delicacy : 

Tincture of fresh orange peel, 50 per cent 15 c.c. 

Tincture of fresh lemon peel, 50 per cent 3 c.c. 

Oil of coriander 0*25 c.c. 

White wine 125 c.c. 

Deodorized alcohol 230 c.c. 



Syrup 

Distilled water, sufficient to make 



1,000 c.c. 



375 c.c. 



l62 



James Smithson. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



Dissolve the tinctures and oil in the alcohol, add the wine and 
then the syrup. Then add gradually, with agitation, enough dis- 
tilled water to make 1,000 c.c. of mixture. Diffuse 10 grammes of 
purified talcum through the liquid, and shake it occasionally during 
four to seven days ; then filter, returning the first portions to the 
filter until it comes through clear. 

The cost of this elixir will be but slightly greater than the pres- 
ent official formula. In a number of trials, six oranges of fair size, 
such as are usually sold for table use, have made 100 to 120 c.c. of 
tincture. Six lemons will average to give 75 to 100 c.c. of tincture. 
Thus, three average oranges and one lemon will suffice for a gallon 
of elixir, so far as the fruit is concerned. The wine replaces a part 
of the alcohol, and the additional cost of this is small, while the 
advantage is great. And above all, an elixir is obtained which is 
really redolent of orange, and in which the average person will 
suspect nothing foreign. 



JAMES SMITHSON. 1 
By WmiAM B. Marshau,. 

James Smithson, the founder of the Smithsonian Institution, was 
an Englishman, born in 1 765. Until about the age of thirty- seven 
he was known by the name of James Lewis Macie (Macie being his 
mother's name), but later he obtained authority to change his name 
to Smithson. The exact date of the change is not known, but it 
seems to have been made at some time between 1794 and 1802. In 
the will of his half-sister, Dorothy Percy, dated 1794, he was desig- 
nated as Macie. His second paper before the Royal Society was 
read November 18, 1802, and was published in the Philosophical 
Transactions under the title " A Chemical Analysis of some Cala- 
mines," by James Smithson, Esquire. 

He was a natural son of the first Duke of Northumberland, 
formerly Hugh Smithson, who, upon the death of his grandfather, 
in 1729, succeeded to a baronetcy and became Sir Hugh Smithson. 
In 1749 Sir Hugh married Elizabeth Percy, and, later, upon becom- 

1 This sketch is founded upon, and largely quotes from, a paper by Samuel 
Pierpont Longley on "James Smithson," published as part of "The Smith- 
sonian Institution, 1846-1896. The History of its First Half Century. Edited 
by G. Brown Goode." 



Am. Jour. Pnarm. 
April, 1904. 



James Smithson. 



163 



ing Duke of Northumberland, he took the name of Percy by authority 
of an act of Parliament. He attained the peerage not through in- 
heritance but because of his own abilities. 

At the time of his birth James Smithson's mother was Elizabeth 



r 




James Smithson. 

Hungerford Keate Macie, widow of James Macie, a country gentle- 
man living at Weston, near Bath, England. Mrs. Macie was a 
cousin of Elizabeth Percy, the wife of the Duke of Northumberland. 
She was a grandniece of Charles, Duke of Somerset, through whom 
she was descended from Henry the Seventh. According to an 



164 



James Smithson. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



unverified story, Mrs. Macie had sought a divorce from her husband 

in the hope that she might wed the Duke of Northumberland, but 

Macie prevented. 

Concerning his parentage Smithson himself wrote : 

" The best blood of England flows in my veins ; on my father's 

side I am a Northumberland, on my mother's I am related to kings ; 

but this avails me not, my name shall live in the memory of man when 

the titles of the N or thumb erlands and the Percys are extinct and for- 

gotte?t." 

That this will become true is almost as certain as that the sun 
will continue to rise and set, but at the time it was written Smithson 
could not have foreseen that his name was to be handed down 
through the ages by means of the Smithsonian Institution. At the 
time he must have had in mind some high endeavor which would 
make him lastingly famous. A glance at his will shows that he 
recognized the ties of kinship and bequeathed his fortune to his 
nephew's use for life, and to the children of that nephew (should 
there be any) absolutely and forever. Only in case of failure of 
issue on the part of the nephew was the Smithsonian Institution to 
be established. 

Smithson's family on the father's side seems to have had a liking 
for America, as witness the following : 

He himself provided for the establishing in America of an institu- 
tion bearing his name. His father, Duke of Northumberland, actively 
opposed the war of '76 with the colonies, and obtained leave of 
absence for his son, Lord Percy, who had been ordered to America. 
Lord Percy, however, felt himself in duty bound to decline the 
leave and- accompanied the British troops to this country in 1774, 
although against .his inclination. General Gage placed him in 
command of the camp at Boston, whence he wrote to his father on 
July 5, 1774 : " As I cannot say this is a business I very much admire, 
I hope it will not be my fate to be ordered up the country. Be that 
as it may, I am resolved cheerfully to do my duty as long as ever I 
continue in the service. If I do not acquire any degree of reputa- 
tion in it, it will be my misfortune, but shall never be my fault." 

It was his fate to be ordered up country, as he was sent to cover 
the retreat of the troops which had been on the expedition to Con- 
cord and which had the famous unpleasantness with the colonists at 
Lexington, April 19, 1775. At the time he wrote to his father: " I 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1904. J 



James Smithson. 



165 



had the happiness of saving them from inevitable destruction, and 
arriving with them at Charleston, opposite Boston, at 8 o'clock last 
night ; not, however, without the loss of a great many, having been 
under an incessant fire for fifteen miles. The rebels, however, suf- 
fered much more than the king's troops." 

In 1782, at the age of seventeen, Smithson matriculated at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford. Not much is known about his student days, 
except that he was noted for diligence and good scholarship, and 
that he was deeply interested in chemistry and mineralogy, in which 
studies he was the best student in his class. In 1784, he made a 
geological tour through Oban, Staffa and the western isles, with De 
St. Fond, " the celebrated philosopher," and the Italian count, 
Andrioni, in which they studied mining and manufacturing pro- 
cesses. Most of his vacations were devoted to excursions for collect- 
ing minerals and ores, which it was his favorite occupation to 
analyze. 

He graduated at Pembroke College with the degree of Master of 
Arts on May 26, 1786. On April 27, 1787, he was admitted as a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, before which, in 1 791, he read his first 
scientific paper, entitled " An Account of Some Chemical Experi- 
ments on Tabasheer." 

Not much is known of Smithson's after-career. In his later days, 
he resided in Paris, and was the victim of ill health. That he 
devoted much time to chemical investigations is shown by the 
published papers of which he was the author. His published writ- 
ings were twenty-seven in number, of which eight were published in 
the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society between 1791 
and 1807 ; one in the Philosophical Magazine in 1807 ; and eighteen 
in Thomsons Annals of Philosophy, between 1819 ano - 1825. 

Prof. Frank W. Clarke, chief chemist of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, has placed the following estimate on these papers : 

"The most notable feature of Smithson's writings, from the stand- 
point of the modern analytical chemist, is in the success obtained 
with the most primitive and unsatisfactory appliances. In Smith- 
son's day, chemical apparatus was undeveloped, and instruments 
were improvised from such materials as lay readiest to hand. With 
such instruments, and with crude reagents, Smithson obtained 
analytical results of the most creditable character, and enlarged our 
knowledge of many mineral species. In his time, the native carbon- 



James Smithson. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



ate and silicate of zinc were confounded as one species under the 
name ' calamine ; ' but his researches distinguish between the two 
minerals, which are now known as Smithsonite and calamine, respect- 
ively. To theory, Smithson contributed little, if anything ; but, from 
a theoretical point of view, the tone of the writings is singularly 
modern. His work was mostly done before Dalton had announced 
the atomic theory ; and yet Smithson saw clearly that a law of 
definite proportions must exist, although he did not attempt to 



account for it. His ability as a reasoner is best shown in his paper 
upon the Kirkdale bone cave, which Penn had sought to interpret by 
reference to the Noachian deluge. A clearer and more complete 
demolition of Penn's views could hardly be written to-day. Smith- 
son was gentle with his adversary, but none the less thorough for 
all his moderation. He is not to be classed among the leaders of 
scientific thought; but his ability and the usefulness of his contribu- 
tions to knowledge cannot be doubted." 
His published papers were as follows: 




Smithsonian Institution. 



A m April,' Jf m '} James Smithson. 167 

IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 

" An Account of Some Chemical Experiments on Tabasheer." 
(Vol. lxxxi, part ii, p. 368, 1 791.) 

" A Chemical Analysis of Some Calamines." (Vol. xciii, p. 12, 
1802.) 

" An Account of a Discovery of Native Minium." (Vol. xcvi, 
part i, p. 267, 1806.) 

" On the Composition of the Compound Sulphuret from Hull 
Boys, and an Account of its Crystals." (Vol. xcviii, p. 55, 1808.) 

"On the Composition of Zeolite." (Vol. ci, p. 171, 181 1.) 

" On a Substance from the Elm Tree : Called Ulmin." (Vol. ciii, 
p. 64, 1813.) 

" On a Saline Substance from Mount Vesuvius." (Vol. ciii, p. 
256, 1813.) 

"A Few Facts Relative to the Coloring Matter of Some Vegeta- 
bles." (Vol. cviii, p. no, 1 8 17.) 

IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE. 

" On Quadruple and Binary Compounds: Particularly Sulphur- 
ets." (Vol. xxix, p. 275, 1807.) 

IN THOMSON'S ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY. 

"On a Native Compound of Sulphuret of Lead and Arsenic." 
(Vol. xiv, p. 96, 1 8 19.) 

" On a Native Aluminate of Lead : or Plomb Gomme." (Vol. xiv, 
p. 31, 1819.) 

" On a Fibrous Metallic Copper." (Vol. xvi, p. 46, 1820.) 

f An Account of a Native Combination of Sulphate of Barium and 
Fluoride of Calcium." (Vol. xvi, p. 48, 1820.) 

" On Some Capillary Metallic Tin." (Vol. xvii ; new ser., vol. i, 
p. 271, 1821.) 

"On the Detection of Very Minute Quantities of Arsenic and 
Mercury." (Vol. xx; new ser., vol. iv, p. 127, 1822.) 

" Some Improvements in Lamps." (Vol. xx ; new ser., vol. iv, 
p. 363, 1822.) 

" On the Crystalline Form of Ice." (Vol. xxi ; new ser., vol. v, 
p. 340, 1824.) 

" A Means of Discrimination Between the Sulphates of Barium 
and Strontium." (Vol. xxi ; new ser., vol. v, p. 359, 1823.) 



i68 James Smithson. { Am Ap r , j^;lm rm • 

" On the Discovery of Acids in Mineral Substances." (Vol. xxi; 
new ser., vol. v, p. 384, 1823.) 

" An Improved Method of Making Coffee." (Vol. xxii ; new ser., 
vol. vi, p. 30, 1823.) 

" A Discovery of Chloride of Potassium in the Earth." (Vol. xxii ; 
new ser., vol. vi, p. 258, 1823.) 

" On Some Compounds of Fluorine." (Vol. xxiii ; new ser., vol. 
vii, p. 100, 1824.) 

" An Examination of Some Egyptian Colors." (Vol. xxiii; new 
ser., vol. vii, p. 115, 1824.) 

"Some Observations on Mr. Penn's Theory Concerning the Form- 
ation of the Kirkdale Cave." (Vol. xxiv ; new ser., vol. viii, p. 50, 

1824.) 

" A Letter from Dr. Black Describing a Very Sensible Balance." 
(Vol. xxiv; new ser., vol. x, p. 52, 1825.) 

"A Method of Fixing Crayon Colors." (Vol. xxvi ; new ser., 
vol. x, p. 236, 1825.) 

All the above were reprinted in vol. xxi (1879) of the Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, under the title " The Scientific Writings of 
James Smithson." They consist of about 117 printed pages. 

His published writings did not represent all of his work, as 200 
of his manuscripts (covering a wide range of subjects — history, the 
arts, languages, rural pursuits, etc.), were forwarded to the United 
States with his effects. All these, with the exception of one small 
volume, were burned in the fire at the Smithsonian Institution in 
1865. His cabinet, destroyed at the same time, consisted of a choice 
collection of minerals of 8,000 or 10,000 specimens, and included 
examples of most of the meteorites which had fallen in Europe dur- 
ing several centuries. 

Smithson's will was a model of simplicity. In it he describes him- 
self thus : 

" I, James Smithson, Son to Hugh, first Duke of Northumberland, 
& Elizabeth, Heiress of the Hungerfords of Studley, & Niece to 
Charles, the proud Duke of Somerset, now residing in Bentinck 
Street, Cavendish Square, do this twenty-third day of October, one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, make this my last Will and 
Testament." 

His will directed that an annuity of £\oo should be paid his 
ormer servant, John Fitfall, during life ; that sums of money which 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



James Smithson. 



i6 9 



had been lent to another former servant, Henry Honore Sailly, 
should be allowed to remain with the debtor for five years from the 
date of the will at 5 per cent, per annum. The income of his 
estate, with the exception noted above, was bequeathed to his 
nephew, Henry James Hungerford, who was empowered to make a 
jointure should he marry. To Hungerford's children, should he 
have any, the estate was bequeathed absolutely and forever in such 
shares as the father might care to direct, and, should he fail to direct 
such division, then the estate was to be divided among the children 




United States National Museum. 



in such shares as the Lord Chancellor might deem proper. The 
clause which is of especial interest, is the following : " In the case of 
the death of my said nephew without leaving a child or children, or 
the death of the child or children, he may have had under the age 
of twenty-one years, or intestate, I then bequeath the whole of my 
property, subject to the Annuity of One Hundred Pound to John 
Fitfall, & for the security & payment of which I mean Stock to 
remain in this Country, to the United States of America, to found at 
Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Estab- 
lishment for the i?icrease & diffusion of knowledge amo7ig men!' 



170 



James Smithson, 



\ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1904. 



It would be difficult to excel the simple majesty of the last few 
words of that clause. Possibly no higher tribute has ever been paid 
to the honor of the people of the United States than the absolute 
trust which Smithson reposed in them when he placed in their 
hands what was at that time a very large fortune (about one-half 
million dollars) without hedging it all about with directions, restric- 
tions and safeguards of various kinds. His wishes as to trustees, 
place, name, purpose and beneficiaries are all told in twenty-eight 
words, and those few words have afforded the means for wonderfully 
increasing the stock of human knowledge of all kinds, and the whole 
world has been the beneficiary. Could Smithson at this day view 
the results of his benefaction, he must needs say that they have far 
exceeded any expectation which he may have cherished. The 
Smithsonian Institution, founded in 1846, is, in itself, a grand 
memorial to him, and much grander still when it is remembered 
that it has called into being and has under its care the National 
Museum, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Zoologi- 
cal Park, the Bureau of International Exchanges, and the Astrophy- 
sical Observatory, and that it has mothered various other of the 
scientific bureaus of the Government's work. Probably no trust 
has ever been more honorably and successfully administered, and 
certainly none has had so great effects both at home and to the 
far corners of the earth. The seal of the Smithsonian Institution 
contains the words from Smithson's will, u For the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge among men," and the words per orb em have 
been added. 

Smithson died June 27, 1829, at Genoa, Italy, and was buried in 
the English cemetery on the heights of San Benigno. A few years 
ago the Smithsonian Institution placed a tablet on his tomb and a 
similar tablet in the English church in the city of Genoa. 

Last January, through the agency of Prof. Alexander Graham 
Bell, acting on behalf of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 
his remains were brought to this country and are to find a final 
resting-place in the Smithsonian Park, under the shadow of the 
institution which he founded. 

The United States despatch-boat "Dolphin" was sent to New 
York to receive the remains upon their arrival in this country and 
to bring them to Washington. Here they were placed upon a gun- 
carriage and with a military escort were brought to the Institution 



Affi Ap°r U iLS rm '} Elementary Dispensing Practice. 171 

to be received there with simple but impressive ceremony. At the 
present time they rest in the Regents' room of the Smithsonian 
Institution, awaiting the selection of a proper spot for sepulture. 



NOTES FROM JOSEPH INGE'S BOOK ON ELEMENTARY 
DISPENSING PRACTICE. 

By M. I. WlXBERT. 

Mr. Joseph Ince has embodied such a wealth of interesting per- 
sonal opinions, as well as suggestive and practical ideas, in his little 
book on " Elementary Dispensing Practice " (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 
1904, p. 145), that it was thought that a few extracts or random 
notes might prove interesting to practical pharmacists in this country. 
In the preface Mr. Ince, himself nearly, if not quite, an octogenarian, 
gives a description of what is evidently his ideal for a dispenser. He 
says: "Many years ago I stood by the side of an excellent and 
experienced dispenser whose example was a perpetual lesson in 
this branch of pharmaceutical education. His work was rapid, tor 
he was of the opinion that slow dispensing by no means leads to 
accuracy. His method was the very soul of order, for he returned 
every bottle to its place as soon as done with, and in the very press 
of business carefully read his prescriptions and then wrote his labels, 
which he kept constantly before him so as to avoid the smallest 
chance of error. Save the final wrapping up and sealing, each 
separate piece of work was finished out of hand, judgment being 
used as to what should be attempted first." 

Having this ideal in mind, it is little wonder that Mr. Ince has 
profited by his experience and is able to tell us how we ourselves 
may become more efficient in this particular branch. This he does 
a little further on, when he tells us that: "Success in any branch of 
knowledge depends on the perpetual culture of the talent of obser- 
vation. This is particularly applicable to the would-be dispenser, 
who should train himself to recognize the chief preparations, liquid 
and solid, which he sees around him, including drugs in common 
use. 

" He will dispense best who during his apprenticeship has become 
familiar with the physical characteristics, general behavior and or- 
dinary doses of the various drugs, chemicals and preparations with 
which he comes in contact." 



172 Elementary Dispensing Practice. { Am Apr l ii.'£o4 arm ' 

Under prescription reading Mr. Ince says: « When a physician 
writes a prescription tor a patient in the well-known semi-classical 
manner, the dispenser must be able to understand what has been 
written before he can rightly fulfil the intentions of the prescriber. 

" These" intentions are expressed in technical contracted Latin, 
definite and perfectly intelligible when once mastered ; far more 
definite than instructions conveyed in English, and less liable to be 
misunderstood." 

The importance of being thoroughly familiar with these various 
technical and usually much-abbreviated words and terms is well 
illustrated by two letters that have but recently appeared in Ameri- 
can Medicine (Dr. J. M. Miller, Am. Med., 1904, p. 380, and Dr. L. D. 
Sheets, Am. Med. t 1903, p. 1014), in which the writers complain that 
the Latin term ad had been repeatedly mistaken for the English 
word add. Mr. Ince calls attention to this same possibility, and 
says that the difference between ad and add should be carefully 
noted. u Ad is a preposition which governs the accusative case and 
means up to, or up ; Q. S. quantum sufficiat (as much as may be suf- 
ficient) often precedes ad. Add, when used in connection with 
Latin abbreviations or directions, is itself an abbreviation of the 
Latin word adde (add thou)." More often, however, it is used as 
the English word add. 

Considerable attention is given to the discussion of the use and 
non-use of heat in making simple solutions The application of 
heat to effect solution demands considerable knowledge of the phy- 
sical properties of drugs and chemicals. " It is obvious that to apply 
heat to substances that are themselves readily soluble, or are readily 
decomposed or volatilized, would be considered poor dispensing 
and would betray a want of common sense." 

In this connection it is also quite necessary to have considerable 
knowledge of the comparative solubility of substances in hot and in 
cold water. Potassium chlorate, for instance, being sparingly solu- 
ble in cold water and readily soluble in boiling water, is best treated 
without heat to avoid the large crystals that are invariably formed 
by this substance on cooling. 

Of powders Mr. Ince says that they should be weighed out one by 
one: "It is bad practice to take the total weight ordered and 
divide it subsequently into the required number by the aid of a 
spatula, not by the scales and weight. It is worse to dip out grain 



Am Ap°rif;i P 9M arm '} Elementary Dispensing Practice. 173 

doses ot powdered opium from, a wide-mouth stock-bottle thinking 
no evil." In speaking of mixing powders he says that "powders 
dispensed on the usual small scale are better mixed with a paper or 
palette knife on paper and sifted, than by titration in a mortar." 

"In compound powders ingredients ordered in smallest quantities 
should be added first and larger quantities last." 

Under pill excipients Mr. Ince gives the formula for a number of 
mixtures that may prove useful, and are at least interesting. 

" Hydrated glycerin : Glycerin, 4 ; distilled water, 1 ; mix. Glu- 
cose excipient: Glucose, 12; glycerin, 4; distilled water, 1; mix. 
Honey excipient : Clarified honey, 2 ; distilled water, 1 ; mix. Proc- 
tor's paste: Glycerin, 9 c.c; powdered tragacanth, 3 grammes; 
distilled water, 4 c.c; mix. Triturate the tragacanth with the gly- 
cerin and then add the water." 

Among other excipients he recommends the use of manna as 
having many special applications. Among absorbents he recom- 
mends powdered licorice, precipitated calcium phosphate and cal- 
cined magnesia. 

Mr. Ince lays much stress on the desirability of incorporating 
every potent remedy that is capable of solution in that state so as 
to be absolutely sure of the particles being thoroughly subdivided. 

In speaking of ointments he says : " It is indispensable that the 
active ingredients be reduced to a perfectly miscible condition, and 
wherever possible added in solution. 

"All crystalline bodies incorporated into an ointment need the 
utmost care in dispensing ; they should be reduced to an impalpable 
powder, dissolved when possible, but always rendered absolutely 
smooth." 

In making ointments by fusion it is necessary to know the rela- 
tive melting points of the bases and to regulate and adjust the order 
of melting so that the substance requiring the highest degree of 
heat is melted first, the remaining bases being added in the sequence 
suggested by their melting points, so that the necessary heat may 
be gradually reduced and in this way avoid burning or scorching 
the most delicate ingredients. 

Under " Quisquilliae " that might have quite properly been called 
" that which is valuable," Mr. Ince has arranged a number of inter- 
esting suggestions, from which we have taken the following : 

"A mortar should not be used to dissolve a readily soluble salt or 
substance. 



174 



The Metric System. 



Am. Joar. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



" No metallic substance should come in contact with unguentum 
hydrargyri nitratis. 

" Chloroform and menthol are insoluble in glycerin. 

"A new label must on no account be pasted over an old one; for- 
mer directions and labels must be removed. 

" Hydrochloric acid is a safe expedient for removing stains from 
the hands. 

" The art of keeping tinctures of a uniform color is to reserve an 
eighth part of the old make and add to it the fresh preparation. 
Tincture of orange-peel may be taken as an example. 

" Tabulate doses of potent remedies ; the rest may be learned by 
constant reference. 

" Hesitate before giving an opinion as to whether a preparation is 
used or not. This is an affair of locality ; if in your district there is no 
demand for a certain article, it may be extensively used elsewhere. 

" Before actual dispensing, write the labels. When a prescription 
contains various preparations, make the suppositories first (if any) 
and set any infusion not in readiness. Time is thus economized. 

" It is against all rules of pharmacy to substitute one substance 
for another in case of being out of a particular drug." 



THE METRIC SYSTEM. 

SOME NOTES ON HERBERT SPENCER'S OBJECTIONS TO THE USE OF 

DECIMALS. 

BY M. I. WlI,BERT. 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The objections made by the late Herbert Spencer to the intro- 
duction of the metric system of weights and measures into England 
are in their nature so far-reaching that some additional information 
regarding them may not be out of place at the present time. This 
is particularly true in view of the fact that a bill for the speedy and 
compulsory introduction of the metric system has but recently 
passed second reading, without a single objection, in the British 
House of Lords. 

That Mr. Spencer himself was sincere in his objections is evidenced 
from the provisions he made in his last will and testament ; where 
it was found that he directed that if at any time, after his death, a 
concerted effort should be made to introduce a decimal system of 



Am A J P rn r ;i?M arm -} The Metric System. 175 

weights and measures, or a decimal monetary system, into Great 
Britain, his objections to such a system should be republished, in 
pamphlet form, and distributed among members of Parliament. 

As noted in the article recently published in this Journal (A. J. 
P., 1904, page 125), Mr. Spencer's objections first appeared as a 
series of anonymous letters, four in number, in the London Times. 

They were republished in this country, by permission, under Mr. 
Spencer's name, in the June (1896) number of Appleton's Popular 
Science Monthly. 

The same Journal, in October, 1896, published an article by Prof. 
J. C. Mendenhall, President of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 
in which the latter reviews the arguments advanced by Mr. Spencer 
and refutes many of the statements made by him, particularly those 
relating to the accuracy or lack of accuracy in the standard units of 
the metric system. 

In Professor Mendenhall's paper the futility of many of the argu- 
ments advanced by Mr. Spencer in his several letters is gone into 
at some length, but as neither the arguments nor the answers are of 
much interest to us as pharmacists they need not be repeated here 
at length. » 

Some exception, however, might well be made to the basic or real 
objection advanced by Mr. Spencer to the metric system. This 
appears first in the second letter of the series, where it develops 
that his objections are not directed so much against the standards 
of the metric system as they are against the introduction of any 
system that is decimal in character, feeling, as Mr. Spencer did, 
that our system of numeration by ten, and multiples of ten, was not 
in harmony with the more advanced needs of modern civilization. 
It is in this same letter that he suggests the great advantage of a 
duodecimal system of numeration ; largely on account of the number 
of factors by which twelve or a multiple of twelve would be divisible. 

Singularly enough he answers his own argument in a most satis- 
factory way when he says, " Do I think this system will be adopted ? 
Certainly not at present — certainly not for many generations," and 
adds : " In our days the mass of people, educated as well as unedu- 
cated, think only of immediate results; their imaginations of remote 
consequences are too shadowy to influence their acts." 

That Mr. Spencer had a proper appreciation of the inherent ad- 
vantages of a rational system of weights and measures that was, or 



1 7 6 



The Metric System. 



Am. .lour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



would be, generally adopted, and that he was not above recognizing 
the fact that the metric system had done much toward achieving this 
ideal, is evident from the following quotation. 

In speaking of the history and development of the metric system, 
he says: "The idea was a great one, and, allowing for the funda- 
mental defect on which I have been insisting, it was admirably 
carried out. As this defect does not diminish its great convenience 
for scientific purposes, the system has been gradually adopted by 
scientific men all over the world ; the great advantage being that 
measurements registered by a scientific man of one nation are with- 
out trouble made intelligible to those of another." 

Recognizing and admitting the numerous advantages that scientific 
men have derived from the introduction and use of the metric sys- 
tem, Mr. Spencer was, nevertheless, not willing to admit that the 
small tradesman or his customers would or could appreciate or use 
a system of weights and measures, or a system of coinage, based on 
a decimal plan, without seriously interfering with their ability to do 
business. 

This line of argument sounds strange to us in this country, where, 
we think at least, we have adapted ourselves to a decimal system of 
currency. 

How complicated our monetary system appeared to Mr. Spencer 
is evidenced when he says, referring to quotations on the New York 
Stock Exchange : " Are the quotations of prices in dollars, tenths, 
and cents ? Not at all. They are in dollars, halves, quarters and 
eighths." "That is to say, the decimal divisions of the dollar are 
entirely ignored, and the division into parts produced by halving, 
re-halving, and again halving, is adopted." 

In this practice Mr. Spencer does not recognize a possible adapta- 
tion of the decimal system of numeration, but accepts it as evidence 
of an impediment or even — retrogression. 

The same line of thought is evident when he quotes from the 
communication of a French correspondent, who says : " By adopting 
the decimal metric system, we have not made the old denomina- 
tions to disappear entirely, but we have greatly reduced their use." 
Instead of accepting this as evidence of the adaptability of metric 
weights and measures, Mr. Spencer puts it forward as an argu- 
ment against the popularity of the decimal system among the 
French people. This objection to our decimal system of numeration 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



The Gemis Eucalyptus. 



177 



has led Mr. Spencer to assert that rather than adopt a universal 
system of weights and measures based on a decimal plan, " It will 
be far better to submit for a time to the evils which our present 
mixed system entails." 

In conclusion I should like to say that few people will disagree 
with Mr. Spencer as to the possible advantage that might be 
derived from a system of numeration more adaptable than our 
present system of decimals, and but few, very few, will differ from 
him as to the impracticability of introducing such a system at the 
present time ; be it octonary, duodecimal, or sexadecimal. 

Many, particularly in this country, must fail to see how a mone- 
tary system, or a system of weights and measures, based on a deci- 
mal plan, could in any way impede trade or interfere with the 
possible adoption of any improved system of numeration that might 
be devised in the future. 



THE GENUS EUCALYPTUS. 

By Henry Kraemer. 

One of the most interesting genera of plants both from a botan- 
ical and economical point of view is that of eucalyptus. When 
the late Baron F. von Mueller prophesied that this genus would " play 
a prominent part for all time to come in sylvan culture of vast tracts 
of the globe ; and for hard-wood supplies, for sanitary measures, and 
for beneficent climatic changes all countries within the warmer 
zones will with appreciative extensiveness have to rely on our euca- 
lypts during an, as yet, uncountable period," he probably little 
realized that in twenty-five years after the publication of his class- 
ical work on " Eucalyptographia " it would already be the most 
extensively cultivated genus of forest trees, and also recognized to 
be the most valuable. 

During the past year or so several very valuable monographs on 
the eucalypts have appeared, and it is the purpose of the author of 
the present paper to review these publications together. J. H. 
Maiden 1 is publishing a "Critical Revision of the Genus Euca- 
lyptus." This work is appearing in parts, and the remaining num- 
bers will be issued as rapidly as the plates can be made, three parts 

1 J. H. Maiden, Government Botanist of New South Wales and Director of 
the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 



i 7 8 



The Genus Eucalyptus. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. April, 1904. 



having already appeared. Baker and Smith 1 have published a 
large monograph on the genus, their work having special regard to 
the essential oils yielded by the various species, and Alfred James 
McClatchie has published an interesting monograph 2 on the euca- 
lypts cultivated in the United States. 

The genus Eucalyptus was named by L'Heritier in 1788, from the 
two Greek words meaning " I cover well," " in allusion to the opercu- 
lum or lid which covers the calyx until the stamens are fully formed." 
The plants are evergreen and vary from shrubs to trees of enor- 
mous height, probably some of them being the highest trees known. 
Kerner 3 gives the height as 140 to 152 metres. The leaves fre- 
quently vary in shape and in position on both young and mature 
trees ; they are fixed vertically, and not horizontally as the leaves of 
our trees, the petiole being twisted. The leaves furthermore contain 
large oil-secreting reservoirs. The flowers are arranged in cymes 
or axillary umbels and are devoid of petals ; the usually whitish 
stamens are inflexed in the bud and expand when the operculum is 
removed, giving the name as already stated to the genus. The 
fruit is a 3. to 6-celled truncated capsule, or pyxis. The seeds are 
small and very numerous, the sterile ones predominating; this is no 
doubt one reason why there has been so much difficulty in pro- 
ducing seedlings. 4 

With a genus of so many species and numerous varieties it was to 
be expected that there would be considerable confusion in regard to 
the accurate determination of its members. Tate and Luehman 
give prominence to the fruit for purposes of classification. Maiden, 
however, says that all of its characters display a puzzling amount of 
variation, and concludes that for herbarium work the best charac- 
ters are afforded by the anthers and fruits ; whereas the scientific for- 
ester will be largely guided by the nature of the bark and timber. 
Baker and Smith, in addition to morphological characters, base 
their deductions on the chemical properties and physical charac- 
ters of oils, dyes, kinos, etc. These authors have probably the most 

1 Richard T. Baker, Curator and Economic Botanist of the Technological 
Museum, New South Wales ; and Henry G. Smith, Assistant Curator and 
Chemist of the Technological Museum, New South Wales. 

2 This is Bulletin No. 35, of the Bureau of Forestry of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 

3 "Natural History of Plants," Vol. I, p. 722. 
i McClatchie, loc. cit. y p. 44. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1904. / 



The Genus Eucalyptus. 



179 



comprehensive view of the subject, and are less likely to err in their 
conclusions, as experience covering many years has shown them 
that a species founded on field studies, the usual morphological 
data, as well as structure and nature of cell contents, is practically 
constant in specific characters. This is in a certain sense the most 
interesting part of their work. It is not at all unlikely that the next 
important classification of plants will be based largely on such his- 
tological and physiological data as Baker and Smith have consid- 
ered in their studies on this single genus. Engler and Prantl have 
attempted to utilize in a measure this kind of information on the entire 
plant kingdom, but it has been unsatisfactory, because the work done 
is not sufficient and in most cases still requires confirmation. Baker 
and Smith have made an excellent beginning, and have set the pace 
for all writers of monographs on other plant genera. 

Baker and Smith have divided the eucalypts into the following 
groups, based on the character of the oils they yield : 

Group I. — Eucalypts which give an oil consisting largely of 
pinene, without phellandrene, and in which eucalyptol is almost 
or quite absent : Eucalyptus tesselaris, E. trachyphloia\ E. terminalis, 
E. corymbosa, E. intermedia, E. eximia, E. botryoides, E. robusta, E. 
saligna, E. nova-anglica, E. umbra, E. dextropinea, E. Wilkinsoniana 
and E. Icevopinea. 

Group II. — Eucalypts which yield an oil consisting principally 
of pinene and eucalyptol, but in which the latter constituent does 
not exceed 40 per cent., phellandrene being absent : Eucalyptus 
Baeuerleni, E. propinqua, E. affinis, E. paludosa, E. /actea, E. rubida, 
E. inter texta, E. maculata, E. microcorys, E. hemilanipra, E. quadran- 
gidata, E. conica, E. Bosistoana, E. eugenioides and E. paniculata. 

Group III, Class A. — Eucalypts which yield an oil consisting 
principally of eucalyptol and pinene, and in which the eucalyptol 
exceeds 40 per cent., phellandrene being absent : Eucalyptus resini. 
fera, E. polyanthema, E. Behriana, E. Rossii, E. pendula, E. dealbata, 
E. tereticornis var. linearis, E. rostrata var. botealis, E. maculosa, E. 
camphora, E. punctata, E. squamosa, E. Bridgesiana, E. goniocalyx, 
E. bicolor, E. viminalis var. (a), E. populifolia, E. longifolia, E. iVJaideni, 
E. globulus, E. pulverulenta, E. cinerea, E. Stuartiana, E. Stuartiana 
var. cordata, E. Morrisii, E. Smithii and E. sideroxylon. 

Group III, Class B. — Eucalypts which yield an oil containing 
over 40 per cent, of eucalyptol, but in which the pinene is dimin 



180 The Genus Eucalyptus. { Am Ap rii r ,'im rm 

ishing and aromadendral is making its appearance, thus approach- 
ing the typical " Boxes," phellandrene being absent : Eucalyptus 
Cambagei, E, polybractea, E. dumosa, E. oleosa, E. cneorifelia and E. 
stricta. 

Group III, Class C. — Eucalypts which yield an oil containing 

Over 40 PER CENT. Of EUCALYPTOL, but in Which PHELLANDRENE is 

making its appearance, thus approaching the phellandrene oils: 

Eucalyptus melliodora and E. ovalifolia var. lance olata. 

Group IV. — Eucalypts which yield an oil consisting largely of 
eucalyptol, pinene and aromadendral, but in which the eucalyptol 
does not exceed 30 per cent., and in which phellandrene is absent : 
Eucalyptus tereticornis, E. punctata var. didyma, E. gracilis, E. viri- 
dis, E. Woolsiana, E. albens and E. hemiphloia. 

Group V. — Eucalypts which yield an oil consisting of pinene, 
eucalyptol and phellandrene, but in which eucalyptol does not 
exceed 30 per cent. : Eucalyptus viminalis, E. rostrata, E. ovalifolia, 
E. Dawsoni, E. angophoroides, E. fastigata, E. macrorhyncha, E. 
capiteU ita, E. nigra, E. pilularis, E. Plane honiana, E. acmenoides, E. 
fraxinoides, E. Fletcheri, E. microtheca, E. hcemastoma, E. sideroxylon 
var. pallens, E. creba, E. siderophloia and E. melanophloia. 

Group VI, Class A. — Eucalypts which yield an oil consisting 
largely of phellandrene, eucalyptol and the peppermint ketone, 
but in which the eucalyptol does not exceed 30 per cent. : Eucalyp- 
tus piperita, E. amygdalina, E. vitrea and E. Luehmanniana. 

Group VI, Class B. — Eucalypts which yield an oil consisting 
largely of phellandrene and the peppermint ketone, and in which 

EUCALYPTOL IS ALMOST, IF NOT QUITE, ABSENT '. Eucalyptus CoHacea, 

E. Stebeiiana, E. oreades, E. dives, E. radiata, E. Delegatensis, and 
E. obhqua. 

Group VII. — Eucalypts which yield an oil not readily placed in 
the other groups : Eucalyptus stellulata, E. Macarthuri, E. aggregata, 
E. virgata, E. patenting vis, E. apicidata and E. citriodora. 

Eucalyptus obtusiflora yielded no oil upon distillation. 

After many attempts Baker and Smith were unable to obtain 
material for oil-distillation of the following species : Eucalyptus 
acaciceformis, E. alpina, E. Baileyana, E. incrassata, E. ochrophloia y 
E. odorata, E. regnans, E. uncinata and E. Perriniana. 

The authors have shown in a diagram the probable evolution of 
the eucalypts as indicated by their studies on the botanical and 
chemical characters of the genus. 



Am A J p r^ r ;l?o h 4 a^m •} The Genus Eucalyptus. -181 

The monograph is an interesting one, with numerous excellent 
illustrations, and contains very many new facts in addition to an 
entirely new presentation of the subject. Not the least interesting 
is the fact that many (nearly thirty) species of Eucalyptus yield an 
oil resembling that obtained from E. globulus, containing over 40 
per cent, of eucalyptol, and that the oil of eucalyptus, e. g., E. 
globulus, is the same in character and constituents, no matter where 
the trees are grown. It has been heretofore supposed that the oils 
of E. globulus, E. cneorifolia and a few others, which have been 
derived from trees growing in the southern States (as Tasmania or 
South Australia) were superior to those obtained from trees growing 
elsewhere, as ■ in New South Wales, whereas this preference is in 
reality due " to the perseverance and persistency of the companies 
working these species, and especially to the pioneers in the industry 
having established themselves in the neighboring States." The 
statement is made that " the demand for oils rich in eucalyptol can 
now be met by the distillation of species growing in New South 
Wales and from which the present requirements of the work ^could 
be supplied." 

It is furthermore of interest, that, according to McClatchie, no less 
than eight species of the eucalypts, yielding an oil containing over 
40 per cent, of eucalyptol, are being cultivated in the United States. 

Over forty species of Eucalyptus 1 have been grown successfully 
in the United States. The following species are adapted to hot, 
humid regions and will produce useful timber : Eucalyptus botryoides, 
E. citriodora and E. resinfera. 

The following are best adapted to warm, moderately humid regions 
having light winter frosts, and are most suitable for producing timber 
valuable for commercial purposes : Eucalyptus botryoides, E. diver si- 
color, E. globulus, E. gomphocepliala and E. tereticornis. 

The following are adapted to situations not excessively warm 
during summer, but frosty during winter, and are most likely to 
give good results in the Southwest : Eucalyptus gunnii, E. leucoxylon, 
E. polyanthema, E. rudis and E. tereticornis. 

The following are adapted to dry regions free from heavy frosts, 
and produce valuable timber: Eucalyptus corynocalyx, E. creba, E. 
diversicolor, E. globulus, E. leucoxylon, E. polyanthema, E. sideroxylon 
and E. tereticornis. 



1 McClatchie, loc. cit., p. 85. 



182 



A Symposium. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



The following are adapted to moderately moist mountain situa- 
tions : Eucalyptus coriacea, E. eugenoides, E. gunnii, E. leucoxylon, 
E. obliqua, E. piperita, E. rudis and E. Stuartiana. 

The following are adapted to regions dry and hot during the 
summer and frosty during the winter : Eucalyptus corynocalyx, E. 
hemiphloia, E. leucoxylon, E. miaotheca, E. polyanthema, E. rudis, 
E. tereticornis and E. vimiualis. 

The following are adapted to cultivation on alkali soils : Euca- 
lyptus comuta, E. robusta and E. rostrata. 

The eucalypts which are growing and fruiting at the present time 
in the United States serve the following uses : Forest cover, wind- 
breaks, shade, fuel, posts, railway ties and other underground pur- 
poses, piles, street paving, telegraph poles, shipbuilding, vehicle 
•making, agricultural implements, furniture and cabinet-making, etc. 

The following species, growing in the United States, are useful as 
a source of either oil, kino or honey : (ci) As a source of oil : E. 
amygdalina, E. eugenoides, E. globidus and E rudis. (b) As a source 
of kino : E. calot>liylla, E. corymbosa, E. rostrata, E. siderophloia 
and E. sideroxylon. (c) As a source of honey: E. calopkylla, E. 
citriodora, E. corynocalyx, E. hemiphloia, E. leucoxylon, E. longi folia, 
E. melliodora, E. pihdaris, E. polyanthema, E. rostrata, E. rudis, E. 
sideroxylon and E. tereticornis. 



A SYMPOSIUM ON THE MEANING OF THE TERMS 
PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACOGNOSY, MATERIA 
MEDICA AND RELATED TERMS. 

[Continued from p. 145.) 

Owing to the recent developments in the study of pharmacology, 
and also owing to the confusion which seems to exist in the minds 
of a good many people in regard to the meaning of this and other 
terms, applied in the study of drugs and medicines, it occurred to 
the editor of this Journal that it would be interesting and profitable 
to have these terms defined according to their modern acceptation 
and uses ; and with this end in view letters have been sent to a 
number of physicians, and professors in these branches, in various 
parts of the country. The first installment of replies was published 
in our March issue and the remainder follow in the order of the dates 
on which they were written or received : 



Am. Jour. Fharm. ) 
Apiil, 1904. ) 



A Symposium. 



183 



Mr. Henry Kraemer, Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 
The definitions which I have adopted in my Therapeutics and 
Materia Medica for the words Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy and 
Materia Medica follow closely the etymology of those terms and 
agree generally with the definitions given in the Standard Diction- 
ary. The Greek word Pharmacon is acknowledged to mean a drug 
or medicine. Pharmacopoeia literally means " I make medicines," 
1. e. f give the directions for preparing and compounding medicines. 

Pharmacology can only be the science of drugs. In its broadest 
application it includes everything relating to drugs, their prepara- 
tions and their effects, both upon the human body and the lower 
animals. Some of its departments are Medical Botany, Ecology, 
Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy, Pharmacodynamics. In the last, Thera- 
peutics may be included to the extent that it refers to the employ- 
ment of drugs in the prevention or treatment of diseases. 

Materia Medica comprises what a physician should know about 
the remedies in repute for the treatment of diseases. It is an elastic 
term and may be extended so as to correspond with Pharmacology, 
or, on the other hand, limited to the articles in the Pharmacopoeia. 
Pharmacognosy is the knowledge of the qualities of unprepared 
medicines. It may also be defined as the science of poisons, but it 
should not be so used. Pharmacodynamics studies the physiological 
action of drugs. Very truly yours, 

John V. Shoemaker. 

15 19 Walnut Street, February 4, 1904. 



Dear Dr. Kraemer : 

I scarcely know how to answer your query as to the meaning of 
Pharmacology, etc., and, to tell the truth, have little taste for these 
discussions. Pharmacology I have always used to indicate the study 
of the effects of drugs or reactions observed between chemical 
agents and living matter, without reference to the purpose for which 
they are used. It thus includes the action of drugs and poisons on 
plants and animals, whether normal or diseased, and whether applied 
to injure or kill (poisons) or to heal (drugs). One branch of it, em- 
braced under therapeutics, deals with the effects in disease ; another, 
toxicology, with the effects of poisonous doses. Pharmacology takes, 
to my mind, no cognizance of the origin of the chemical agent nor, 
in fact, of its chemical nature. Materia Medica — a much older term — 



A Symposium. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. April, 1904. 



indicates the study of drugs before the modern experimental methods 
were introduced, and may still be used to include knowledge of the 
type then extant, such as the origin and chemical nature of drugs, 
their more striking effects and their method of preparation and 
dosage. Much of this knowledge is, however, now denoted under 
Pharmacognosy, and, in fact, the old term Materia Medica may be 
regarded as becoming superfluous, that side of it which looked 
towards the chemical side being known as pharmacognosy, while 
the effects on living matter, which were in later years included under 
Materia Medica, may now be placed under Pharmacology. 

There is, as you say, much confusion in regard to the use of the 
terms. I think that in the history of the word, pharmacology was 
first used in the same sense as pharmacognosy at present. Pharma- 
cognosy is, I fancy, a comparatively recent term. 

If your symposium tends to define the meaning of these terms, it 
will not have been in vain ; but I suppose nothing less than the fiat 
of an academy would suffice to bring order into the present confusion. 
Yours sincerely, 

Arthur R. Cushny. 

University of Michigan, February 6, 1904. 



My dear Professdr Kraemer : 

The composite nature of our language often accounts for what 
seems to be flagrant irregularities in the meanings assigned to words. 
As a consequence it is impossible for many English words, such as 
are constructed out of one or more foreign equivalents, each pos- 
sessing several shades of meaning, to dispossess themselves of their 
original genetic dualism or polyism. Of course, there are many 
Latin and Greek words that carry only a single thought or concep- 
tion, and correctly preserve this unicism when transferred, somewhat 
changed, as a correlative in English. Thus when the Latins wished 
to convey the simple idea of wood, the connection, as sometimes 
in English; alone determined which specific word should be em- 
ployed — lignum , matefia, silva, nemus, lucus, saltus — as each was 
accepted to be used differently and under no condition interchange- 
ably. There are, however, so many of our foreign derivatives 
possessing a dual significance that, as a people, we are not slow in 
accepting such possibilities, or better advantages, wherever they 
happen to occur. Even in translations, irrespective of source, we 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



A Symposium. 



i8 5 



all have noticed another cause for dualism — the great difference 
between the literal and liberal rendition, for it is this that ofttimes, 
through a process of evolution, creates a general significance out of 
the specific. So when we come to consider these three terms : 
materia medica, pharmacology, and pharmacognosy — we should not 
lose sight of the prior condition of service in the mother tongue of 
the component units or words. 

(1) Materia Medica. — Here we have two Latin simples; the 
former (matetia, ce), a singular, feminine noun, signifying liberally — 
matter, material, stuff, of which anything is composed, in the very 
widest sense; the latter (medica, us, a, um,), an adjective with femi- 
nine, singular termination, in agreement with materia, signifying 
literally — medical, curative, of or belonging to healing. The term, 
therefore, means, medical matter, medical material, medical stuff, 
and, although written in the singular, the word materia implies col- 
lectiveness, plurality; hence, curative remedies, agents, be these 
what they may. In pursuance of this idea we refer constantly to 
the matter or material of the universe, including without question, 
at least, all that is unorganized, and possibly equally well the 
organized. Liberally, the term is accepted as including everything 
employed to palliate physical suffering, and the scientific treatment 
of such agents is reduced to a science bearing the name. " Medical 
material " is certainly very comprehensive, and a work titled " Mate- 
ria Medica " is absolutely without restriction as to quantity and 
quality of its contents, so long as all included substances are 
believed to possess curative power. Heat, cold, light, darkness, 
electricity, galvanism, massage, hydropathy, simple mechanical ap- 
pliances are all within its scope, just as much so as the more im- 
portant organic and inorganic drugs. There is no doubt but that 
in the earlier days of medicine, when the term " materia medica " 
was selected, it was intended to include all curative agents as well 
as all important knowledge pertaining thereto. But drugs at that 
time, be it remembered, were by no means so well understood as at 
present, inasmuch as their treatises then were restricted chiefly to 
the source, physical description of the crude parts (botanically, 
chemically, etc.), doses, acceptable preparations, method of manu- 
facture, etc., having little or nothing to say concerning the applica- 
cion of drugs to the well or sick organism. The original science 
consequently occupied a somewhat limited field compared with that 



1 86 A Symposium. { Am A J P Xii& arnK 

of to-day, from the fact that as science in general became more 
popular, the progressive medical minds desired to know the whys 
and wherefores of results obtained through medicines. This laud- 
able ambition opened the way to an endless amount of experimenta- 
tion, which has resulted in the ultra scientific individual preferring 
to draw a line between the primitive conception, descriptive, and the 
more modern, applied, and to each assign distinctive names — to the 
former materia medica, or pure materia medica ; to the latter, phar- 
macology and therapeutics. 

(2) Pharmacology, Gr. (pappaxov (pharmocon) -f A.o'j-o? (logos), 
Xoyia (logia) — pharmaco(n)log(-ia)y. Here again we have two for- 
eign simples contributing to form our term, each carrying several 
meanings; the former (jpdppiaxov) signifies literally — any artificial 
means for producing physical effects, which again is very compre- 
hensive, but the Greeks shaded this conception by assigning to it 
a more restrictive meaning— a medicine, drug, remedy; thus 
yfLschylus wrote : (pappaxov voaou, a medicine for sickness ; the 
latter word (A-ofo?) is equally sweeping, for natives employed it so 
universally — sometimes to mean a word, or words, a saying, speak- 
ing, language, talk, statement, dialogue, conversation, discussion, 
discourse, history, account, consideration, etc. Consequently it is 
evident, should we so desire, there is nothing etymologically that 
could prevent the employment of the word pharmacology with the 
broadest latitude — as a true synonym or companion term to materia 
medica, and in this sense it is accepted very often. 

When about the middle of the last century some of the leading 
scientists, especially in Germany, took up experimental vivisection, 
and the application of drugs to the living animal, man included, the 
word pharmacology was coined, and ever since in that country it 
has maintained this restricted signification — the science of remedies, 
other than foods : how these when administered, in fine subdivision, 
act and produce changes in the living organism ; the explanation of 
the symptoms created in health or sickness by substances detri- 
mental or useful ; how drugs effect our organs, tissues, fluids, 
secretions, etc., thereby accomplishing work. Thus it would seem 
to deal with invisible theories, while materia medica with visible mate- 
rials, and thereby becomes but another name for the physiological 
action of drugs and their constituents in health and sickness. This 
field is so comprehensive, important and different from the older 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
April, 1904. 



A Symposium. 



i8 7 



materia medica, that it possibly deserved a specific name, and the 
one selected answers admirably, provided by common consent it can 
so be understood and observed universally. 

(3) Pharmacognosy, Gr. <fidppaxov (pharmacon) -f yv&ats, yvcoor) 
(gnosis, gnoso) — pharmaco(n)gnosy. Here, as in the two preceding 
cases, we have two foreign simples combined to form our English 
term ; the former ((pap [iaxov) has already been explained under 
pharmacology ; the latter (jvaiots, yvcoar)), as with \6yos, is very 
far reaching, it actively being equivalent to — a knowledge, an in- 
quiry, knowledge of a higher order, deeper wisdom, acquaintance, 
knowing, recognizing. Again here, so far as etymology is con- 
cerned, there is no restriction of scope to which the term may 
apply, and yet it was instituted for conveying the idea of a masterly 
study of the drugs, but along a restrictive or special line, and for this, 
as seen above, the original roots give abundant license in the one 
shade of meaning, recognizing, i. e., one drug from another by phy- 
sical and chemical characters, which may be interpreted liberally as 
comprising the knowledge of selecting and identifying true and 
false specimens by such characteristics. Consequently this is the 
descriptive side of materia medica (science of describing drugs 
physically) as pharmacology is the experimental side — science of the 
action of drugs. 

Conclusions: 

(1) Materia Medica. — The older name for a treatise on curative 
agents, and although originally intended to be all comprehensive, is 
employed often at present in a restrictive sense— simply to a gen- 
eral consideration of the materials in all respects, save that of appli- 
cation — physiological action and therapy. 

(2) Pharmacology. — Although literally a synonym of materia 
medica in its broadest sense, yet was intended originally to represent 
the experimental side of the subject — the application of agents to 
the system ; how they act upon the ,healthy and sickly organisms, 
thereby revealing their possible value in curing disease. 

(3) Pharmacognosy. — Although a term equally comprehensive as 
the two preceding, yet it was created to represent the descriptive 
side of materia medica, so far as it may apply to describing, physic- 
ally and chemically, the animal and vegetable crude drugs, disclos- 
ing thus by comparison the many distinguishing characteristics. 

While the employment of these three terms in a liberal sense, 



i88 



A Symposium. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



seems equally permissible, yet the exercise of this inherent quality 
has led to so much confusion that it would be far better to accept 
each in an independent spirit, or restrictively, as was intended, and 
now is preferred by many. Such, however, can only result through 
common consent and usage of the scientific workers, and these as a 
class seem almost as disinclined at present as in the past to use their 
best efforts towards harmony and uniformity. 

David M. R. Culbreth, M.D. 
1307 N. Calvert Street, Baltimore, February 11, 1904. 



To the Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

When, twenty years ago, I first began critically to study defini- 
tions for my work, I observed the diversity even then existing in the 
meaning of the terms descriptive of the various medical sciences. 

I then accepted the definitions as laid down by Dr. Hermann Hager 
in " Erster Unterricht des Pharmaceuten," and have never seen the 
necessity of materially changing my conception of his views of the 
subject. Hager, to my mind, was the world's greatest pharmaceu- 
tical author (" Schriftsteller " is more expressive), because he went to 
the root of every subject, and could therefore always be relied on, 
besides etymology was his especial fort. 

Accordingly, pharmacology means literally the science of drugs 
— the very broadest term that could be conceived, since it com- 
prises everything that pertains to the composite — " medicine " — 
except psychic and mechanic agents and influences, or the " imma- 
teria medica " of the present age, also known as the " non "-phar- 
maco-therapy, or the treatment of disease without drugs, from 
massage and electricity to climatology and " christian science " (?). 

Since the confusion as to the meaning of the term pharmacology 
has arisen through the application of the term to describe experi- 
mental pharmacodynamics — the action of drugs on the living organ- 
isms in the normal state or health — by chiefly all English-speaking 
writers, it may be well to first consider some foreign authorities. 

Of English authorities, Brunton appears to define pharmacology 
" as that division of materia medica which treats of the action of 
drugs on the living body." 

Of French authorities, the great work of Littre," Dictionnaire de 
Medicine, Chirurgie et Pharmacie " (Bailliere), says : " Materia 
medica is that part of pharmacology which treats of the origin, char- 



Am A J p r , ? 1 r ;S arm -} A Symposium. 189 

acter and composition of medicinal substances; pharmacology com- 
prising, in addition to this, also therapeutics." 

Of German authorities, Theo. Husemann (Gottingen) " Gesammte 
Arzneimittellehre " makes the following classification: 

PHARMACOLOGY ARZNEIMITTELLEHRE. 

(1) Pharmacognosy — Drogenwaaren Kunde. 

(2) Pnarmaceutical chemistry. 

(3) Pharmacodynamics — action on normal organism. 

(4) Therapy — action on abnormal organism. 

(5) Compounding — Recepture-Kunst. 

(6) Dosage — posology. 

From these considerations, I would formulate the definitions as 
follows : 

Pharmacology — the science of medicinal agents — material or pon- 
derable. 

Comprising these divisions : 

Materia Medica. Organic. Inorganic. 

Derivation. Pharmacognosy. Chemistry. 

Character. ( Physics. " 

Properties. ( Chemistry. " 

Pharmacodynamics — toxicology, action and force of substances 
on living organism in normal state — health. 

Therapeutics — action on abnormal living organism in disease ; 
also comprises " immateria medica." 

Pharmacy — preparation and compounding ; really comprises all 
but pharmacodynamics ; incidentally, therapeutics, to " serve " bet- 
ter " forms " of pharmaceutic agents. 

I am especially interested in the effort to secure an intelligent 
understanding of these terms, since if the proposed definition of 
pharmacology were generally accepted, it could advantageously 
supersede the present unwieldy title of the Section on Materia 
Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics of the American Medical 
Association. Fraternally, 

Carl S. N. Hallberg, Ph.G., M.D. 

Chicago, Iu,., February 16, 1904. 



Dear Professor Kraemer : 

I have had it in mind to comply with a request received from you 
some time ago for my understanding of certain words. What I 



190 New York College of Pharmacy. { Am A P ™f;i^ arm - 

have jotted down now may be of no value, and may not accord with 
the ideas of others altogether. 

Pharmacy. — (1) The art of preparing and compounding drugs for 
use as medicines. (2) The occupation of an apothecary. (3) The 
place of business of an apothecary. 

The use of the word in the third of these senses is recent, and 
should be discountenanced. 

Pharmacology. — That branch of science which relates to drugs, 
including their origin or source, the history of their medicinal use, 
their recognition in the several pharmacopoeias, etc. Some recent 
writers have used the word in a restricted sense as the science of 
the action of medicines, which is properly called pharmacodynam- 
ics. In the larger meaning the word, no doubt, according to its 
etymology, might include both pharmacodynamics and pharmacog- 
nosy. It is better, in my judgment, to confine the use of the word 
to the range indicated in the above definition. This, I think, is in 
accordance with common usage. 

Pharmacognosy. — -That knowledge of drugs which may be de- 
scribed as a practical acquaintance with them as objective things. 

Materia Medica. — In its original and restricted sense, simply an 
enumeration of those articles employed as medicines, or as remedial 
agents. The term is, however, very commonly used in these days 
as a general one, including everything that belongs to a knowledge 
of drugs, so that pharmacology, pharmacognosy and pharmacody- 
namics are but branches of " Materia Medica." Such a use of the 
term is, however, not in accordance with etymology, and a purist 
would incline to make pharmacology the general word. 

I have not consulted dictionaries in the foregoing definitions, but 
endeavored to state what seems to me to be the accepted and 
approved usage in literature. 

Very truly yours, 

A. B. Lyons. 

Detroit, Mich.. March 4, 1904. 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 

The affiliation of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New 
York, on the seventy-fifth anniversary of the College, with Colum- 
bia University, on the same basis as Barnard College and Teachers 



Am Ap O rii r :i904 arm '} New York College of Pharmacy. 191 

College, is a matter of more than passing moment. We are indebted 
to Mr. O. J. Griffin, assistant secretary of the College, for a typewrit- 
ten account from stenographer's notes of the annual meeting of the 
College, held on March 15th, when the ratification of the union was 
effected. 

Prof. Charles F. Chandler, who is president of the College, was 
unable to be present on account of illness, and in taking the chair, 
Vice-President Schieffelin said : " I regret exceedingly that President 
Chandler is ill in bed. He was taken with the grip to-day, but got 
up and dressed this evening, intending to come to this meeting, but 
they positively had to prevent his coming out." He then said : "The 
principal business before us to-night is to act upon the report of the 
special committee appointed by the Trustees to confer with the 
authorities of Columbia University. 1 have the honor to be chair- 
man of that committee; but before presenting the report, I will read 
Dr. Chandler's letter, which most of you have received, but which 
is important enough to read again. The letter was as follows: 

" The suggestion that this consolidation should take place came 
from the authorities of Columbia. The true significance of that 
should cause a great deal of gratification to every member of the 
College of Pharmacy, because it is undoubtedly an evidence that 
those gentlemen conisdered our College to be of the first rank. We 
have known this ourselves; but to the public it has been regarded 
as a college supported by the druggists and organized by the drug- 
gists, and to a certain extent a trade college. Why it hardly seemed to 
many of us ten or fifteen years ago, within the range of possibility to 
become a part of the University, although when I was abroad in 
Munich and saw the students studying pharmacy, the regularly 
matriculated students of the University of Munich, which was then 
the second university in Germany, it occurred to me then how unfor- 
tunate I had been in not being able to study pharmacy at Columbia, 
as I had been able to study chemistry, and I thought that in the not 
far distant future the chemist and the pharmacist would have the 
great advantage of the entire University training. This advantage 
is now within our reach. 

" I want to point out to you that all the members of the College, 
that all the students and graduates, the Trustees, the ex-President 
and the President, and above all, the Faculty of the College, are 
the ones who are responsible for this move. I may say that 



192 New York College of Pharmacy. { Am ASim arm ' 

from the very beginning they have striven for the very highest 
standard of honorable scholarship in pharmacy — they have always 
striven to raise the standard. The Philadelphia College and the 
New York College have taken the very first rank in pharmaceutical 
education in this country, and it is to our credit, for we may say it, 
and to our honor, that Columbia University has recognized this fact. 
We can be very sure that no such suggestion, no such invitation, 
would have come from them if they had not investigated and recog- 
nized the quality of instruction and the high standard held by this 
College." 

After pointing out some of the advantages which the students of 
the College would enjoy as undergraduates of Columbia, the Chair- 
man said : " The negotiations have been rather protracted, because 
there were a great many minor points to be adjusted. It seemed at 
first glance that it would not be possible because our standard of 
admission was not the same as for admission to Columbia, and be- 
cause the courses and diploma were not the same. But your com- 
mittee has had many conferences and many meetings. The men 
whom you must thank for bringing it to a successful close, the ones 
who have given it the greatest time and advice, are President 
Chandler, Secretary Main, Treasurer Bigelow and Professor Rusby, 
of the Faculty. They have been constant in furthering these nego- 
tiations and in giving of their time and their experience to help." 

Thomas F. Main, Secretary oi the College, was then asked to read 
the agreement proposed, which was as follows : 

This Agreement, made the day of , one thousand nine 

hundred , between 

The Trustees of Columbia College in the City of New York, and the College 
of Pharmacy of the City of New York (hereinafter referred to respectively as 
"Columbia University," or "the University," and "The College of Phar- 
macy "), Witnesseth : 

For the purpose of securing to the students of the above-named University 
and College reciprocal advantages and opportunities, and especially for the 
purpose of including the College of Pharmacy as a professional school for 
pharmacists and pharmaceutical chemists in the educational system of the 
University, it is mutually covenanted and agreed : 

( 1 ) That the President of the University shall be, ex officio, President of the 
College of Pharmacy. He shall preside at the meetings of the Faculty of the 
College and shall have general supervision and direction of the educational 
administration of such College as in the other schools of the University. 

(2) That the internal administration of the College of Pharmacy shall be 



Am A™n;im. rm '} New York College of Pharmacy. 193 

conducted by a Dean, who shall be appointed by the Trustees of the College of 
Pharmacy on the nomination of the President of the University. 

(3) That the College of Pharmacy shall be represented in the University 
Council of Columbia University by its Dean. Whenever the College shall 
maintain ten or more professors in its Faculty, it shall be entitled to a repre- 
sentative in the Council, additional to the Dean, who shall be elected by such 
Faculty. 

(4) That representatives of the University Departments of Botany, Chemis- 
try, Physiological Chemistry and Materia Medica, to be designated by the 
President of the University, shall be members, ex officiis, of the Faculty of the 
College of Pharmacy. Such representatives of University departments shall 
have no right to vote for the representative of the Faculty of the College of 
Pharmacy in the University Council. 

(5) That the University will confer such degrees and diplomas upon students 
and graduates of the College of Pharmacy as may from time to time be author- 
ized by the Trustees of the College of Pharmacy and approved by the University 
Council, provided that so long as this agreement is in force the College of 
Pharmacy shall grant no degrees or diplomas except such as may be approved 
by the University Council. 

(6) That the College of Pharmacy shall continue to exercise the direction 
and control of all instruction given therein, and the right to grant such certifi- 
cates to students not candidates for a degree or diploma as may be determined 
by the Faculty of the College of Pharmacy with the approval of the University 
Council ; and shall exercise all other corporate rights and powers which are not 
delegated to the University by this agreement ; but this agreement shall not be 
deemed a surrender by the College of Pharmacy of any powers conferred upon 
it by charter. 

(7) That the College of Pharmacy shall retain its separate corporate organi- 
zation, and that the Trustees of the College of Pharmacy shall continue to 
provide for the financial support thereof, it being distinctly understood and 
agreed that the University is, and shall be, under no implied obligation, respon- 
sibility or liability of any kind whatsoever for the maintenance, support, direc- 
tion or management of the College of Pharmacy or for the disbursement of the 
income thereof ; but that all and every such obligation or liability shall be 
strictly limited to the duties and obligations hereinbefore expressly and in 
terms assumed and agreed to by the University. 

(8) That the courses of instruction given in either the University or the Col- 
lege of Pharmacy shall be open, subject to the general regulations of each 
institution, to every qualified student who has duly matriculated in either the 
University or the College of Pharmacy. 

(9) That, for each student of the University pursuing courses in the College 
of Pharmacy, the University shall pay the College of Pharmacy at a rate to be 
agreed upon from time to time. For each student of the College of Pharmacy 
pursuing elective courses in the University, the College shall pay to the Uni- 
versity at a rate to be agreed upon from time to time. No payment shall be 
called for from one to the other on account of students or instructors receiving 
instruction as Fellows or Scholars, or otherwise without payment of fees for 
tuition either in the University or the College of Pharmacy. 

(10) That the Libraries of the University and of the College of Pharmacy 



194 New York College of Pharmacy. {^-i^\,x^ m ' 

shall be open, upon equal terms, to all students of the University and of the 
College. 

(n) That the Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, the Librarian, and 
the Registrar of the University, or the persons performing the duties now 
attached to these offices, shall be, respectively, Superintendent of Buildings 
and Grounds, the Librarian, and the Registrar of the College of Pharmacy. 

(12) This agreement shall take effect July 1, 1904. 

(13) This agreement may be modified at any time by mutual consent expressed 
in writing, and may be terminated at the end of any academic year, and after 
one year's notice in writing, from either party to the other. 

Mr. Samuel W. Fairchild, an ex-President of the College, moved 
the adoption of the report of the committee and of the Board of 
Trustees, and the ratification of the same, which motion was sec- 
onded by Mr. Mclntyre. 

The chairman then called upon members of the committee to 
explain certain things in regard to the agreement, and Mr. Bigelow, 
Treasurer of the College, spoke as follows : 

" Mr. Chairman, after listening to the reading of this proposed 
plan of merger with Columbia University, it must be apparent to 
every member of this College who has read this agreement or who 
has listened to the reading of it, that we are in no wise surrender- 
ing our College wholly to Columbia University. We are not giving 
up a great deal. On the other hand, the advantages that will accrue 
to this College from its union with Columbia are very great. It is 
now some ten years since the subject was first discussed, but the 
interest at that time did not seem very great on either side. Co- 
lumbia was then at its old quarters on Madison Avenue, and aside 
from the union with the College of Physicians and Surgeons, no 
other separate teaching institution had been incorporated with it, 
with the College as it was at that time. Since the University has 
moved to its new location at 1 16th Street, it has planned to take in 
a number of other Colleges. The Teachers College was the first, 
I believe, then Barnard College, and I think we should feel highly 
flattered that we are the third institution to be invited to join that 
great University. At the meeting of our committee with President 
Butler, of Columbia, he informed us that it was proposed that the 
University take in a large number of Colleges in this vicinity, on 
the same basis as the invitation to this College to join Columbia. 
This College occupies a very unique position as an independent 
College. It has never had an endowment of any kind, and still is 
self-sustaining, and for the past five years has had a surplus in its 



A %p°rn r ;im rm '} New York College of Pharmacy. 195 

treasury at the end of each year, and has paid off some of the 
mortgage on its building. These facts, of course, were known to 
President Butler when he made overtures to this College to join 
Columbia, and the curriculum of this College was fully looked into, 
and it appeared to the faculty and trustees of Columbia that it 
would be better to invite a College of Pharmacy of the standing of 
this College to join the University, rather than to set up a separate 
department for instruction in pharmacy, which it became apparent 
to the trustees of Columbia in the near future would be necessary. 
Many of the details in regard to the curriculum have not as yet 
been worked out, but the business end of the plan has been gone 
into thoroughly, and the trustees of the College feel assured that it 
will work well in the future. We do not relinquish supervision of 
our funds, neither do we relinquish any of our present rights. The 
Librarian of Columbia will have charge of our library; the Custodian 
of Buildings of Columbia will have charge of our building, super- 
vision over it, and make certain recommendations in regard to car- 
rying on the work of the College from a business point of view. It 
is now some five or six months since this plan was presented to 
the trustees, and so far as I know, and so far as I can learn from other 
members, not a dissenting voice has been raised against this pro- 
posed plan, and we come before you to-night and present it, with the 
hope that it will receive the unanimous support of every mem- 
ber of the College." 

Professor Rusby then spoke on behalf of the Faculty, in favor of 
the proposed agreement. 

Vice-President Schieffelin said : " I want to announce that a few 
days ago the trustees of the University of Columbia approved this 
agreement as it is here printed, I believe unanimously." 

Mr. Ewen Mclntyre, ex-President of the College, spoke as follows: 
" Gentlemen: — I hardly think it is necessary for me to add anything 
to what has already been stated here as to the good that will come 
to us from the proposition now before us. I think that when Dr. 
Rusby gets to be about my age he will not tell the same story about 
the old fellows that he tells now ; and he will arrive there if he lives 
long enough. I have seen great changes since I graduated at this 
College some fifty-seven years ago. I knew every one of the original 
incorporators of the institution ; all passed away, the last one only 
some three years ago — George N. Lawrence. And what is more 



196 New York College of Pharmacy. { Am A J p rlf;im rm ' 

remarkable, I have lived to see the fourth generation of one of our 
drug houses presiding here at our meeting to-night. (Applause.) 
It is a remarkable coincidence. It is not many who live to see that 
sort of thing. It gives me very great pleasure to be here to-night, and 
I am sure that every one of us will see our way clear to accept this 
proposition. I had a very warm letter from Dr. Chandler on 
Saturday requesting that I would make a great effort to be here. 
He little thought then that I would be here and he would not. That 
I regret his absence it is not necessary for me to say." 

Dr. Elliott also spoke in favor of the proposed agreement, and 
Mr. Main suggested that a rising vote be taken. 

The chair then put the question, and requested all in favor of 
accepting the proposed agreement between the Trustees of Colum- 
bia College, in the city of New York, and the College of Pharmacy, 
of the city of New York, to signify the fact by rising. 

The Secretary counted the vote, and announced seventy-nine in 
favor of the proposition. 

The chair then requested any voting in the negative to rise, and, 
there being none, announced the vote as unanimous. 

The chair then announced the customary recess of five minutes 
previous to the election of officers. 

The following officers were elected : President, Nicholas Murray 
Butler ; First Vice-President, Charles F. Chandler ; Second Vice- 
President, Wm. Jay Schieffelin ; Third Vice-President, Herbert D. 
Robbins ; Treasurer, Clarence O. Bigelow ; Secretary, Thomas F. 
Main ; Assistant Secretary, O. J. Griffin ; Trustees, Messrs. Amend, 
Goldmann, Knapp, White and Henning. 

After the ratification of the agreement of consolidation between 
the two institutions, the chairman of the Drug Trade Section of the 
Board of Trade and Transportation said that " the manufacturers and 
the jobbers of your city are interested in your progress, and stand 
ready to render what assistance they may in the maintenance and 
perpetuation of an institution so necessary for the welfare of man- 
kind, and one in which there is centered so much of local pride. I 
believe this to be a long stride forward in the bettering and raising 
of the standard of pharmaceutical education." 

Mr. Felix Hirseman, on behalf of the German Apothecaries' 
Society, said : " The retail pharmacists of this city in local associa- 
tions, and also in conventions in the State of New York for the last 



An April? i904 arm '} New York College of Pharmacy. 197 

five years, have looked with favor to an advancement in the study of 
pharmacy, and to-day there is pending in the Legislature of this 
State a bill providing that education shall be necessary before a 
student can matriculate in any college of pharmacy in the State of 
New York. There is little doubt in my mind that that bill will 
finally become a law, and will demand a higher education to become 
a matriculant of such a college. I think, ladies and gentlemen, the 
dawn of a high education in pharmacy is at hand, for which the 
ambitions of the members of this college have been striving for years." 

Among other things, Dr. Wm. C. Alpers said: "We now ap- 
proach a system where the preliminary requirements of those who 
wish to enter the College will not be any more a matter of form, 
but will be strictly enforced. We know under what difficulties all 
colleges of pharmacy in this country have suffered. We know that 
pharmacy is not a science of itself, but rather the combination of 
the study of other sciences, and as these different sciences have 
made enormous progress during the last two or three decades, we 
know the leaders in the colleges of pharmacy have been compelled 
in order to keep pace with the advancement of these sciences, to 
pile one new study after another on the curriculum, which ten or 
twenty years ago was even then too difficult for the material that 
was at our disposal. We know what a vast difference exists be- 
tween the preliminary requirements of the colleges of pharmacy in 
this country and similar institutions in Europe. The high require- 
ments there enforced are not the result of despotism or the desire 
of selfish exclusiveness, for these colleges are just as anxious to get 
students as we are. But these high requirements are absolutely 
necessary and were forced upon the leaders of the old universities 
as the result of experiments for a century." 

Charles S. Erb, on behalf of the Alumni Association, said : " In 
order to show the appreciation of the Alumni Association for this 
College, they have thought it wise to give some tangible token of 
their love for the College, and on this seventy-fifth anniversary they 
donate to the College the sum of $2,000. In this connection I may 
state that about $500 of this sum has been given by the professors 
of the College, $500 by the Association itself, and the other thou- 
sand has been contributed by several members." 

President Nicholas Murray Butler, of Columbia, was not present, 
having gone to Mexico. 



198 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices, {^i^Sg™ 1 - 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

First Course in Microchemical Analysis. By Carl Gustav Hin- 
richs. With atlas. St. Louis, Mo., 1904. New York and Leipzig: 
Lemcke and Buechner. 

About a year ago Prof. Gustav D. Hinrichs, the well-known author 
on atomic weights and general chemistry, requested his son to work 
out a course in microchemical analysis which should not require 
the use of sulphuretted hydrogen, intending to use it in connection 
with a work on microchemical analysis which he had contemplated 
publishing. Upon the completion of the work by his son, the elder 
Hinrichs insisted that his son's name appear as author, he writing, 
an introduction to crystallographic chemistry. 

Microchemical analysis is defined as the chemical identification of 
minimal amounts of substance in concentrated solutions. The 
amount of substance used in such analysis is very small, usually a 
tenth of a milligramme giving sharp and positive results. 

While it is known to a certain extent that the crystalline form of 
a substance is an extremely important physical property in its iden- 
tification, yet chemists have not generally confirmed their results by 
microscopic examinations of chemicals or precipitates. This work 
by Hinrichs will draw attention again to this important subject. 

Considerable work has already been accomplished along this line, 
there being at least one rather comprehensive German work on the 
subject. The plates reproduced from the works of Behrens, Haus- 
hofer, Lehman, and others, as well as the original drawings of the 
author, are of considerable assistance in connection with the text. 
In the present work the author has considered the substances usu- 
ally considered in a complete course of qualitative analysis. 

Another work covering Dr. Hinrichs's researches on complex 
compounds and mixtures, as well as organic compounds, is in prep- 
aration. 

The introduction to crystallographic chemistry, by Dr. Gustav D. 
Hinrichs, is particularly valuable and unusually clear. 

We commend the present work for its originality and usefulness, 
to chemists and pharmacists, and all interested in microchemical 
analysis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
April, 1904. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The sixth of the pharmaceutical meetings of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy of the series for 1 903-04 was held on Tuesday, 
March 15th, at 3 o'clock. Mr. William L. Cliffe, a member of the 
Board of Trustees, presided. 

The first paper on the programme was by Prof. Wilbur L. Scoville, 
of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, on " Aromatic Elixir," 
which was accompanied by specimens, and was read in the absence 
of the author by Mr. Warren H. Poley. (See page 158). In dis- 
cussing the paper, E. M. Boring remarked that he followed the 
method recommended by Professor Scoville of separating the yellow, 
oily layer of the rind by paring it off with a shoemaker's knife. The 
observation that the addition of alcohol either to the orange and 
lemon peels or to the oils masked the odor, was commented upon 
by Messrs. Poley, Boring, Cliffe and Remington. Professor Reming- 
ton said that perfumers had long known that alcohol was a perfect 
solvent for volatile oils, holding the constituents very closely, and 
that dissociation was effected upon the addition of water to the 
alcoholic solution, thus developing the odor. Charles Leedom 
stated that he preferred to use solutions of good volatile oils. 

Professor Remington said that owing to the fact that it was almost 
impossible to obtain volatile oils of orange and lemon that could be 
depended upon, it was proposed to introduce into the next Pharma- 
copoeia a process for making spirits of orange and lemon directly 
from the peel, and that the preparations thus made kept many times 
better than spirits made from the volatile oils. He furthermore said 
that he doubted if muscatel wine would be introduced into the Pharma- 
copoeia. 

The question was raised by Professor Remington as to how the 
pharmacists of the country would receive the change proposed by 
Professor Scoville, and whether they would take the trouble to get 
oranges and lemons for the preparation of the tinctures. 

Mr. Boring said that it would depend upon the individual, that 
the man who was interested in his profession would use the improved 
formula. Mr. Poley said it would depend upon whether the formula 
was an actual improvement, and cited the efficiency of the old 
formula for syrup of tolu as compared to that which is official at the 
present time. In regard to this point, Professor Remington said 



200 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharns. 
April. 1904. 



that the old formulas for both syrup of tolu and syrup of ginger 
would be restored. 

Dr. Carl Frese, L.S.A., of Philadelphia, presented a paper, entitled 
" A Physician's Experience with Pharmacists." The paper gave 
rise to an animated discussion, which was participated in by Messrs. 
Warren H. Poley, E. M. Boring, Wm. Mclntyre, C. B. Lowe, Joseph 
P. Remington, M. I. Wilbert, Wm. A. Lee, John Burg, Charles 
Leedom and the chairman. Like in all discussions of this kind, it 
was shown that the better the understanding between physicians 
and pharmacists the better it is for both professions, and that in 
both professions there are men who do not live up to the code of ethics 
of their respective callings. Owing to the importance of this sub- 
ject, not only in its relation to the two professions, but as it concerns 
the public at large, it will be further considered at a later meeting. 

Mr. Mclntyre said he thought that physicians who use the metric 
system should use the line rather than the point for separating the 
decimal quantities. 

Mr. Wilbert called attention to the difference existing between 
the practice of pharmacy in hospitals in Philadelphia and the same 
in the hospitals in Europe, particularly in Paris, where, of the fifty- 
seven active members of the Paris Society of Pharmacy, twenty-two 
are hospital pharmacists, and many of them leaders in their profes- 
sion and well-known scientific men. 

Harold B. Morgan, P.D., read a short paper describing a uni- 
versal percolating stand which he had devised, and exhibited a stand 
in connection therewith. The stand is capable of an operation re- 
quiring any size of percolator up to 3 gallons, and any size of 
receiver up to a 5 -gallon demijohn. Professor Remington said the 
idea was a good one, providing one had plenty of room. He said 
there was no disadvantage in the iron ring if sections of rubber tu- 
bing are placed at several places on the ring, as originally suggested 
by Dr. Squibb. 

He further remarked that by use of an iron rod, six percolators 
could be used at a time, and said that with a revolving stand, like a 
castor or book-case, its usefulness would be increased. Mr. W. C. 
Wescott said that he used a method suggested to him by Mr. Wilbert 
and employed by him at the German Hospital, namely, of using 
iron rods suspended from joists in the ceiling. 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., presented some notes from Joseph Ince's 
book on " Elementary Dispensing" (see page 171). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April. 1904. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



201 



Wm. Mclntyre exhibited a collection of price-lists of forty years 
ago, and said : 

" The object of the committee in having this subject brought to 
the meeting is largely the historic side, and while I can show some 
lists of the period, you will find the exhibit contains names of firms 
still in business, and many others who have been part of the drug, 
chemical and allied industries of our city. 

" With such a large and representative meeting of druggists I will 
take occasion to distribute some pictures of members of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, with a short account of the meeting 
held at Washington in 1884, my object being to invite all who are 
not now members, to become such, and meet with them this year at 
Kansas City and St. Louis. 

" To-day I will give a short history of one of the leading chemical 
concerns — Rosengarten & Sons. My reason for which is, I have 
been in the business forty years on an uptown street, which in my 
early life was distinguished by having at one end Carl Zeitler and 
at the other J. W. Farr, names somehow intertwined with chemical 
history. 

" Much of interest can be developed from reading a few orders, 
bills and letters. While they show that but little was spent with 
the printer, they contain names of strong men who have left with us 
results of their energy. 

" In 1824 bottles were bought at T. W. Dyatt's factory, Aramingo 
Creek and Delaware River. 1834, Al. E. Roberts sold quicksilver 
at 56 cents, and saltpetre at 9^ cents. 1836, Lennig & Co. sold 
opium at $4.12%. 1837, John Henshaw bartered 100 pounds of 
opium at $4.25 for morphine at $4.50 per ounce; the letters show 
that ' bark ' came by sloop from Baltimore. A sale made to W. 
L. Krumbhaar of sulphate and acetate of morphine in drachm bot- 
tles — put up in French style — illustrates, even at that day, some of 
the difficulties of introducing American-made goods under correct 
labels. 

" In closing, I call attention to a series of price-lists illustrating the 
growth of the firm of Keasby & Mattison. With this many of us 
are familiar, even some having been students under Dr. Mattison's 
care. Both members of this firm are graduates of this College, and, 
no doubt the chemistry learned here was the corner-stone of their 
success. To illustrate what I have in my mind, carbonate of mag- 



202 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



Am.'.Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1904. 



nesia is soluble in carbonic acid water and insoluble in water. How 
much has the utilization of these facts to do with the extensive chemi- 
cal plant at Ambler ? " 

Professor Kraemer called attention to the following specimens : 
Three sets of cocoa in its various stages from the bean to the pow- 
der, showing the shells, cocoa butter, etc., which were received from 
the Croft & Allen Company, of this city, and which he intended to 
distribute in the several departments of the College; samples of 
thirteen crude drugs which were grown by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, in connection with drug-plant investigations. 

Thos. S. Wiegand exhibited a portable assay balance in a metal 
case — intended especially for the use of assayers when traveling 
through the mining regions — made by Henry Troemner. The entire 
case with contents weighs but 19^ ounces; measures 7 inches in 
height, 4^ inches in breadth and 2 inches in depth. It is sensitive 
to the of a milligramme. The case is provided with set screws, 
so as to make it set level. The firm have just received an order from 
the Chinese Mint for a bullion balance capable of weighing 10,000 
ounces of silver at a draft, and is to be sensitive to of an ounce 
when carrying the load of 20,000 ounces. They also received an 
order for eighteen adjusting balances for the same establishment. 

A vote of thanks was tendered the several speakers and those 
who sent specimens. 

The following provisional programme has been arranged for the 
next meeting, on April 19th: 

" A Pharmacist's Impression of the Orient," by E. Ross. 

" Notes on Italian Olive Oil," by A. Angusto. 

" The Manufacture and Commerce of Honey," by Wm. A. Selzer. 

" The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia, " by M. I. Wilbert. 

"A New Prescription File," by John W. Outerbridge. 

Henry Kraemer, Secretary. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — The report of the Registrar 
of the Society, for 1903 {Pharmaceutical Journal^ February 6, 1904), contains 
some figures which are of more than local interest. The total strength of the 
Society is stated to be as follows : Life compounders, 459 ; annual subscribers, 
composed of members and student-associates, 6,188. The number of persons 
registered as "apprentices or students " is 194. The number of pharmaceutical 
chemists on the register is 2,141, and of chemists and druggists, 13,436. Four 
hundred and nine cases of alleged infringement of the Pharmacy Act (186S) 
were investigated during the year, and proceedings instituted in 151 of these. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MA V, 1904.. 



THE PHARMACIST AND THE PHARM ACOPCEI A. 

By M. I. Whbert. 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

A number, if not all, of the American pharmaceutical journals 
have recently published contributed articles and, in several instances, 
even editorials, decrying the use of the metric system of weights 
and measures in the United States Pharmacopoeia, and intimating, 
if not positively asserting, that the introduction of alternative form- 
ulas would make the Pharmacopoeia more popular with that class of 
pharmacists that have been, and are, contenting themselves with one 
or the other of the Dispensatories or other text-books that are 
allowed to use the text of the Pharmacopoeia, in whole or in part, as 
they see fit. 

The writers of these several articles have, however, lost sight of 
the peculiar conditions existing in American Pharmacy, and have 
not taken into consideration the history of the origin and develop- 
ment of the several treatises, or so-called commentaries, and their 
relation to the Pharmacopoeia. 

In the following pages an effort has been made to trace in outline 
the history of the more important American dispensatories, and to 
consider to some extent the effect they have had on the use and 
popularity of the Pharmacopoeia, and on the progress of medicine 
and pharmacy in general. 

In an article, limited as this naturally must be, it will not be pos- 
sible to review, or even to enumerate, all of these publications, and 
we will confine ourselves therefore to the enumeration of such as 

(203^ 



204 The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia. { Am May^*i9(S arm ^ 

have played a more or less important part, or form a natural link in 
the sequence of the series of text- or reference-books that have been 
in continuous use in this country for upwards of a century. 

There appears to be more or less difference of opinion as to the 
meaning of the words Dispensatory, Commentary and Pharmacopoeia, 
so that it may be well to state what is meant by these several terms,, 
and also to point out the class of books that would properly come 
within the accepted definition. 

The word Dispensatory is properly applied to a book containing 
an exhaustive but popular account of the physical properties, his- 
tory and medicinal uses of drugs and preparations, that is intended 
to be of particular interest and use to physicians and others desir- 
ing a more or less exhaustive treatise on the origin, history and use 
of drugs. 

Originally, the word Dispensatory was applied to a translation, 
with a more or less popular elaboration, of the Latin Pharmacopoeias 
published by the several colleges in England, Scotland and Ireland. 
As examples of such books, we may mention the Dispensatories by 
Bates, 1691 ; Quincy, 171 8; James, 1747; Webster, 1786; Dun- 
can, 1788; Rotheram, 1794; and Duncan, Jr., 1800. 

A Pharmacopoeia is usually understood to be a book of formulas 
and directions for the preparation, recognition and testing of medi- 
cines and medicinal preparations that is published by some generally 
accepted authority. This authority may or may not be that of the 
existing government ; as examples of the extremes we may men- 
tion the German and the United States Pharmacopoeias. 

A Commentary is understood to comprise a series of comments or 
annotations in explanation or elucidation of difficult or obscure pas- 
sages in a book or treatise. 

In connection with a Pharmacopoeia this term could only be 
applied to a book the object of which was to explain or to elucidate 
the directions for making preparations or for applying the several 
tests that are given in the body of the Pharmacopoeia. 

For examples of this class of book, we will be obliged to go out- 
side of our own country ; the most accessible, probably, are The 
Pharmacopedia, by White and Humphrey, London, 1901, and The 
Handkommentar, by Schneider and Suss, Gottingen, 1902. If we 
review the history of authoritative books in our own country, we find 
that during the Colonial period, and even up to the first decade of 



Am May!'i9(S. ari3Q '} The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopeia. 205 

the nineteenth century, the Dispensatories, based on the several edi- 
tions of the London or the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias, were practi- 
cally the only authoritative books used or known. 

The Pharmacopoeias themselves were only known indirectly, the 
chief reason being the lack of knowledge of Latin on the part of the 
early medical practitioners. 

The first distinctly American publication was the American Dis- 
pensatory, by Dr. Redman Coxe, published in Philadelphia, in 1806. 
This book, although little more that a reprint ot Duncan's Edin- 
burgh Dispensatory, had a large circulation, and was generally 
accepted as an authoritative work by a large number of American 
practitioners. The American Dispensatory was republished in nine 
successive editions, the latest appearing in 183 1. 

The American New Dispensatory, by Dr. James Thacher, was 
published in Boston in 1810. While the general arrangement of 
the contained material was along the same lines as that of the Dis- 
pensatories based on the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias^ 
and much of the matter was taken from one or the other of these 
books, this new Dispensatory contained a number of original fea- 
tures. Among others, it will be found that Dr. Thacher was given 
permission to use the material contained in the Pharmacopoeia of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, published in 1808, so that this 
Dispensatory may properly be said to have been the first based on 
an American Pharmacopoeia, and also the first to establish the pre- 
cedent of quoting, in addition to the American, several of the foreign 
Pharmacopoeias. 

The American New Dispensatory was largely used throughout 
the Eastern States ; it appeared in four consecutive editions, the latest 
in 1 82 1. This last edition, as well as the editions of the American 
Dispensatory, published between 1820 and 1830, was based on, or 
quoted, the United States Pharmacopoeia of 1820. 

As is well known, the first edition of the United States Pharma- 
copoeia was published in Boston in 1820; and while it is true that a 
second edition of the same book was printed in 1828, the book itself 
did not receive the support that it rightly deserved either from the 
medical practitioners or from the pharmacists. 

In speaking of this first edition of the United States Pharmacopoeia, 
in his memoirs, Dr. George B. Wood says : " The first Pharma- 
copoeia was issued in 1820; it was creditable as a first attempt, but 



206 The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia . { Am Ma?yiw5. arm " 

was, in many respects, so defective that it failed to command gen- 
eral acceptance. At the end of ten years, which had been fixed on 
for its revision, it seemed, except in some limited localities, to have 
been almost forgotten." 

It was no doubt due to this general lack of interest, and also to the 
absence of any due appreciation of the far-reaching possibilities of 
hasty action, that the delegates from a large section of the country 
failed to take any interest in either of the conventions that were 
held in 1830. This lack of general interest, no doubt, led to the 
publication of two Pharmacopoeias for that year. 

The Pharmacopoeia published by the convention that met in New 
York preserved many of the inaccuracies and faults of the first 
Pharmacopoeia. Quite an exhaustive review of this book will be 
found in the second volume of the American Journal of Pharmacy, 
1830, page 316. 

The convention that assembled in Washington, while not numer- 
ous, was composed of earnest and able scholars, and had presented 
to them a very complete draft, for the revision of the Pharmacopoeia, 
by the delegates of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. 
With some slight modifications this draft was accepted and referred 
for publication to a sub-committee, composed of the members of 
the delegation from the College of Physicians of Philadelphia : 
Dr. Thomas Hewson, Dr. George B. Wood and Dr. Franklin Bache, 
who had also prepared the original draft. 

Referring to the precautions that had been taken to avoid mis- 
takes, Dr. George B. Wood says : " Before allowing the book to go 
to press, so desirous was the committee that it should receive the 
approval of all who might afterwards be practically concerned, that 
it. was submitted to the scrutiny of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, which, after a careful examination by a committee, re- 
turned it with their endorsement, making, however, certain valuable 
suggestions of which the committee was happy to avail itself." 

This committee of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was 
composed of Daniel B. Smith, Henry Troth and Dr. Benjamin Ellis. 

The Philadelphia Pharmacopoeia, as it was sometimes called to 
distinguish it from the Pharmacopoeia published in New York, was 
published in 1831, and while it met with the approval of a number 
of physicians and pharmacists, was severely criticised by some 
individual writers. 



Am Ma?j904. arm '} The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia. 207 

Among the latter was Dr. Redman Coxe, who, in his " American 
Dispensatory," attacked some of the formulas and minor details of 
the Philadelphia Pharmacopoeia quite severely, and appeared to 
favor the acceptance of the New York Pharmacopoeia as the national 
standard. 

This attack was thought to be unwarranted by Dr. George B. 
Wood, a member of the Philadelphia revision committee, and at that 
time professor of Materia Medica in the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. Dr. Wood wrote quite an exhaustive review of the attacks 
(A. J. P., 1832, page 94), in which he defended the position of the 
Pharmacopoeia and refuted many of the arguments' that were used 
by Dr. Coxe. 

It was no doubt largely due to this attack on the Pharmacopoeia, 
in the leading Dispensatory of that time, that Drs. Wood and Bache 
hastened the publication of their own proposed work, the United 
States Dispensatory. 

The motives that actuated the authors of this book, as asserted 
by Dr. Wood, its originator, were " to make the United States Phar- 
macopoeia more generally known and acceptable, and thereby con- 
tribute to its universal practical recognition as the national standard." 

" The United States Dispensatory was designed primarily to be a 
commentary on the Pharmacopoeia, giving detailed accounts of the 
medicines it recognized and explaining and enforcing all its pro- 
cesses." 

The general style and make-up of the book was, however, closely 
patterned after that of the Dispensatories previously published in 
this country, even so far as to include and comment on the prepara- 
tions of the London, Edinburgh and Dublin Pharmacopoeias. It 
was largely due to this unfortunate compliance with former prece- 
dent that the United States Dispensatory from the very beginning 
took quite a different position in the shop of the pharmacist from 
that intended for it by its authors. 

This new Dispensatory was eminently successful in a monetary 
way, the first edition was sold within a year and no less than four 
editions were printed in the first decade. 

The United States Dispensatory was practically without a com- 
petitor until 1852, when Dr. John King published his " Eclectic 
Dispensatory." This name was changed in the second edition to 
" The American Eclectic Dispensatory," and later to "The American 
Dispensatory." 



2o8 The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia. { Am May!"i9M arm ' 

That Dr. King, in the first editions of his " Eclectic Dispensatory," 
followed the general style of the United States Dispensatory rather 
closely is evident from the reviews (A. J. P., 1854, page 269; also 
A. J. P., 1859, page 285), and from the fact that Dr. King was pro- 
ceeded against, in a court of law, by the publishers of the United 
States Dispensatory, who succeeded in restraining him from selling 
the first edition as printed. 

The general scarcity of text-books on subjects relating to phar- 
macy and materia medica, in the earlier decades of the last century, 
coupled with the fact that but few pharmacists had had an oppor- 
tunity for systematic training in the various branches of the natural 
sciences, and also, no doubt, the widely prevalent practice of giving 
an opinion on the efficiency and usefulness of certain household 
remedies, contributed very materially to make these early editions 
of the Dispensatories popular with pharmacists. Many, if not the 
majority of pharmacists, finding that the Dispensatory was based 
on, and included, what was to them the most essential features of 
the Pharmacopoeia, never felt or appreciated the need or use of the 
latter book. 

That the popularity and use of the Dispensatories has long been 
considered a menace to the progress of pharmacy along scientific 
lines is evident from the written opinions of a number of the earlier 
leaders of the pharmaceutical profession. 

Prof. William Procter was particularly impressed with the im- 
portance of this fact, and as early as 1851 advocated a reduction in 
the price of the Pharmacopoeia with a view of making the current 
edition of the Pharmacopoeia more popular among pharmacists and 
students. An extract from his review of the, then, newly published 
Pharmacopoeia may not be out of place here, foreshadowing, as it 
does, the hopes that prompted the articles referred to in the opening 
paragraphs of this paper: 

" We cannot leave the subject without recording our opinion in 
favor of a cheap duodecimo edition of the Pharmacopoeia, so that 
every apothecary, physician and medical student can have a copy 
and become familiar with the work. A large majority of the phy- 
sicians and apothecaries in this country know nothing of our phar- 
macopoeia except as they learn it through the dispensatories, where 
it is so mixed up with the British Pharmacopoeias as to frequently 
confuse both physician and apothecary." (A. J. P., 185 I, page 397 ) 



Am Ma£'X rm "} The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia. 209 

It was largely, if not entirely, due to the direct efforts of Pro- 
fessor Procter, in this direction, that the Pharmacopceial Revision 
Committee published in 1855 the small paper (duodecimo) edition 
of the Pharmacopoeia. It was also due to Professor Procter's per- 
sonal solicitation that the convention for the revision of the Pharma- 
copaeia, in i860, fixed the price of the coming Pharmacopoeia at the 
really nominal price of $1.00 a volume. But at even this very low 
price it could not be said that the Pharmacopoeia was really a pop- 
ular book, or that it was generally used by the retail pharmacist 
in his routine work. 

To the casual observer it would appear that there was quite an 
improvement in this respect, after the publication of the 1 870 re- 
vision of the Pharmacopoeia, when the new Pharmacopoeia was 
actually to be found on the work table of a large number of retail 
pharmacists. The true reason for this was not, however, to be 
found in any intrinsic feature of the Pharmacopoeia, but in the fact 
that the United States Dispensatory had not been held up to the 
very high standard of excellence that had characterized the previous 
revisions of that book. In explanation it might be said that Dr. 
Franklin Bache had died in 1864, and that the remaining author, 
Dr. George B. Wood, had retired from any active participation in 
the duties of his profession, and could not be expected to be suffi- 
ciently in touch with the advances, in the several lines, to personally 
supervise so extensive a revision. 

That pharmacists had not advanced sufficiently to do without a 
more extensive treatise on subjects relating to their profession is 
evident from the ready sale that the first edition of the National 
Dispensatory (published in 1879) met with. 

The first edition of this work, said at the time to have been a 
very large one, was entirely sold out within ten months of the day 
of issue, and the book itself was out of print for several months be- 
fore a second edition could be prepared. 

The popularity and sale of the Dispensatories was also greatly fav- 
ored by several features peculiar to the Pharmacopoeia of 1880. 

It may be well to review some of these features and the reasons 
for their introduction, as they are quite as important now as they 
were then. 

For some time prior to the meeting of the Convention, in 1 880, it 
had become the custom of speaking of, or referring to, galenical 



210 The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia. { Am May?i904 arrr1 ' 

preparations as being of a certain percent, strength ; then, too, the 
desirability or the necessity of introducing additional assay pro- 
cesses for drugs of vegetable origin, and to define certain limitations 
in terms readily understood, appeared to make it desirable that the 
preparations be made by some method of weight, or of weight and 
measure, so that the finished preparation would have some definite, 
readily understood and easily remembered relation to the products 
of which it was composed. Unfortunately, the objections to the 
metric system of weights and measures was still strong, and, as a 
compromise, parts by weight were agreed on as the alternative. 

This decision was not in keeping with the general practice, fol- 
lowed in this country as well as in England, of measuring liquids 
and weighing solids, and was strongly resented by a large number 
of pharmacists. 

In addition to this the sub-committee having the publication ol 
the Pharmacopoeia in charge made the very serious mistake of de- 
ciding on a relatively high price for the book. 

These two points, parts by weight and abnormally high price, 
were no doubt the more important factors that tended to make the 
Dispensatories once more pre-eminent with the rank and file of 
American pharmacists. 

It should also be borne in mind, however, that the Dispensa- 
tories, in addition to translating parts by weight into definite form- 
ulas, had been thoroughly revised and had been brought fully up 
to date, as far as was possible with books of this particular type, 
and were, in addition to all of this, widely advertised by the re- 
spective publishers. 

It is quite true that one of the most objectionable features of the 
1880 Pharmacopoeia, parts by weight, was modified in the revision 
of 1890, but it is also true that the introduction of metric weights 
and measures was rather in advance of the times and practices, very 
few pharmacists having acquired a practical knowledge of the metric 
system of weights and measures, few indeed using them in their 
routine work. 

In conclusion, it might be said that there are other and very 
weighty reasons why the Pharmacopceial Revision Committee 
should not betray the trust that has been placed in it by the National 
Convention, as did the Revision Committee for 1870. 

One, and one of the very important, reasons is the fact that since 



Am Ma?y"i904 arm '} The Pharmacist and the Pharmacopoeia. 211 

the publication of the 1890 Pharmacopoeia many States have 
enacted pure food and pure drug laws, and in almost all of these the 
United States Pharmacopoeia is quoted as the standard for the 
purity and strength of the drugs and preparations enumerated by it. 

Being, therefore, practically embodied in the statutes of these 
several States, it would appear imperative that the Pharmacopoeia 
be continued as simple and direct as is compatible with an exhaust- 
ive treatise. 

If any one will copy from one of the Dispensatories or other 
books, the Pharmacopceial formulas for, let us say, Fowler's solution, 
compound licorice powder and the compound tincture of benzoin, 
with the alternative formulas, as given in extenso, he will readily ap- 
preciate how easy it would be for a lawyer of but average ability to 
make such formulas appear ridiculous. 

How different, and even misleading, these formulas appear when 
an attempt is made to make the alternative formulas fit in with con- 
venient quantities is evident from even a most casual inspection of 
the latest edition of the British Pharmacopoeia. 

The only remaining alternative, the exclusive use of troy or 
avoirdupois weights and liquid measures, would be a serious retro- 
gressive move, would prove a hardship on all that have accustomed 
themselves to think of galenical preparations as having a certain per 
cent, strength, and would also detract no little from any claims that 
the pharmacist might make to being classed as a professional man. 

In summing up the present situation it might be said that, 
if we as pharmacists wish to be benefited by the giant strides 
that science is taking along all lines of thought and investigations 
entirely regardless of us as individuals, we must begin to realize that 
we must ourselves come in closer contact with the requirements of 
the times or fall by the wayside. We must appreciate that we can- 
not take part in twentieth century progress hampered as we are 
with eighteenth century ideas and methods. 

To appreciate the work that is being done for us by others, we 
must thoroughly understand their object and their methods, and we 
must also realize that if we wish to continue as beneficiaries of any 
particular line of work we ourselves must be willing and able to take 
an active part in the development and advance of that particular 
line. 



212 



Calcium Glycerophosphate. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



CALCIUM GLYCEROPHOSPHATE. 
By H. B. Eigei,berner. 
Glycerophosphoric acid was discovered in 1840 by Pelouse, who 
obtained it by interaction of anhydrous phosphoric acid and glycerin. 
(American Journal of Pharmacy.) The formula being C 3 H 9 P0 6 , 
consisting of a molecule of glycerin, a molecule of phosphoric acid, a 
molecule of water being set free in the active union. 

Glycerin -f Phosphoric acid = Glycerophosphoric acid -f- Water. 
C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 + H 3 P0 4 = C 3 H 9 PO s + H 2 

It was, however, not until 1894 that the salts of the acid were intro- 
duced in medicine by Dr. Albert Robbin of Paris. Dr. Robbin discov- 
ered them in Dr. Brown Sequard's Orchitic Extract, and declared 
them to be the active principle of that famous " Elixir of Life." 
Chemically they are compounds of various bases with glycerophos- 
phoric acid. The rationale of the use of glycerophosphates is that 
they contain phosphorus in the same state as it exists in the nerve 
tissues of the body, and constitutes, therefore, a natural form of 
administering phosphorus, it being at once assimilated without fur- 
ther change. This is based upon the theory that the lecithin of 
food is converted into glycerophosphoric acid before assimilation, the 
theory resting upon the fact that the glycerophosphate salts are 
found in Orchitic Extract and in the extract or nerve tissue gener- 
ally. {American Druggist^ 

A. and L. Lumiere and F. Perrin have succeeded in preparing 
glycerophosphorous acid by treating a slight excess of glycerin 
with phosphoric trichloride, keeping the mixture cool. The 
hydrochloric acid formed is removed from the mixture by means of 
moist silver oxide, after filtration from the AgCl thus formed, the 
glycerophosphorous acid is saturated with a base, such as lime, and 
the excess of glycerin removed by means of alcohol, or the original 
acid mixture may be directly neutralized with lime, evaporated at a 
low temperature and then treated with alcohol, which removes cal- 
cium chloride and glycerin, but precipitates calcium glycerophos- 
phite. Free glycerophosphorous acid has not been isolated, since 
it tends to saponify on evaporating its solutions. (Proceedings of the 
Pharmaceutical Association, 1902.) 

A good method of manufacture for calcium glycerophosphate is 
that proposed some years since by Portes and Primier in the Reper- 
toire de Pharmacie. (American Journal of Pharmacy.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



Calcium Glycerophosphate . 



213 



3 kilos phosphoric acid, 60 per cent. 

3 kilos 600 grammes glycerin (sp. gr. i'24). 

Mix together and keep at a temperature of 100-110 C. for six 
days, agitating three or four times daily. The second day it com- 
mences to color and emit fumes ; the fifth day it will have turned 
brown and ceased to fume ; on the seventh day it is allowed to cool, 
and is then viscous and transparent. After cooling, the free acid is 
neutralized by mixture of 500 grammes calcium carbonate in 2 kilos 
of water, and allowed to settle two or three hours, when more of the 
chalk mixture is added and the process repeated until all the acid is 
saturated, which generally takes about two days. The mixture is 
filtered, and the filtrate exactly neutralized by means of 90 per cent, 
alcohol. The precipitate which forms settles very rapidly; after 
about an hour the supernatant fluid is decanted, the precipitate is 
washed and drained. It is then redissolved in cold water, filtered 
and evaporated at a low temperature. The salt thus obtained is a 
white crystalline powder, soluble in 15 parts of cold water, almost 
insoluble in boiling water, insoluble in alcohol. 

The reactions involved in the manufacture of calcium glycero- 
phosphate are represented by the following equations : 

(1) Glycerin -J- Phosphoric acid = Glycerophosphoric acid 4- Water 
C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 + H>0 4 = C,H,PO, + H 2 

(2) Glycerophosphoric acid -f- Calcium hydroxide -f Water = 
C 3 H 9 P0 6 + CaOH + H 2 = 

Glycerophosphate of calcium 
C 3 H 8 CaP0 6 + 2 H 2 

The theoretical amount of calcium oxide in calcium glycerophos- 
phate is, therefore, about 22-66 per cent. 

The estimation of this ingredient (calcium) is the keynote of the 
examination of calcium glycerophosphate, for if true glycerophos- 
phoric acid is not formed in the first reaction, the free phosphoric 
acid left uncombined will require a larger percentage of calcium for 
neutralization, and will thus be shown by this determination. A 
sample of an English brand of calcium glycerophosphate examined 
contained 33 05 per cent, of calcium oxide and was slightly acid in 
reaction. This would tend to prove the above assumption. 

In estimating the calcium, I followed the usual method as given 



214 Research in Manufacturing Pharmacy. ( Am 'M^ - iSJ arm ' 

by Presenilis — precipitating as the oxalate and weighing as the 
oxide. 

A number of samples examined showed : 
Calcium oxide: 216 to 22-5 per cent. 
Chlorides and sulphates : Traces — small amounts. 
Solubility tests : About as given in preceding parts of paper. 
Reaction : Slightly acid — to somewhat alkaline. 
Physical appearance : From bulky, white powder to small pearly 
white crystals. 

The above examination is not exhaustive, but is rapid, approx- 
imately accurate, and enables the pharmacist to arrive quickly 
at comparative valuations between different samples of calcium 
glycerophosphates. 

Chapman & Smith Company, Chicago. 



RESEARCH IN MANUFACTURING PHARMACY. 

By Henry Kraemer. 

The original investigator has always been assured honor and a 
more than passing record of his work, the permanence depend- 
ing upon the true significance or value of his achievements. At the 
present time the research worker has, in addition, a chance to win 
some of the largest prizes. Not only are specific sums available as 
in the Nobel prizes, but other funds are at the command of investi- 
gators, as those set aside by the Carnegie Institution. Moreover, 
there are opportunities on every hand, in universities as well as in 
manufacturing laboratories, for the right men to conduct research 
and make great discoveries. 

Many remarkable discoveries have been made by those connected 
with universities. In recent years very many of these discoveries 
are due to the impetus as well as financial assistance and facilities of 
the laboratories of large manufacturing houses. The many alkaloids 
of cinchona, opium, etc., or the constituents of many of the volatile 
oils would probably never have become known were it not that 
tons of material have been worked up in large manufacturing labo- 
ratories and the material placed at the command of research 
workers. 

Not only is this true, but we are also much indebted to some of 
these manufacturing firms for very valuable information which they 



Am May?ifo4 arm '} Research in Manufacturing Pharmacy. 215 

are publishing as a result of their own researches in addition to giv- 
ing condensed summaries of the progress in the different fields in 
which they are particularly interested. Some of these firms are, 
furthermore, willing to conduct investigations at the suggestions of 
responsible persons. It is not unusual to find in the semi-annual 
reports of Schimmel & Co. the results of researches of this kind. In 
the last report (October-November, 1903) we read: 

"Prof. Dr. E. Strasburger, of Bonn, while on a visit to the Riviera this 
spring, was kind enough to call our attention to some plants growing there 
which in the fresh state are extremely fragrant. At our request Prof. O. Pen- 
zig, of Genoa, very willingly took the trouble of procuring us fairly large quan- 
tities of these herbs in a half-dried condition, and he has thereby enabled us 
to make some trial distillations. We avail ourselves of this opportunity to ex- 
press again to both gentlemen our very sincere thanks for the pains they have 
so kindly taken. 

" Although the distillations have given no results which are useful for prac- 
tical purposes, as the aroma was totally destroyed during the drying and the 
distillation, and the distillates in no case shared the characteristic odor of the 
fresh plant, we desire to mention here the properties of the oils obtained." 

Then follows a brief account of the distribution of the following 
plants : Psoralea bituminosa L., Inula viscosa Desf., and Helichrysum 
angustifolium, Sweet, and the analytical data of the oils yielded by 
them. 

A very interesting part of this same report of Schimmel & Co. is 
the article contributed by Prof. Dr. R. Kobert, Director of the 
Institute for Pharmacology and Physiological Chemistry of the 
University of Rostock, on " The Pharmaco-therapeutics of the 
T-Ethereo-oleosa." He divides these into the following groups: (1) 
Odor-corrigents ; (2) Taste-corrigents ; (3) Stomachics, digestants 
and carminatives; (4) Uterine remedies, emmenagogues and abor- 
tifacients; (5) Diuretics; (6) Diaphoretics; (7) Antihydrotics ; (8) 
Antiseptics; (9) Leukotactics ; (10) Antiparasitics; (1 1) Antidotes ; 
(12) Dermerethistics ; (13) Excitants; (14) Sedatives and narcot- 
ics, and (15) Expectorants. 

This article is full of good common sense and the apothecary 
should know the facts and transmit to the public. Under odor- 
corrigents, for instance, Dr. Kobert says : 

" Although we physicians may preach ten times mulieres bene olent, si nihil 
oleni, the weaker sex will continue to buy perfumes and to enjoy them. We 
must be content if only poisonous substances are not allowed to be added to 
these mixtures. But we will never consent to the so-called improvements of 



216 Research in Manufacturing Pharmacy. { Am May r 'i904 arm * 

the air in the sick-room by fumigating powders and fumigating essences ; on 
the contrary, we will make it clear to the rising generation, with our utmost 
energy, that constant renewal of air is the best odor-corrigent of the sick-room. 
In the same manner, patients who suffer from bad-smelling breath should not 
go to perfumery shops, but to the dentist, or the specialist for the nose or the 
lungs. Even for healthy persons, perfumes are only admissible in homceo- 
pathically minute doses." 

The reports of Schimmel & Co. are invaluable and have contrib- 
uted much to a healthful development of the essential oil industry, 
both from technical and medical points of view. 

The annual reports of Merck & Co., on " The Advancements of 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Therapeutics," have also been im- 
portant contributions to pharmaceutical and medical literature. The 
present report, issued last July, is an epitome of the researches for 
1902, but contains much information that even yet has not become 
thoroughly disseminated among the professions. The papers by 
Prof. R. Kobert on " Ipecacuanha and its Active Principles " are 
referred to, and it is interesting that both he and Carl Lowin, a 
student of Kobert, confirm the investigations of Paul, Cownley and 
Wild (see this Journal, February and March, 1901), that emetine 
and cephaeline act in a distinctive manner, emetine giving rise 
mainly to expectoration, whilst cephaeline induces prompt and facile 
vomiting. 

R. B. Wild has recommended the use of either alkaloid in the place of the 
galenic ipecacuanha preparations, since the latter contain a variable propor- 
tion of alkaloid, according to their origin (?'. whether Rio or Carthagena is 
used) ; whereas the alkaloids possess a precise therapeutic value. The hydro- 
chlorate and hydrobromate of emetine are available for use as expectorants, 
depressing media or emetics. The author employs a very permanent solution 
of o - o6 gramme of the hydrobromate in 30 c.c. of 20 per cent, alcohol and pre- 
scribes of this 5-20 drops to induce expectoration and depression, whilst 2 •0-5*0 
c.c. serves as an emetic dose. As a substitute for Dover's powder, Wild em- 
ploys a solution containing 1 per cent, morphine and 3^ per cent, hydro- 
chlorate of emetine. Hydrochlorate of cephaeline is less active in affections of 
the air-passages than the emetine salts. Its emetic properties are so intense as 
to render it difficult to properly adjust the correct dosing. 

The " Ephemeris of Materia Medica, Pharmacy, Therapeutics and 
Collateral Information," by Dr. E. H. Squibb, contains brief com- 
ments on the advances of the year ending July 1, 1903. Like the 
preceding firms' publications, " Ephemeris " is sent to all those who 
are supposed to be interested in its contents. The first paragraph 
in this monograph is well worth publishing nearly entire, as lor some 



Am May?i9(Sf rm '} Research in Manufacturing Pharmacy. 217 

time there was a disposition to reason by analogy concerning the 
merits of every new compound and there has thus resulted confusion. 

" It should be gratifying to the medical profession in general, but especially 
to the scientifically inclined, to learn that there are increasing evidences from 
many quarters that new agents now offered are submitted to a far more critical 
preliminary test before presenting to the profession for trial than ever before, 
because the profession is declining to accept unsupported overtures. This fact 
has surely had a wholesome effect on those who would press forward novelties 
before establishing their worth on scientific lines, for a much fewer number of 
products have been presented to the attention of physicians than ever before. 
Those which have come forward have had much more reason to exist and re- 
ceive attention, even though they may finally fail to accomplish the promised 
results. The profession, therefore, is now much more encouraged to take up 
a new agent when presented on rational lines." 

While the " Ephemeris " by Squibb & Sons is almost entirely de- 
voted to a review of the progress in therapeutics, there are some 
statements of general pharmaceutical interest. Under acetic acid 
the statement previously made is repeated, viz., " that a 10 per 
cent, acetic acid menstruum is quite the equal of a 41 per cent, 
alcoholic menstruum for the extraction and preservation of the 
medicinal properties of drugs." Six other fluid extracts have been 
experimented with, using acetic acid as a menstruum. Among 
these is opium, which has been standardized to contain not less than 
13-5 percent, of morphine. "As a concentrated solution of opium 
containing all the valuable medicinal constituents without any of 
its nauseating or odoriferous properties, it has much to commend 
it and deserves the attention of all practical workers." 

The newest publication from a manufacturing house is called 
Digest of Researches of Laboratory Workers," and is published 
by Smith, Kline & French Co. It has been edited by Joseph W. 
England, and differs from the previous publications referred to, in 
that it consists almost entirely of abstracts of the published papers 
of those employed in the laboratory of this firm. The statement is 
made that upwards of 200 " papers," embracing nearly 500 pages 
of printed matter, have been published in the various technical 
journals by these laboratory workers. The range of subjects is 
wide, including, besides the examination of pharmacopceial drugs, 
curious oils, artificial foods, chemical synonyms, etc. W T hile some 
of the conclusions in some of the papers should be criticized on the 
basis of the facts given, nevertheless, taking the collection of papers 
as a whole, they are creditable. This pamphlet will appeal par- 



218 Research in Manufacturing Pharmacy. { Am May^'ifo4 arm ' 

ticularly to the retail pharmacist, and will, no doubt, accomplish 
much in causing him to test his purchases. 

The pages of this Journal, as well as other pharmaceutical and 
technical journals, contain many papers contributed by the research 
workers of various manufacturing houses. In many instances these 
workers are graduates of colleges or universities. These papers do 
not necessarily always contain all the information that might be given. 
They have been, nevertheless, beneficial in every way to the authors, 
and the latter are deserving of the thanks of the readers. I have 
heard it said that some manufacturers do not care to have their labo- 
ratory workers publish the results of their findings of market con- 
ditions, and that those who want this information can find it out for 
themselves. It should be said that if others want the information for 
commercial purposes, they certainly must find it out for themselves 
whether anything is published or not. In other words, in commerce 
nothing can take the place of a man's own knowledge of a subject 
or a specimen, and no other person's analysis of another lot will 
help him. 

There are three benefits that come from publication of research 
work : 

(1) The first benefit is to the research worker himself. In going 
over his work and marshalling his facts he is compelled to check his 
results, find out his errors and perfect his methods. 

(2) The next benefit is one as it affects the race and serves to 
develop a literature, consisting of records of man's experience in the 
progress of civilization. 

(3) The last benefit is one as it affects the community and serves 
to protect the public by the enlightenment of the physician and 
pharmacist. 

Investigations on the nature and quality of drugs are giving us 
new methods for their valuation. Experience is showing the physi- 
cian that he must depend upon the intelligent pharmacist for his 
medicaments of standard quality. Furthermore, the retail pharma- 
cist is responsible for the quality of the medicines he dispenses and 
the drugs he sells, and by testing his purchases he not only protects 
himself against the unscrupulous dealer, but also co-operates in so 
doing with the honest wholesaler. There are mistakes made by the 
latter which require correction just as much as the mistakes of the 
physician, and we thus cannot fail to see the dual responsibility of 
the retail pharmacist. 



Am Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



Italian Olive Oil. 



219 



The object of this paper has been to call attention to the value of 
not only research, but the publication of the results of original in- 
vestigations, and to indicate by reference to some recent publications 
the part that the manufacturing pharmacist has in this beneficent work. 



THE ITALIAN OLIVE OIL ON THE AMERICAN 
MARKET. 

By A. Augusto. 

The problem of olive oil in America, from the medicinal point of 
view, has to be considered carefully and without any preconceived 
idea. 

Olive oil is olive oil, nothing else but the expressed oil of olives. 
Therefore, its purity and taste depend absolutely upon the method 
employed in making, refining and preserving it. 

In America is enrooted the idea that only Lucca, in Italy, pro- 
duces good olive oil, and consequently, on the American markets, 
any oil which would not have written in big letters on the can or 
label the magic word Lucca, would not be considered. 

I am talking to business men, and I suppose that each one of you 
is proud of his store and his own preparations. Exactly the same 
feeling animates the producers of olive oil in Southern Italy. They 
are simply proud of the fine quality of their oil, and they dislike the 
idea of misrepresenting their goods, giving them the maternity of 
Lucca, only to meet and overcome the unjust stubbornness of the 
American markets. 

The fine quality of their olive oil does not need any advertisement ; 
generally the demands are greater than the production, because 
other nations, France especially, are too glad to have it, and let it 
pass in the markets of the world as their own production. 

To provide the American markets with olive oil there is left only 
one way : to pass under the guns of the so-called importers of New 
York and exporters of Leghorn. 

Both those intercommercial elements do their best to enlarge their 
profit, and consequently the greater quantity of the would be Italian 
olive oil is manufactured (the word adulterated is not enough) in 
New York, while when ordered directly from Italy the oil mer- 
chants over there send here the lowest degree to meet the great 
American cry, "cheap, cheap." 



220 



Italian Olive Oil. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



There are many ways of making olive oil, but the oldest, slowest 
and most expensive method has uncontested preference to the new, 
quick and economical methods. 

The old method consists in picking the olives before they are too 
ripe, grinding and pressing them, separating the oil from the muddy 
water and depositing it in proper vessels until, with the coming of 
the warm season, it becomes clear. Then, after being decanted 
two or three times at intervals of a few weeks, it is ready to go into 
commerce. 

I said that this method is very expensive, and it is so. The olives 
are picked by hand because, being not ripe, they are attached firmly 
to the plant. They must be ground and pressed the next day, and 
three men and one horse are required to work out 20 or 25 bushels 
of olives in one day, producing an average of 12 gallons of oil, and 
fresh olives do not give as much oil as those which have been kept 
for a few weeks. Besides all these expenses and losses one has to 
wait almost a year before his oil has reached the grade of maturity 
and purity required for a first quality article. 

Any one who can afford to make his oil in such a manner and 
wait indefinitely for selling it, surely will have his price, because 
olive oil, when properly made, does not deteriorate with age, but 
improves, while oils made by modern methods become rancid and 
putrid when summer heat comes. 

That explains why in Italy in two villages at a few miles distance, 
the price of olive oil varies from 12 to 25 cents per litre. 

Something must be said about properties and elementary tests 
of olive oil; but this is not an easy task for me, considering that olive 
oil is largely subject to adulteration, and I am talking to persons 
who, perhaps, have never had a chance to taste a first quality of it. 

Of course, for an Italian who, as the one who has the honor to 
address you, has had chances to plant and cultivate olive trees, who 
has picked olives, manufactured oil, and uses largely of it, there 
are three tests to be applied in the assay of olive oil, namely, looking 
at it, smelling it, and tasting it. He knows that fine olive oil must 
be of a pure, clear, light amber color, without any trace of green; 
odorless, except that little pleasant smell proper of olive oil, and of 
a fresh, fragrant, soothing taste. 

A very simple test of olive oil can be made in the following way: 

On a plateful of hot boiled vegetable, as winter salad, put salt and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



A Prescription File. 



22 1 



one or two tablespbonfuls of the oil. Pure olive oil will not give 
any disagreeable smell and the dish can be eaten, according to my 
taste, with pleasure; but impure or second quality of oil will give- 
out, under these circumstances, a displeasing odor, and a dry, dis- 
agreeable sensation is produced in the throat if an attempt to swal- 
low it is made. 

But here comes the question : How can the Americans obtain 
pure Italian olive oil ? 

The only answer that I. can give is very simple: Buy from the 
producers and reject the so-called Lucca oil, because Lucca can 
hardly supply herself with her own oil. 

In the large Italian cities, in spite of a law against adulterations, 
pure olive oil cannot be obtained so easily. The law is not com- 
plete because it tends to prevent only adulterations injurious to 
health. So the majority of the people are often compelled to 
receive their supply of oil for domestic use directly from the coun- 
try, paying a good price for it. 

The Americans cannot do the same, but they can encourage 
direct importation. 

A PRESCRIPTION FILE. 

By J. W. P. Outkrbridgk. 

This file is constructed of a brass rod (No. 8), and is held in a 
rigid, perpendicular position between two iron brackets (or shelves) 
by the aid of three nuts — a, b and c t as shown in the figure. Into 
the lower end of the wire a hole d is bored. 

The desk file consists of a short piece of No. 8 wire with an inner 
thread e, screwed to the base /. The thread e is similar to that of a. 

To transfer the prescriptions from the desk file to the permanent 
or stationary file, unscrew the nut a, curve the wire slightly so as to 
bring the upper end out of the bracket, unscrew the desk file from 
its base and screw onto the permanent or stationary file. At 
the close of the year, unscrew the nuts a and c, remove the file from 
the brackets, unscrew the nut b y insert a pointed wire into the hole 
d, transfer the year's prescriptions to this new file, and set up the 
original file for use again. 

I would suggest that the files for two or three years back, which 
are kept at hand for renewing prescriptions, be held in a rigid, per- 



222 



A Prescription File. 



Am. .lour. Pnarm. 
May. 1904. 



pendicular position by hanging them between iron brackets, or 
between two shelves, and if convenient an easily movable curtain 
may be hung from the shelf ; old files when put away could be pro- 
tected from dust in this way. 

Do not point]the desk file, but use a punch for the prescriptions. 



centre of the prescriptions ; (2) the prescriptions can be moved on 
the file so much more easily that time is saved when referring to old 
prescriptions. When renewing a prescription, the place may be held 
open by means of a wooden clip. And a piece of card-board filed 
every month will probably aid in referring to a prescription. 

Some of the advantages of this file are the easy method of trans. 




F 



I 




A Prescription File. 



Am, May r 'i904f rm '} American Journal of Pharmacy. 223 

ferring the prescriptions from the daily file to the yearly file. When 
referring to prescriptions in the early part of the year the file is held 
permanent and there is not the danger of a sharp hook coming 
down on one's head ; and the prescriptions being punched and held 
out of contact with anything, there is very little friction to overcome 
when referring to old prescriptions. 



HISTORICAL NOTE ON THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF 

PHARMACY. 1 
By Henry Kraemer. 

Entering now, as we do, upon the last quarter of one century of 
The American Journal of Pharmacy's existence as a regular publi- 
cation, it may be of interest to review briefly its history up to this 
time, and in doing this I shall draw rather freely upon the " Histori- 
cal Notice " published in connection with the General Index in 1873. 

The Journal of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was estab- 
lished in 1825, and the Publication Committee consisted of Dr. 
Samuel Johnson, Henry Troth, Solomon Temple, Ellis H. Yarnall 
and Daniel B. Smith, the latter of whom was chairman of the com- 
mittee, and practically acted as editor, and to whom belongs the 
credit of establishing a high standard for the Journal. Too much 
credit cannot be given to the members of the committee, who laid 
the foundation along lines which it has never been considered 
advisable to depart from. They were all men of ability, and their 
work reminds one of the work of those who drafted the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Four preliminary numbers were published up until 1829, when 
the Publishing Committee was reorganized, as follows : Daniel B. 
Smith, Charles Ellis, S. P. Griffiths and Dr. George B. Wood, with 
Dr. Benjamin Ellis as the editor. At this time the publication of 
the regular volumes began, and since then the publication has been 
uninterrupted. From now on up until 1852 four numbers consti- 
tuted a volume, except in 1847. when five numbers were published. 
On the decease of Dr. Ellis, in April, 1833, Dr. Robert E. Griffith 
was appointed editor, and during his incumbency in 1835 the Pub- 
lishing Committee was reorganized by the addition of Dr. Bache, 



1 This is part of the annual report of the editor of The American Journal 
of Pharmacy to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, March 28, 1904. 



224 American Journal of Pharmacy. { Am *May?i904 arm " 

Elias Durand, W. Hodgson, Jr., Joseph Scattergood, John C. Allen 
and Dillwyn Parrish, and the name of the Journal changed to its 
present title, The American Journal of Pharmacy. 

In October, 1836, on the resignation of Dr. Ellis, Dr. Joseph Car- 
son was chosen editor, and he associated with himself Dr. Robert 
Bridges as associate editor from 1839 to 1845, and from 1848 to 
1859 Prof. William Procter, Jr. During the editorship of Dr. Car- 
son several circumstances transpired to improve the scientific char- 
acter of the Journal. The invitation to the Philadelphia College ot 
Pharmacy from the Official Committee to participate in the revision 
of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia in 1840 gave an impetus to pharmacy 
in Philadelphia which resulted in the establishment of the Pharma- 
ceutical Meetings of the College, which were then, as now, a source 
of original contributions. 

In 1839 Joseph Scattergood resigned from the committee. In 
1842 the names of Ambrose Smith, William Procter, Jr., Augustine 
Duhamel and William R. Fisher were substituted for those of 
Daniel B. Smith, J. C. Allen, W. Hodgson, Jr., and Dillwyn Parrish, 
resigned. In 1845 Messrs. Wood, Bache and Durand retired from 
the committee, and Thomas P. James was added, and in 1846 Dr. 
Bridges was added. In 1848 the following committee was elected: 
Daniel B. Smith, Dr. Bridges, Charles Ellis, Ambrose Smith, Dr. 
Carson and Professor Procter. In 1849 Edward Parrish was elected 
in place of Ambrose Smith, and in 1850 A. B. Taylor in place ot 
Daniel B. Smith. 

On the retirement of Dr. Carson in July, 1850, William Procter, 
Jr., was chosen editor, and the Publication Committee consisted ot 
the same members, there being no change until 1 86 1, when John 
M. Maisch was elected in place of Dr. Bridges, and in 1870, when 
Thomas S. Wiegand replaced Edward Parrish. 

In 1848, while Professor Procter was assistant editor, an editorial 
department of the Journal was started, and, during his incumbency 
as editor, was a marked feature. From 1853 to 1870 six numbers 
constituted a volume, and in 1852 an advertising sheet was intro- 
duced, and the price increased from $2.50 to $3, whilst the reading 
matter was nearly doubled. It was at this time that the American 
Pharmaceutical Association came into existence, and for several 
years the minutes of the proceedings and most of the papers were 
published in the Journal almost verbatim, although no official con- 



Am Maya904 arm '} American Journal of Pharmacy. 225 

nection existed. Ever since then the Journal has sent a representa- 
tive to the meetings of the Association, and given a full account of 
its proceedings. The Journal made notable progress until the War 
set in, when it became very much hampered in its work, but the 
editor and committee persevered through this crisis, and in 1865 a 
reaction set in, which finally culminated in the election of a busi- 
ness editor, Henry H. Wolle, in 1 87 1, being chosen to fill this 
position. Another change brought about by Professor Procter 
was that of making the Journal a monthly publication, which began 
in 1871. 

On the resignation of Professor Procter in April, 1 871, due to 
failing health, Prof. John M. Maisch was chosen his successor, the 
Publication Committee chosen at this time consisting of the follow- 
ing members: Professors Procter and Maisch, and Messrs. Bullock, 
Taylor and Wiegand. A regular organization of the committee 
was effected, and a chairman, secretary and treasurer selected. 
In March, 1872, James T. Shinn was elected in place of A. B. Taylor, 
and in 1874, on the death of Professor Procter, Henry N. Ritten- 
house was chosen a member of the committee. Professor Maisch 
was assisted in his work as editor by the following collaborators : 
Geo. M. Beringer, Joseph W. England, Frank X. Moerk and Pro- 
fessors Remington, Sadtler and Trimble. On the death of Professor 
Maisch, Prof. Henry Trimble was elected editor, and the Publication 
Committee reorganized as follows : Henry N. Rittenhouse, Samuel 
P. Sadtler, Wallace Procter, Joseph W. England and the editor. On 
the resignation of Mr. Wolle in 1894, Florence Yaple was chosen 
his successor, as business manager, at the suggestion of Professor 
Trimble. 

On the death of Professor Trimble in 1898, the present editor was 
chosen. In March, 1900, the Publication Committee was. increased 
to seven members, and Dr. Richard V. Mattison and Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington were the additional members chosen. 

As I have stated in a previous report, every effort is being made 
to make the Journal true to its name ; that is, an American journal 
of pharmacy, which will encourage research by American pharma- 
cists, and which will at the same time be of direct value to the pro- 
fession at large, and an influence for the betterment of the condition 
of pharmacy in America. 



226 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pliarou 
May, 1904. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

February 25, 1904. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer. 

Dear Sir : — I was very much interested in your article in the 
December number of the American Journal of Pharmacy on 
"The Conservation and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants." 

You mention the fact that the supply of drug plants is becoming 
exhausted, and that they will have to be supplied by cultivation* 

I wish to make a few statements of my observation of the medici- 
nal plants growing in California. As we have in the State nearly 
all conditions of climate and soil that can be found in most any part 
of the north temperate zone, I think the State is capable of produc- 
ing any plant found in the same zone and a great many of the 
torrid zone. 

Plants that are brought into the State and transplanted in the 
proper places, where conditions are favorable, seem to thrive as well 
and oftentimes better than in their native soil. The eucalyptus in 
the South grows well and very rapidly; it is planted around fields for 
wind-brakes and sometimes in groves for fire-wood. A grove of four 
years' growth will furnish cord-wood — hardly long enough for an 
eastern tree to obtain a growth sufficient to be transplanted. The 
Phytolacca also obtains a larger size here than in the Eastern States. 
This plant was evidently brought out by early settlers, but at the 
present time is growing wild. The castor-oil plant also attains a 
large size here. 

As to the conditions existing here, in the South we have the hot, 
sandy desert, well adapted to the cactus and to any of the Cucur- 
bitaceae, as the colocynth. At Indio, in the dry sea bed, musk- 
melons and watermelons thrive when irrigated. Near the mouth of 
the San Joaquin River, is light, sandy soil suitable for such as the 
sassafras, while in the immediate neighborhood of Humboldt Bay it 
is always cool and damp; it is so wet that grain cannot be ripened, 
but the dairymen grow green fodder for their stock every month in 
the year. 

In this valley we occasionally have a freeze ; at the present time 
it is quite pleasant here, the grass and grain being quite green, while 
six miles above here there are 4 inches of snow. We also have the 
high mountain ranges, with an occasional frost in the valleys and 
snow nearly all the year on the peaks. Along the coast is the sea 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May, 1904. J 



Correspondence. 



227 



fog. In Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties the bean and beet 
crops are grown with the aid of the moisture of the fogs. 

So you see we have the proper conditions for plants needing a 
dry, hot climate, a damp, cool climate — cold winters and hot sum- 
mers, or an even climate the year around, such as is found around 
San Francisco Bay. 

At Santa Barbara is a private botanical garden in which it is said 
plants from all parts of the world are growing. I have seen the 
garden, and the appearance will bear out the statement. 

There are .several large and successful seed farms in the State, 
and the seeds are considered of fine quality. Near Haywards is a 
peppermint farm, producing oil of peppermint. Olive oil is also 
produced in large quantities in the State ; the quality is as good or 
better than the Italian. 

In the hills near Oakland, the camphor tree is growing wild ; also 
bamboo ; the camphor tree was planted to produce camphor for the 
market, and I suppose the bamboo was brought over at the same 
time. The camphor tree grew and flourished and produced cam- 
phor, but it cost from #1.50 to $2.00 per pound, when camphor was 
selling in the market at 50 to 60 cents per pound. While the tree 
was a success, the business was not ; but at the present indications, if 
camphor continues to advance and labor becomes cheaper, Cali- 
fornia will be able to hold the camphor market in check, and not be 
at the mercy of the Japanese government. At the present time, the 
tree springs up in the unplowed field, like sassafras does in New 
Jersey. It is found there now as a bush of a few feet in height. 

Following is a list of the medicinal plants I have observed grow- 
ing here: Peppermint, pennyroyal, cascara sagrada, balm of gilead, 
horehound, mustard (cultivated), catnip, phytolacca, stramonium, 
tansy, quercus (yielding nut galls), yerba santa, yerba buena, fennel, 
spikenard, rumex. 

At Vallejo I have seen rank growths of fennel in the streets near 
the water fronts ; in this county I have observed the alder, which in 
the East grows as a bush along the water courses, growing like a tree, 
having a height of 35 to 40 feet and a diameter of 8 to 10 inches. 

With most plants in this State, it is not a case of " Will they 
grow? " but " Will it pay to grow them ? " 

Yours very respectfully, 

W. H. Guest. 

Willits, California. 



228 Reviews and Bibliographical Xotices. { Am, Mav%m arm ' 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

A Method for the Identification of Pure Organic Compounds. 
By a systematic analytical procedure based on physical properties 
and chemical reactions. Vol. I containing classified descriptions of 
about 2,300 of the more important compounds of carbon with hydro- 
gen and with hydrogen and oxygen. By Samuel Parsons Mulli- 
ken, Ph.D., instructor in organic chemistry and organic analysis at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. New 
York, John Wile)* & Sons : London, Chapman & Hall, Limited. 
1904. Large 8vo, xii — 264 pages. Cloth, S5.00. # 

The identification of organic compounds of all classes by the 
Method of the Empirical Formula ; i. e., depending upon a knowl- 
edge of the chemical constants, percentage, composition and molecu- 
lar weight, is the method generally employed and is usually fairly 
satisfactory in the hands of the skilled analyst. There are, however, 
many other available data which have considerable significance in 
the identification of unknown organic compounds and on account of 
the ease with which many of these tests may be made should be 
utilized in a comprehensive scheme. 

Dr. Mulliken has applied himself to this task, and during the past 
eight years has carefully considered the more easily determined 
properties of more than 2,000 of the more important organic com- 
pounds, such as qualitative elementary composition, color, melting 
point, boiling point, solubility, specific gravity, alkali neutralizing 
power and chemical behavior under prescribed conditions, and has, 
we believe, devised a system which not only has the merit of origi- 
nality, but which we believe will be found, from a practical and 
technical point of view, to be simple and to yield satisfactory results. 

The author has utilized Linnaean principles in creating orders, 
genera and species of organic compounds. The " orders " are based 
on the qualitative elementary composition of the compounds com- 
prising the largest groups. Each of these then are subdivided into 
" genera, "as aldehydes, acids, phenols, etc., depending upon the 
behavior of the compounds to simple chemical tests. The genera 
include species, which are arranged according to the increasing 
value of some readily determined constant, like the melting point 
or boiling point. Finally, under each species is given a brief system- 
atized description of salient features having genuine analytical 



Am, Mayj904 arm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 229 

significance. This system of classification is an excellent one, and 
as it has been in use in the natural sciences for many years with 
excellent results, so far as the determination of animals and plants 
is concerned, is probably the only satisfactory way of looking at 
chemicals with the end in view of finally determining an unknown 
organic compound. The work will not only appeal to chemists, but 
botanists and zoologists as well, as the evolution of organic com- 
pounds in nature is very likely in the near future to demand consid- 
erable attention from students of these branches of natural science. 

In order to give our readers a better idea of the nature of the 
book, we give a rather comprehensive view of the contents, as 
follows : 

Chapter I : Classification of compounds and the analytical pro- 
cedure, including explanation of classification, orders, genera, divis- 
ions, sections, species ; general directions for examination of 
unknown compounds — evidences of homogeneity ; examinations of 
physical characteristics ; determination of order ; determination of 
genus ; tabular summary of generic tests ; determination of division 
and section; determination of species. Chapter II : Ordinal tests, 
including procedure for detection of the elements in organic com- 
pounds, as carbon and ash constituents ; sulphur, nitrogen and the 
halogens ; ignition with sodium ; sulphur ; nitrogen ; nitrogen and 
sulphur together ; phosphorus ; halogens ; iodine ; bromine ; chlo- 
rine. Chapter III : Genus I (Subord. I, Ord. I). — Aldehydes, giving 
generic characterization. Generic Test I ; observations on test ; alde- 
hyde characteristics ; analytical tables, Div. A (solid species), Div. 
B (liquid species), numbered specific or semi-specific aldehyde tests. 
Compounds reducing Tollen's reagent, acetaldehyde, acrolein, ben- 
zaldehyde, formic aldehyde, furfurol. Chapter IV: Genus II (Sub- 
ord. I, Ord. I). — Carbohydrates, giving generic characterization, 
analytical tables and numbered sectional and specific carbohydrate 
teets. Chapter V: Genus III (Subord. I, Ord. I). — Acids, including 
generic characterization, analytical tables and numbered specific or 
semi-specific tests. Chapter VI : Genus IV (Subord. I, Ord. I). — 
Phenolic compounds, including generic characterization, analytical 
tables and numbered specific or semi-specific tests. Chapter VII : 
Genus V (Subord. I, Ord. I). — Esters, giving generic characteriza- 
tion and analytical tables. Chapter VIII: Genus VI (Subord. I, 
Ord. I). — Acid anhydrides and lactones, including generic charac- 



230 



In Memoriam. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



terization and analytical tables. Chapter IX : Genus VII (Subord. 
I, Ord. I). — Ketones, including generic characterizations, analytical 
tables and numbered specific or semi-specific ketone tests. Chapter 
X • Genus VIII (Subord. I, Ord. I). — Alcohols, including generic 
characterization, analytical tables and numbered specific or semi- 
specific tests. Chapter XI : Genus IX (Subord. I, Ord. I). — Hydro- 
carbons, etc., including generic characterization and the sectional 
tests, analytical tables and numbered specific or semi-specific tests. 
Chapter XII : Suborder II of Order I. — Colored compounds of Or- 
der I, including subordinal characterization, analytical tables and 
numbered specific tests. Chapter XIII : Special methods, appara- 
tus and reagents, including melting- and boiling-points, thermo- 
metric indications of chemical purity, specific gravities, color, the 
manipulation of small quantities and list of special reagents and 
apparatus. Finally there is an alphabetical index, a formula index 
and a color standard. 

The entire work shows care and patience upon the part of the 
author, and is one of the most valuable analytical works which has 
been published. The only suggestion which might be made, and 
yet no doubt the author has considered the advisability of it, would 
be to give more than one test as a generic test. For instance, under 
carbohydrates the Molisch color reaction with a-naphthol alone is 
given. If instead of a-naphthol a solution of thymol is used in con- 
junction with sulphuric acid, a reddish colored solution results 
instead of a blue color. Both of these reactions are very sensitive 
and characteristic for carbohydrates. 



IN MEMORIAM— J. B. NAGELVOORT. 
By A. B. Lyons. 

It was with a shock of surprise as well as with deep regret that I 
read in the Detroit morning paper of March 2, 1904, the announce- 
ment ot the death of J. B. Nagelvoort. Only a few days before I 
had received from him a letter, dated February 22d, which showed 
no indication of any decline in his bodily or mental powers. It 
related to the subject of some researches he was carrying on, and 
enclosed photographs of plants of Hyoscyamus niger in exchange 
for some I had offered to send him of some of the wild plants of 
that species at Mackinac. After signing his name with free, firm 



Am M°ay?i904 arm '} ? n Memoriam. 231 

hand, he added the characteristic postscript : " Please don't call me 
professor ! " 

The end, in fact, as I learned afterwards, had come to him with- 
out warning. One week after the date of that letter, he retired to 
rest as usual, but it was to sleep the sleep that knows no awakening. 
" Heart failure" tells the whole story, so far as is known to any of us. 

It was such an end as I am sure he would have coveted — with no 
period preceding it of declining powers, with unfinished work yet 
luring him on. 

His life had been one of diversified experiences. Born in Amster- 
dam, July 14, 1843, he began work as an apothecary at the early 
age of fourteen. Later he attended college at Hague. About the 
year 1868 he received an appointment under the Dutch Govern- 
ment in the hospital service in the East Indies. He was stationed 
in Java, and occupied a position of weighty responsibility. Here 
he married, his wife being also a native of Holland, and here 
several of his children were born. His health having become im- 
paired, he returned in 1878 to Holland, and then decided to make 
his home in America. He took up land in Nebraska, and for five 
years devoted himself to farming. This life, however, did not sat- 
isfy his higher ambitions. In 1883 or 1884 he returned to Holland 
to pursue further his studies in chemistry, and then accepted a posi- 
tion in the scientific department of Parke, Davis & Co. 

From this time he became a frequent contributor to current 
pharmaceutical literature. In 1892-3 he made a translation for 
publication of Professor Fliickiger's " Reactions of the More Import- 
ant Organic Compounds." About the same time he contributed to 
the Apothecary a series of valuable " Notes on the Pharmacopoeia," 
in view of the decennial revision then in progress. 

In 1895 he accepted the chair of Applied Pharmaceutical Chemis- 
try in the Northwestern University, a position he filled with distinc- 
tion for two years. He then returned to Holland, and was for two 
years an instructor in the School of Pharmacy of the Rijks Univer- 
sity at Leyden. 

In 1901 he returned to America to accept a position with a manu- 
facturing house in New Orleans ; but his engagement there was not 
of long duration. Last year he found exactly the position that 
suited his temperament and gave opportunity for the use of his 
accumulated resources of knowledge and chemical skill. A labora- 



232 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am May^fo3 arm * 

tory for research was established in connection with the botanical 
gardens at St. Louis, Mo., where, in association with Dr. Trelease, 
he entered upon a line of work thoroughly congenial to him. The 
country suffers a distinct loss in the cutting short of so promising a 
career of usefulness. 

Mr. Nagelvoort was a man of pronounced personality. His ideals 
were beyond the comprehension of a commercial age like ours, and 
no consideration of personal advantage ever influenced him to sacri- 
fice one iota of them. No doubt he was not sufficiently tolerant 
sometimes of the views of those with whom he was associated, but 
his supreme regard for honesty and his absolute independence of 
action gained for him universal respect. 

In Athens, more than two thousand years ago, Diogenes sought 
in vain for a single honest man. They are not less rare in this 
enlightened day and age, but those who knew J. B. Nagelvoort were 
sure that honesty was incarnate in him. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

THE EIGHTY-THIRD ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT. 

The Eighty-third Annual Commencement of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held in the American Academy of Music, 
Thursday evening, April 14th. After prayer by Rev. Cassius M. 
Roberts, the degrees were conferred by the President of the College, 
Howard B. French. Following are the names of those receiving 
the degree of Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.), together with the subjects 
of their theses : 

Name. Subject of Thesis. State. 

Althoff, Samuel Young, Principal Sources of Commercial 

Drugs, Pennsylvania. 

Baker, Howard Stanislaus, Solanum Carolinense, New Jersey. 

Bartholomew, Arthur D., The Cotton Plant and Preparations, Pennsylvania. 

Bee, William Frederick, Soft Capsules and their Preparations, Utah. 

Beyer, Albert Franz, Phenacetin, New Jersey. 

Binder, Furman Brooke, Eucalyptus Globulus, Pennsylvania. 

Bogert, Charles Halsey, Caoutchouc, New Jersey, 

Boltz, Howard Hauer, Spongia, Pennsylvania. 

Boyer, Howard Johns, Gentian, Pennsylvania. 

Brockman, Martin Wm., Aloes, Pennsylvania. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



233 



Name. 

Brown, Walter Eugene, 
Cameron, John Henry, 
Cherry, Frances (Miss) 
Chisholm, Jesse Connor, 
Closson, Charles Steinmetz, 
Coombs, Harry, 
Crouse, Eugene Drake, 
Davis, Elizabeth (Miss) 
Davis, Horace Tracy, 
Davis, John Simmonds, 
Davis, Thomas Carroll, 
Dittmeyer, Walter Eugene, 

Doherty, William John, 
Dulin, William, 
Eberly, John Shelly, 
Fox, Jamella (Miss) 
Free, William H., Jr., 
Fricke, Charles B., 
Fuller, Royston Tupper, 
Garvey, James Aloysius, 
Gemmill, Clarence F., 
Gillan, James Dunlap, 
Grier, Robert, 
Hastings, Lome Edward, 
Hay, Stacey Merritt, 
Hibbs, William Buckman, 
Jones, Levi W. S., 
Jones, Robert Earl, 
Keeley, Henry Edgar F., 

Kilion, Rebecca E. (Miss) 
Klotz, Luther Wenner, 
Klucher, John Albert, 
Knouse, Ralph Edward, 
Kopp, Yocum Andrew, 
Kumpf, George Brenner, 
Lafean, Wilbur LeRoy, 
Lauter, Mary Jenny (Miss) 
Lewin, Richman Garrison, 
Lithgow, William David, 
Long, Henry Clay, Jr., 
Long, Michael Richard, 
Lovatt, James Sidney, 
McCausland, Alexander Nv, 
McDevitt, William, 

Mauger, John Harvey, 



Subject of Thesis. State. 

Vanilla, Delaware. 

The Thyroid Gland, New Jersey. 

Opium, Pennsylvania. 

Sodii Hyposulphis, Texas. 

Why Syrups Spoil, New Jersey. 

A Practical Soap Cutter, Colorado. 

Chloroform , New Jersey. 

Mentha Piperita, Pennsylvania. 

Coloring Agents in Pharmacy, Pennsylvania. 

Solution of Hydriodic Acid, Pennsylvania. 

Succinic Acid and the Succinates, Pennsylvania. 

The Thyroid Gland and its Prepara- 
tions, W. Virginia. 

Belladonna, Pennsylvania. 

Petrogen, Pennsylvania. 

Cascara Sagrada, Pennsylvania. 

Acidum Citricum, Pennsylvania. 

Bases for Iodine Ointment, Pennsylvania. 

Pharmacognostical Notes, Nebraska. 

Gelsemium, Nova Scotia. 

Salicylic Acid, Pennsylvania. 

Manufacture of Tablets, Pennsylvania. 

Caroid, Pennsylvania. 

Compressed Tablets, New Jersey. 

Saccharin, Canada. 

The Production of Borax, Pennsylvania. 

Camphora, Pennsylvania. 

Opium, Pennsylvania. 

Immunity, Ohio. 

Some Disadvantages of Compressed 

Tablets, Pennsylvania. 

Digitalis, Pennsylvania. 

Cryptogamous Plants. Pennsylvania. 

Cinchona, Pennsylvania. 

Extemporaneous Capsule Filling, Pennsylvania. 

Charta Sinapis, Pennsylvania. 

Fixed Oils, Pennsylvania. 

Stains for Pathological Work, Pennsylvania. 

Antitoxin, Pennsylvania. 

Formaldehyde, Texas. 

Ichthyol, Pennsylvania. 

Chloretone, Delaware. 

Quercus, Ireland. 

Pepper, New Jersey. 

Vanilla Grass, Pennsylvania. 

Natural and Synthetic Salicylic 

Acid, Pennsylvania. 

Convallaria Majalis, Pennsylvania. 



234 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
May, 1904. 



Name. 

Montgomery, John S., Jr., 
Miller, LeRoy, P. C, 
Moore, Wilbert Jacob, 

Moore, Julius Shepherd, 
Morgan, Matthias Drostan, 
Moul, William Edward, 
Neiler, William Mackie, 
Nofer, Walter Washington, 
Outerbridge, John W. P., 
Peiffer, Irwin Isaac, 

Pereira, David da Salva, 

Quinn, Joseph Aloysius, 
Renshaw, Milli. S. (Miss), 
Rider, Joseph Albert, 

Robeck, Walter Henry, 

Rohrbaugh, Milton E., 
Ross, William Smith, 
Shafer, Frederick William, 
Sharadin, Ralph Clarence, 
Shelly, John Culp, 
Shull, David Franklin, 
Siegrist, George Anthony, 
Spangler, Harry Albert, 
Stonesifer, Howard A., 
Strunk, Edward Josiah, 
Stump, Frank Arthur, 
Wachtel, Leo Michael, 
Wagner, George Frederick, 
Walter, Charles Arthur, 
Warshawsky, Reuben, 
Weinberg, Charles B., 
Wertz, Harry Elmer, 

West, David MacGowan, 
Zeledon, Jose Antonio, 



Subject of Thesis. State, 

Estimation of Guaiacol in Creosote, Georgia. 

Assay of Extractum Nucis Vomicae, Pennsylvania. 

Salicylic Acid and its Action on Fer- 
mentation, New Jersey. 

Ginseng, Arkansas. 

Formaldehyde, Pennsylvania. 

Dentifrices, Pennsylvania. 

Vaccine, Pennsylvania. 

The Manufacture of Corks, Pennsylvania. 

Bermuda Arrow Root, Bermuda. 

A Study of the Micro-organisms in 

Deteriorated Kino Preparations, Pennsylvania. 

Value Determination of Drugs and 
their Preparations, Dutch Guiana. 

Vaccine and Antitoxins, Pennsylvania. 

Boiling Points, Pennsylvania. 

Should a Pharmacist be a College 

Graduate ? Pennsylvania. 

Malt Extract, its Preparation and 
Analysis, Maryland. 

Crystallization, Pennsylvania. 

Ointment Vehicles, New York. 

Radium, New Jersey. 

Cod Liver Oil and its Adulterations, Pennsylvania. 

Camphora, Pennsylvania. 

Petroleum, Pennsylvania. 

Hypericum Perforatum, New York. 

Galla, Pennsylvania. 

Modern Pharmacy, Pennsylvania. 

Olea Volatilia, Pennsylvania. 

Emulsions, Pennsylvania. 

Cyrilla Racemiflora, Georgia. 

Sodii Bicarbonas, Pennsylvania. 

Rhus Glabra, Pennsylvania. 

Urine Analysis, Russia. 

The Opium Habit, New Jersey. 

An Examination of Various Pilo- 
carpus Leaves, Pennsylvania. 

Sodii Boras, Pennsylvania. 

Copal and Chirraca, Costa Rica. 



Following are the names of those receiving the degree of Pharm- 
aceutical Chemist (P. C), together with the subjects of their theses : 

Name. Thesis. State. 

Crafts, Frederick J Strophanthus Microscopically. . Ohio 

Curtis, Luther Barker The Commercial Production of 

Turpentine Florida 

Duncan, Chester Arthur. . . . Acetic Acid Pennsylvania 



Am May 1 ;i904 arm -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 235 

Name. Subject of Thesis. State. 

Schmidt, Frank L,ouis Sodium Phosphate W. Virginia 

Turner, Thomas Jefferson . . . Nitroglycerin Pennsylvania 

The following members of the class were awarded the certificate 
of Proficiency in Chemistry : 7 

Carwithen, Albert States Pennsylvania 

Gehringer, Bdwin Franklin Pennsylvania 

Hirst, Ralston Sanford New Jersey 

Hoffman, Norman Boore ... ... Pennsylvania 

Keller, Charles Franklin Ohio 

Wyckoff, Elmer E. . . . Pennsylvania 



There were one hundred members of the graduating class, and 
they represented various States and several foreign countries as well. 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Dean of the Faculty, announced that 
the president's cup, offered first by President Howard B. French, in 
1901, for high class average, had been won by the present class. 
The following members of the Class received the grade of dis- 
tinguished : Thomas Carroll Davis, Charles B. Fricke, Millicent 
Saxon Renshaw, Walter Henry Robeck, Frank Louis Schmidt; and 
the following that of meritorious : Samuel Young Althoff, Jesse 
Connor Chisholm, Elizabeth Davis, Walter Eugene Dittmeyer, Clar- 
ence Franklin Gemmill, John Swift Montgomery, William Frederick 
Shafer, Harry Elmer Wertz. 

Hon. George D. McCreary made the valedictory address, and, 
among other things, said: " You are living in an age in which there 
are new conditions, new chances and new opportunities for original 
research. There are great chances for you if you will put into effect 
what you have learned from your alma mater. Unless you use your 
knowledge wisely and get out of the beaten track, instead of fol- 
lowing the line of least resistance, you will be mere machines all 
your lives, and will not gain the success you are all looking for. 
The twentieth century wants original knowledge. New men with 
new ideas will come on to take the place of those who have made 
the nineteenth century what it was." 

AWARD OF PRIZES. 

The Procter Prize, a gold medal and certificate, offered for the 
highest general average, with a meritorious thesis, was awarded to 
Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Howard B. French making the presenta- 
tion. 



236 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am May?ifo4 arm ' 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize, a gold medal and certifi- 
cate, offered by Mrs. Rebecca T. Webb, for the highest general 
average in the branches of committee, operative pharmacy and 
specimens, was awarded to Harry Elmer Wertz, the presentation 
being made by William J. Jenks. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Samuel Young Althoff, 
Charles B. Fricke, Millicent Saxon Renshaw. 

The Pharmacy Prize, a gold medal, offered by Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington, for original pharmaceutical work, was awarded to John 
William Pearman Outerbridge, with honorable mention of Millicent 
Saxon Renshaw and David da Salva Pereira. 

The Pharmacognosy Prize, a Zentmayer microscope, offered by 
Prof. Henry Kraemer, for original research in pharmacognosy, was 
awarded to Irwin Isaac Peiffer, the following graduates receiving 
honorable mention in connection therewith: Samuel Young Althoff, 
Charles B. Fricke, Wilbur LeRoy Lafean, Alexander Newton Mc- 
Causland, John William Pearman Outerbridge, Harry Elmer Wertz. 

The Materia Medica Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. 
Lowe, for the best examination in materia medica, and in the recog- 
nition of materia medica specimens, with a meritorious thesis, was 
awarded to Millicent Saxon Renshaw, the following graduates receiv- 
ing honorable mention in connection therewith : Charles B. Fricke, 
Clarence Franklin Gemmill, Irwin Isaac Peiffer, Frank Louis 
Schmidt, Howard A. Stonesifer, Harry Elmer Wertz. 

The Analytical Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Frank X. 
Moerk, for the best work in qualitative and quantitative analysis, 
was awarded to Thomas Carroll Davis, with honorable mention of 
Jesse Connor Chisholm and Elizabeth Davis. 

The Maisch Prize, $25 in gold, offered by Mr. Jacob H. Red- 
secker, of Lebanon, Pa., for histological knowledge of vegetable drugs, 
was awarded to Walter Eugene Dittmeyer, Prof. Henry Kraemer mak- 
ing the presentation. The following graduates received honorable 
mention in connection therewith : Harry Coombs, Clarence Franklin 
Gemmill, Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Walter Henry Robeck. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, for the best examination in operative pharm- 
acy, was awarded to George Brenner Kumpf, the presentation being 
made by James T. Shinn. The following graduates received honor- 
able mention in connection therewith: Samuel Young Althoff, Eliza- 



Am May?iSSf rm *} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 237 

beth Davis, Charles B. Fricke, Roy Tupper Fuller, William David 
Lithgow, Michael Richard Long, James Sidney Lovatt, William 
Edward Moul, Irwin Isaac Peiffer, Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Leo 
Michael Wachtel, Harry Elmer Wertz. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, a Troemner agate prescrip- 
tion balance, offered by Mr. Mahlon N. Kline, for the best examina- 
tion in theory and practice of pharmacy, was awarded to Jesse Con- 
nor Chisholm. The following graduates received honorable mention 
in connection therewith: Samuel Young AlthorT, Thomas Carroll 
Davis, Jamella Fox, Wilbur LeRoy Lafean, John Swift Montgomery, 
Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Walter Henry Robeck, Frank Louis 
Schmidt. 

The Commercial Training Prize of $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, for the best examination in commmercial 
training at the final examination for the degree, was awarded to 
John Swift Montgomery, and presented by Prof. E. Fullerton Cook 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith: Samuel Young Althoff, William Frederick Bee, Jesse 
Connor Chisholm, Harry Coombs, Charles B. Fricke, James Aloysius 
Garvey, Clarence Franklin Gemmill, Walter Eugene Dittmeyer, 
Lome Edward Hastings, Robert Earle Jones, Rebecca E. Kilion, 
William D. Lithgow, Frank Louis Schmidt, John William Pearman 
Outerbridge, Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Milton Eugene Rohrbaugh, 
Edward Josiah Strunk, Leo Michael Wachtel. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the instructors of the 
College for the highest term average in the branches of pharmacy, 
chemistry and materia medica, was awarded to Charles B. Fricke, 
Prof. F. P. Stroup making the presentation. The following gradu- 
ates received honorable mention in connection therewith : Thomas 
Carroll Davis, Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Frank Louis Schmidt, 
Harry Elmer Wertz. 

The Pharmacy Quiz Prize, one year's membership in the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Prof. Charles H. La Wall, 
for the best term work in theory and practice of pharmacy, was 
awarded to John Swift Montgomery. The following graduates re- 
ceived honorable mention in connection therewith: Thomas Carroll 
Davis, Charles B. Fricke, Frank Louis Schmidt, William Frederick 
Shafer, Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Harry Elmer Wertz. 

The Kappa Psi Fraternity Prize, $20 in gold, offered by the 



238 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am M°a" , iSS 8rm ' 

Eta Chapter of the Kappa Psi Fraternity to the graduate making 
the highest general average during the three years' course at the 
College, was awarded to Millicent Saxon Renshaw, Dr. Adolph VV. 
Miller making the presentation. 

COMPLIMENTARY SUPPER GIVEN BY THE FACULTY. 
On Wednesday evening, April 13th, a complimentary supper was 
tendered the graduating class by the members of the Faculty. The 
supper was given in the Museum of the College, and among the 
invited guests were some of the officers and members of the College. 
Professor Remington acted as toast master, and short speeches were 
made by members of the Faculty, the Instructors, officers of the 
College, and by a number of the graduating class. 

BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 

Baccalaureate services were held in Christ Church, Second Street 
above Market, on Sunday, April 10th, the sermon being delivered by 
the rector, Rev. C. Ellis Stevens, LL.D., D.C.L. 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. - 

The annual reunion and banquet of the Alumni Association was 
held at the Colonnade Hotel on Tuesday evening, April 12th. There 
was a large number of members in attendance, and remarks were 
made by representatives of the several classes dating back to 1842, 
Wm. J. Jenks, second vice-president of the class, responding for this 
class. Mr. Thomas S. Wiegand, of the class 1844, wno nas usually 
been present on these occasions, was not able to be with the alumni, 
owing to illness, and a committee was instructed to frame a letter 
to him expressing the sympathy of those present and wishing him a 
speedy recovery. 

The fortieth annual meeting of the Alumni Association was held 
in Alumni Hall, Monday afternoon, April nth, at 2.30 p.m., with 
the President, Albert Oetinger, in the chair. 

First in order was the annual address of the chairman, after 
which reports from the other officers and standing committees were 
received. The annual election was then held and resulted in the 
choice of the following officers: President, Walter A. Rumsey; 
Vice-Presidents, Freeman P. Stroup and John D. Burg ; Recording 
Secretary, Joseph W. England ; Corresponding Secretary, Charles 
H. La Wall ; Treasurer, C. Carroll Meyer ; Board of Directors, 



Am May^o4? rm -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 239 

John W. Fry, Florence Yaple, Otto W. Osterlund, Willard R. 
Graham, Edward A. Eyer and Clayton E. Morgan. 

The annual reception given by the association to the members of 
the graduating class was held the evening of the same day, in the 
College Museum, with President Oetinger in the chair. After the 
roll call of new members elected during 1903-04, an address was 
made by Prof. Clement B. Lowe. 

The prizes offered by the Association were awarded as follows : 

The Alumni Gold Medal for the best general average for the 
year was awarded to Millicent Saxon Renshaw, and presented by 
Walter A. Rumsey. 

The Alumni Prize Certificates, offered for the highest general 
average in Pharmacy, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Committee, Op- 
erative Pharmacy, Analytical Chemistry and Specimens were 
respectively awarded as follows, Prof. E. Fullerton Cook making 
the presentation: Jesse Connor Chisholm, Frank Louis Schmidt, 
Millicent Saxon Renshaw, William Dulin, George Brenner Kumpf, 
Thomas Carroll Davis and Harry Elmer Wertz. 

The Alumni Silver Medal was awarded to George Mahlon Ber- 
inger, Jr., for the best general average in the second year examina- 
tion, Prof. Freeman P. Stroup making the presentation. 

The Alumni Bronze Medal was awarded to Herbert D. Flack, 
for the best general average in the first year examination, and was 
presented by Prof. Charles H. La Wall. 

The Class Oration was delivered by Chester Arthur Duncan; the 
Class Poem by Reuben Warshawsky ; the Class History by Wm. 
David Lithgow, and the Horoscope of the Class by Charles Arthur 
Walters. 

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 
The following is a copy of the questions given to the students of 
the third year class at their recent final examinations. Practical 
examinations were given in Operative Pharmacy and Analytical 
Chemistry, and these were held in the respective laboratories. 
Specimens for identification were given in connection with the 
written examination in each branch : 

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACY. 

A — Opium. — (1) Why does the U. S. Pharmacopoeia direct Opium to be 
made by incising the unripe capsules of the Poppy plant ? (2) Name four prin- 
cipal alkaloids obtained from Opium? (3) What two natural acids are found 



240 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am Ma^904 arm- 

in Opium? (4) What is the object of deodorizing Opium? (5) Why is 
Morphine Acetate an undesirable salt ? (6) How is Extract of Opium made ? 
(7) How much Extract of Opium, assaying 20 per cent, of morphine, can be 
made from 1,000 grammes of Opium assaying 12 per cent. ? 

B — Give the unabbreviated official names of the following and also give the 
proper abbreviation for shop furniture labels : Compound Tincture of Lavender, 
Coxe's Hive Syrup, Mercury with Chalk, Cold Cream, Honey of Rose, Dono- 
van's Solution, Brown Mixture, Basham's Mixture, Easton's Syrup, Lime 
Water, Blue Mass, Milk of Almond, Basilicon Ointment, Fowler's Solution, 
Colophony, Griffith's Mixture, Glyconin, Brandy, Hoffmann's Anodyne, Chalk 
Mixture. 

C — (1) Give the characteristic color tests for the following : Saliciu, Colchi- 
cine, Strychnine, Veratrine, Brucine. (2) Describe the thalleioquin test for 
quinine. (3) How can you get a rose-colored liquid in making this test ? 

D — (1) What is an antitoxin? (2} How is diphtheria antitoxin prepared? 
(3) How is it standardized? (4) What is the theory of the action of diphtheria 
antitoxin ? (5) Why is it put up in hermetically sealed packages? (6) How is 
it administered ? 

E — (1) What is glass chemically? (2) From what is "green " glass made? 
(3) What is used to give an amber color to glass ? (4) What is used to give a 
blue color to glass? (5) How are glass bottles molded? (6) What plan is 
used to make the letters on a glass bottle stand- out sharply? (7) What is the 
best material from which to make ointment jars ? (8) What is the best shape 
for a shelf ointment jar? (9) What is the best kind of an ointment box for 
dispensing? (10) Describe metallic tubes for dispensing ointments. What are 
their advantages ? 

F—{i) What is the Latin name for the class "Plasters?" (2) What two 
principal official vehicles are used in making plasters ? (3) What constitutes a 
rubber-base plaster mass ? (4) Describe briefly the method used in making 
rubber-base plasters. (5) Describe briefly the hand apparatus used by drug- 
gists in spreading plasters for stock or in quantity. (6) Make a sketch of a 
plaster for the left ear. (7) Make a sketch of a breast plaster. 

G — (1) What is an emulsion? (2) What is the theory of emulsification ? 

(3) What is meant by the Continental method ? (4) What is meant by the 
English method ? (5) What is meant by Forbe's method ? (6) How can you 
tell when an emulsion is cracked? (7) What causes emulsions to crack ? (8) 
How may you recover a cracked emulsion ? (9) How are emulsions made on 
the large scale ? 

H— Incompatibility . — (1) Define the term. (2) What three kinds of incom- 
patibility may be recognized ? (3) Define each kind. (4) Give an example of 
each. (5) What rule should govern, when the dispenser is in doubt about fil- 
tering a prescription ? (6) What is the proper procedure upon receiving a pre- 
scription known to contain a dangerous quantity of a poisonous substance ? 

I — Legislation. — (1) What is the prime object of pharmacy laws ? (2) What 
is an ex post facto law ? (3) Why is there not a United States pharmacy law ? 

(4) Why should all fees be paid to the State and the Boards of Pharmacy be 
paid salaries ? (5) What are the requirements with regard to the sale of poisons 
in your State ? 

K — Fill up three of the labels upon the sheet attached, writing suitable 



Am x}av!'ifw. arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 241 

directions for the following prescriptions : Cod-Liver Oil emulsion for a child 
ten years old, Fowler's Solution for a man, and Wine of Iron for a woman. 

Then write three prescriptions upon the blanks printed upon the label sheet, 
for the following, numbering and dating each : (1) Twelve powders for a child 
six years old, suffering from mild indigestion and diarrhea caused by eating 
unripe fruit. (2) One for an old lady requiring a tonic, containing Quinine, 
Iron Phosphate and Elixir of Orange (teaspoonful dose, 8 ounce mixture). 
(3) One metric prescription for a man thirty years old, requiring a suppository 
containing Extract of Stramonium, Goulard's Extract and Creosote (twelve 
suppositories). 

Write labels for the prescriptions above, and also for the following: 
Upon labels for Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7 ard 8 (see below), write brief directions for 
use — pills, ointment, drops, etc. (4) One for a simple ointment, % ounce, to 
apply for a slight eruption on the face, due to sunburn. (5) One for drops for 
inflamed eyes, 1 fluid ounce solution. (6) One for twelve tablet triturates, in 
screw-cap vial, for headache due to over-study. (7) One for a pint bottle con- 
taining Lime Water. (8) One for two dozen capsules of Phenacetin and Salol, 
i 1 /, grains each. 

Fill in the address tag for one of the patients, using any name or address. 
Fill in the check-blanks in lower left-hand corner for one of the patients. 

CHEMISTRY. 

A — (1) Describe Acidum Tartaricum and Acidum Citricum, and state how 
you would distinguish between them. (2) Give an account of the sources 
and method of production of each of these acids. (3) Give the formulas of 
several official salts of each acid. 

B — (1) Write the structural formulas of Benzene, methyl-benzene and 
dimethyl-benzene. (2) What is the action of chlorine upon methyl-benzene 
under different conditions ? Illustrate by the formulas of the products obtained. 
(3) What is the product of the action of concentrated sulphuric acid upon ben- 
zene? (4) What of the action of nitric acid ? (5) Write the reaction in each case. 

C — (1) What is the proper chemical name for aniline, and how is it formed ? 
Write the formulas of the salts it forms with hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, 
respectively. (2) Write the structural formula of acetanilid, state how it is 
made and give the official tests for it. (3) Write the formulas of Diphenyl- 
amine and Metaphenylenediamine. (4) Do you know any characteristic 
reaction of either ? 

D— 11) Describe common Phenol, state how it is made sjmthetically and 
what are its official tests. (2) What is the structural formula of acet-paraphen- 
etidin, and what is its medical name? (3) Guiacol is the monomethyl ether of 
pyrocatechin ; write its structural formula. (4) What is the main source of 
Guaiacol ? 

E — (rj What would be the proper chemical name of salicylic acid ? Write 
its structural formula. (2) Write the formulas of neutral and basic sodium 
salicylate, respectively ; of methyl salicylate and of phenyl salicylate. (3) 
Anisic acid is the methyl ether of p-oxy benzoic acid. Write its structural 
formula. 

F — (1) Describe Acidum Gallicum, and state the sources from which it is 
obtained. (2) Write the formula of bismuth monogallate and state its use in 



242 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am MayaS arm ' 

pharmacy. (3) How is tannic acid related to gallic acid ? (4) By what tests 
can the two be distinguished ? 

G — (1) Give the exact chemical names and, when official, the official names 
of the following compounds : 

CH 3 CH 3 C— COH C— OH 

II s \ s \ 

CO CO— O C 2 H 5 HC CH HC C— OH 

I I II I II 

CH 3 N(CH 3 ) 4 I HC CH HC C-OH 

X / X / 

CH CH 

H — (] ) Write the structural formulas for : Amyl nitris, Nitroglycerin, Sodii 
sulphocarbolas, Thymol, Resorcin, B-naphtol. 

/ — Food Adulteration. — (1 ) State the adulterations which are to be looked for 
in a sample of olive oil and the tests by which you would recognize them. (2) 
By what test would you distinguish between a genuine butter and oleomarga- 
rine ? (3) How would you test a sample of milk for purity ? 

K — Proximate Organic Analysis. — (1) Given spirits of turpentine adulter- 
ated with petroleum benzin ; state how you would determine the amount of 
adulteration. (2) Given a linseed oil adulterated with mineral oil and rosin 
oil ; state how you would proceed to analyze it. 

MATERIA MEDICA. 

A— Jalap. — (1) State its official and botanical names, natural order and 
habitat. (2) What per cent, of resin should it yield? how is this resin obtained ? 
what are its solubilities in ether and its chief constituent? (3) What is the 
action of the drug and in what doses is it given ? What used to be prescribed 
under the name of " Rush's thunderbolt ? " (4) Does worm-eaten jalap yield 
a greater or less per cent, of resin ? (5) Should it be used for making official 
preparations ? 

B — Alkaloids. — (1) Give the botanical names of the plants from which the 
following are derived, viz. : Coniine, Berberine, Brucine, Sparteine, Nicotine, 
Physostigmine, Theobromine, Hyoscine, Atropine, Gelsemine, Pilocarpine, 
Aconitine, Emetine, Hydrastine, Cocaine. (2) Which of these is used as a 
mydriatic, which as a myotic, which stimulates the sweat glands, which will 
produce clonic convulsions, which acts as an emetic, which as a local 
anaesthetic ? 

C— Purgatives. — (1) Name the purgative principle present in each of the 
following drugs, viz. : Mandrake, Culver's Physic, Euonymus, Aloes, Senna, 
Ficus, Elaterium, Manna, Bitter Apple, Bryony. (2) Give the ordinary dose 
of any five of the above. 

D — N. O. Umbelliferce . — (1) Name the inflorescence and fruit which are 
characteristic of this order. (2) Give the official names of four fruits, the 
official names of the volatile oils yielded by these fruits and the doses and 
medicinal properties of the oils. (3) Name an official fruit derived from this 
order whose active constituent is an alkaloid and state its action. (4) Give 
official names of resins derived from this order. Which of these yields a 
sulphuretted volatile oil ? 

E— Synonyms. — (r) Give the principal synonyms of the following, viz. : 



Am Ma"if« arm "} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 243 

Marrubium, Iris, Eupatorium, Leptandra, Euonymus, Pyrethrum, Pimenta, 
Myristica, Capsicum, Sumbul, Absinthium, Hedeoma, Matricaria, Cypripe- 
dium, Inula, Eriodictyon, Aspidosperma, Frangula, Oleum Tiglii, Oleum 
Erigerontis. 

F — Official Names. — (1) Give the official names of the following, viz.: 
Monkshood, Yellow Jasmine, Garlic, Foxglove, Deadly Nightshade, Mandrake, 
Pokeroot, Butternut Bark, Cascara Sagrada, Henbane, Jamestown-weed, Broom, 
Pleurisy Root, Oil of Sweet Birch, Bloodroot. [2) Which of these acts as a 
heart tonic, which as a heart depressant (sedative , which as an expectorant, 
which as laxatives, which as cerebral depressants ? 

G — Cinchona Bark . — [1] Name the botanical sources, habitat and countries 
from which our present supplies are obtained. 2) What do we mean by the 
terms ''natural,'' !> mossed" and "renewed" barks? (3) What per cent, of 
alkaloids does the latter often yield, name the principal constituents, state 
their medicinal properties, what name is applied to the effect produced by over- 
doses and what are these effects ? 

H — Doses. — (1) State the largest single dose which you would give of each 
of the following, viz. : Opium, Codeine, Morphine, Heroin, Strychnine, Atro- 
pine, Pilocarpine Hydrochlorate, Apomorphine Hydrochlorate, Caffeine, Hyos- 
cine Hydrobromate, Cocaine Hydrochlorate. 

/ — Toxicology. — 1) Give the chemical antidotes and physiological antagonists 
for poisoning by the following drugs, viz. : Opium, Strychnine, Aconite, Bella- 
donna, Chloral Hydrate. 

K — Emergencies. — \\ What do we mean by the terms "incised wound,'' 
healing by " first intention," 14 healing by granulation " ? (2) Briefly outline 
your method of treating (antiseptically) a scalp wound. (3) In hemorrhage 
from an artery at what point would you apply pressure 10 control bleeding ? at 
what point in hemorrhage from a vein ? 

COMMITTEE. 

A — Foxglove. — 1) Give the botanical name and natural order. (2) From 
what countries is the commercial supply of this drug usually obtained ? (3) 
Describe the general appearance of the drug microscopically. (4) Name three 
official preparations of the drug. 1 5 What are their respective uses in medi- 
cine? 6 Name the active principles of Foxglove. (7) Is it safe to prescribe 
either of these principles? if not, why not ? J 

B — Give the unabbreviated official or Latin name, ingredients, brief outline of 
process, and describe the appearance of the following : Prussic Acid, Lugol's 
Solution, Labarraque's Solution, Elixir of Vitriol, Plummer's Pills, Carron 
Oil, Strengthening Plaster, 

C— If you were consulted by a physician and asked to suggest the best meth- 
ods or recipes pharmaceutically^ for administering the following medicines to 
the sick, by the mouth, what would you advise? One or two for each sub- 
stance may be given. ) i i Chloroform. (2) Quinine Sulphate. (3) Tincture 
of Ferric Chloride. (4) Castor Oil. 5j Potassium Iodide. (6] Strychnine 
Sulphate. (7) Silver Nitrate. S | Pumpkin Seed. 

D — Doses and Antidotes. — Give the maximum single doses of each of the 
following: (1 Atropine Sulphate. <2 Extract of Nux Vomica. (3) Codeine 
Sulphate. 14) Tincture of Hyoscyamus. 151 Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid. (6) 



244 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { An, -M^£5 arm - 

Morphine Sulphate. Also give physiological antagonist and antidote. (7) 
Extract of Aconite. Also give physiological antagonist and antidote. (8) 
Strychnine Sulphate. Also give physiological antagonist and antidote. (9) 
Corrosive Sublimate. Also antidote. (10) Fowler's Solution. Also antidote. 

E — Fehling's Solution. — (1) What is Fehling's Solution? (2) Under what 
title is this solution to be found among the volumetric solutions of the U.S. P. ? 
(3) Give the approved method of keeping this solution, and state your reasons 
for the procedure. (4) What is the equivalent of 1 c.c. of the solution in terms 
of glucose? (5) How is Fehling's Solution to be used for the gravimetric esti- 
mation of glucose? (6) What is the ratio between the weighed cupric oxide 
and glucose? (7) How would you prepare a specimen of urine in order to test 
it for glucose ? 

F— Acetic Acid. — (1) What is the commercial source of Acetic Acid? (2) 
How is the crude product purified? (3) Name five official acetates. (4) 
Give the chemical formulas for each. (5) Explain the conditions favoring the 
acetous fermentation. 

G — Give the unabbreviated official names and proper abbreviations for shop 
furniture labels for the following : Bromide of Potash, Saltpetre, Calomel, 
White Arsenic, White Vitriol, Copperas, Sal Soda, Glauber's Salt, Yellow Prus- 
siate of Potash, Rochelle Salt, Cream of Tartar, Liver of Sulphur, Litharge, 
Sugar of Lead, White Precipitate, Red Precipitate, Tartar Emetic, Burnt Alum, 
Hypo, Kermes Mineral 

//—Criticise the following prescriptions. Write out, with English names, 
the ingredients and quantities. Would there be any chemical action ? State 
how you would compound them, or what course you would pursue. Give the 
meaning of any marks or numbers on the margins : 

R Tr. Ferri Chlor. 

Tr. Opii Camph. 
Ng Tr. Lavand. Comp. aaf^ss 

Mist. Cretse q. s. ad f g iv 

Sig. — A teaspoonful 3 times a day. 

March 20, '04. M. P. 

R Sodii Bicarb. giij 

Sodii Borat. 3 ij 

Acid Carbolic f 3 ss 

LX Glycerini f^i 

Aquae q. s. ft. Oss 
Sig. — Apply as directed. 

March 22, '04. V. K. 

/ — Would you compound the following prescriptions as written ? What 
course would you pursue? Write out, in English, the correct translation of 
ingredients and quantities : 

R Antipyrin 

Chloral Hydrate aa 2 gm. 

Ft. chart. No. X. 
Sig. — Add one powder to a tablespoonful 

of water and take as required. C. W. 



Am 'Mayj9(M arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 245 

R Pulv, Rad. Belladon. gr. ss 

Flor. Benzoes 

Tannin Pur. aa gr. i 

Sacch. Alb. q. s. 
M. ft. pulv. d. t. d. No. XX. 
Sig. — Every morning and evening 1 

powder to be taken. G. D. 

K — Criticize the following prescriptions. (1) How would you compound 
them? (2) Does reaction take place between the ingredients? If so, what? 
(3) Are they safe to dispense ? If so, how ? (4) Would you put a poison label 
on the bottles ? (5) Translate, writing out the quantities and ingredients in 
English, also the signa. 

For Baby Maud. 
R Potass. Cyanid. gr. i 

Acid. Citric gr. ij 

Syr. Tolut. q. s. ft. fgij 
Ft. mist. 

Sig. — Half a teaspoonful when cough is 

troublesome. A. T. 

R Potass. Chlor. 31 

Acid Mur. f 3 ss 

Aquae q. s. ft. foVi 
Ft. solutio sec. art. 

Sig.— Use as directed. P. D. H. 

COMMERCIAL TRAINING. 

A — Ordering Goods. — Write out an order upon Thomas Jackson, Son & Co., 
Wholesale Druggists, New York City. You are not known to them, but have 
good credit. Be careful to use proper forms, abbreviations and details. Select 
any ten articles that you would be apt to need in the retail drug business, each 
representing a different class of goods — say, one chemical, one drug, one fluid 
extract, one kind of soap, one kind of hair-brush, etc. Write the order in 
such a form that the drug house w r ould not be in doubt on any single point. 
Fold the order properly, place it in an envelope, addressing it correctly and 
indicate where the stamp should be placed. Do not fold. 

B — Business Letter. — Write a model letter, containing about 100 words, 
asking for a position. Address it to either a retail druggist, manufacturer or 
wholesale house who may have a vacancy. Give such information about your- 
self as you think would be useful and would impress the firm w 7 ith the desira- 
bility of securing your services. Fold the letter properly and place it in an 
envelope correctly addressed. Do not seal. (Two envelopes are furnished for 
question B. Why?) 

C— Banking. — (1) What is the principal object of a bank? (2) What is 
meant by a bank check? (3) How do banks make money? (4) What is 
a clearing house? (5) What is the object of identifying a depositor? 
(6) What is the name of the clerk who receives your deposit ? (7) 
What is the name of the person who cashes checks? (8) What is meant 
by "discounting" a note? (9) What is the object of drawing a check 



246 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am -May?ifo h 4 arm ' 

" to order ? " (10) Name some of the expedients used to protect the drawer of 
a check from loss through what is known as "raising " a check. (11) When 
a check is drawn to your order with your name improperly spelled, what is 
the proper course to pursue? (12) Draw a check upon the College House 
Bank for $26.76, using the blank furnished and omitting no necessary detail, 
$50 being the balance on deposit before the drawing of the check. 

D — Insurance. — (1) Define insurance. (2) Name four kinds of insurance in 
common use. (3) What is meant by an " Endowment Policy ? " (5) What is 
meant by " reinsurance ? " (6) Why are Assessment Life Insurance Compa- 
nies unsafe ventures? (7) Why is a relatively large premium demanded from 
an old man? (8) What is meant by an annuity policy? (9) Define "bene- 
ficiary." 

E — Partnership. — (1) Define partnership. (2) Give reasons for the neces- 
sity of care in selecting a partner. (3) Is each partner liable for obligations 
contracted by one of the others ? (4) Why should one partner be delegated to 
sign all checks ? (5) What is the danger to the business if a partner en- 
dorses an accommodation note ? 

F— Mercantile Agencies. — (1) Define the object of a mercantile agency. (2) 
Why should proper information be given to them ? (3) How does such an 
agency derive its support ? 

G — Mailing. — ( 1) What constitutes a proper package for small articles to be 
sent by mail ? (2) Where should the postage stamps be placed upon paper boxes 
sent by mail ? (3) What is necessary to secure the return of a package wrongly 
addressed ? (4) What advantages are there in sending packages by letter post- 
age ? (5; What advantage is there in sending an advertising circular by letter 
postage? (6) How may money be safely sent by mail ? (7) What is meant 
by " registering " a letter, and what are its advantages? 

H— Definitions. — Define the following terms: (t) Mortgage. (2) Lease. 

(3) Deed. (4) Draft. (5) Invoice. (6) Letter of credit. (7) Certified check. 
(8) Judgment note. (9) Codicil. (10) Wild-cat money. 

/ — Card Indexes. — (1) Describe the card-index system for general purposes. 
(2) How may such a system be used in bookkeeping for the retail drug busi- 
ness ? (3) What is the advantage of the use of rods, and what is the best form 
of rod ? 

J — Business Law. — (1) Define "days of grace." (2) Is a signature written 
with lead-pencil good at law? (3) What is meant by " binding the bargain ?" 

(4) Why should checks be presented for payment soon after their receipt ? (5) 
Why is a promissory note given in a gambling transaction void ? (6) What is 
meant by " statute of limitation ? " 

ANAI/yTlCAI, CHEMISTRY. 

I. (a) Describe the determinations of Mg and S0 4 in Magnesium Sulphate. 
(b) If 1 gramme of material yields 0T48 Magnesium Pyrophosphate and o^n 
Barium Sulphate, what is the per cent, of crystallized Magnesium Sulphate ? 

II. (a) Describe the estimation of Urea, (b) Write the reaction showing the 
decomposition of Urea, (c) What is the per cent, of Urea in a specimen of 
urine if 4 c.c. (sp. gr. 1*024) yield 20 c.c. gas? (d) Why is no correction 
for temperature necessary in this determination ? 

III. (a) Describe four tests which will distinguish between Brucine and 



Am Miy"'im rm *} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 247 

Strychnine, (b) Describe four tests which will distinguish between Morphine 
and Quinine. 

IV. (a) Give the classification of Volumetric Solutions depending upon 
chemical changes in their use. (b) Classify the Volumetric Solutions which 
you have used, (c) Give two illustrations of a direct and of a residual titration. 

V. How would you estimate, volumetrically, the following substances, giv- 
ing names of the Solutions, Indicators, End Reaction and Molecular Ratio be- 
tween the substance and the Volumetric Solution. 

(a) Phosphoric Acid, (b) Sodium Chloride. (c) Arsenous Oxide. 

(d) Sodium Thiosulphate. (e) Phenol. 

VI. Describe fully the volumetric estimation of (a) Sodium Carbonate, (b) 
Ferrous Sulphate. 

VII. Describe fully the volumetric estimation of Calcium Hypophosphite. 

VIII. IX, X. Practical laboratory work in the determination of the following: 
Sodium Carbonate, Ferrous Sulphate, Calcium Hypophosphite. 



MINUTES OF ANNUAL MEETING. 
The annual meeting ot the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was 
held on March 28, 1904, at the College building, 145 N. Tenth 
Street. 

Twenty-six members were present, the President, Howard B. 
French, presiding. The minutes of the quarterly meeting, held 
December 28, 1 903, were read and approved. The minutes of the 
meetings of the Board of Trustees for December I, 1903, January 
5 and February 2, 1904, were read by the Registrar, J. S. Beetem, 
and approved. 

The annual meeting being the occasion for the reports of the offi- 
cers and standing committees, these were given in the following 
order : 

President's Report. — Mr. French stated, among other things, 
that : " The walls and ceilings of the chemical laboratory had been 
repaired and painted and the seats repaired and put in order. 
Some changes were made in the heating and lighting plant, which 
have proved satisfactory and of material advantage to the College. 
During the coming summer it will be necessary to make some 
material changes in the electric light wiring system in order to in- 
crease its efficiency. Other necessary repairs have been made, so 
that the. entire property is in fairly good condition. The debt of 
the College has been reduced during the year, and the Treasurer 
will commence the next fiscal year (from May 1st) with a better bal- 
ance than last year. For the term 1903-04 there is an increase in 
the number of students over the preceding year, and in individual 



248 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am May?i904 arm * 

instruction in the laboratories and special courses a gratifying in- 
crease is noted. The course in Commercial Training is an obliga- 
tory course for the third year students and is again strongly 
commended, as it is deemed of inestimable value to the students. 
During the term two Junior students have died. Seven active mem- 
bers have been added to the College membership, and eight have 
been elected associate members. There have been two deaths. 

"Arrangements are being made to lengthen the course of instruc- 
tion, and it is anticipated that one week will be added to the first 
year course, two weeks to the second year course, and four weeks 
to the third year course. It is suggested that the extension of 
time for the third year classes shall be largely utilized for instruc- 
tion in food adulterations, which will place the graduates in position 
to examine food products, not only to the credit of their profession, 
but to their advantage financially. 

"The suggestion in last year's report regarding a post-graduate 
course is renewed as of so much importance to be kept in mind by 
the Committee on Instruction. This special instruction, it is hoped, 
will open the way to extend the laboratories to provide for special 
instruction, such as analyses of water, iron and steel products, gas, 
sugar, cement, etc. In one line in particular, that of cement, the 
field is unusually wide, and the demand for expert chemists in this 
line largely unfilled and constantly increasing. 

" The Historical Committee have been actively at work, and have 
secured information which is very desirable to preserve. They 
have also succeeded in gathering together many articles of histori- 
cal value, and it will be necessary in the near future to provide 
cases in the Museum for their protection and exhibition. 

" In closing, the President desires to express his commendation of 
the work of the Alumni Association and of all those actively con- 
nected with the work of the College." 

Historical Committee. — George M. Beringer, the chairman, reported 
as follows : " During the year a beginning has been made upon the 
collection of data and such information, records and materials 
obtainable, relating to the history of pharmacy. A card catalogue 
has been prepared, containing the names of all the graduates of the 
College now living. A circular letter has been prepared and sent 
to each graduate, soliciting answers to the queries and such addi- 
tional information as could be supplied. A great many have re- 



Am Ma?^m rm •} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 249 

sponded, but quite a number have r ot yet been heard from, and it 
will be necessary to continue the correspondence. Papers and notes 
of especial interest and historic value have been received from thirty- 
two (32) persons, and donations for the Historical Section of the 
Museum have been received from fifteen persons." 

Committee on Publication. — Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, the chairman, 
reported that The American Journal of Pharmacy had been issued 
regularly during the year; the number of unsold volumes on hand 
was estimated at about 1,875, covering the period from 1829 to the 
present time. 

The members of the College were requested to be on the look- 
out for back volumes previous to and including 1876, particularly 
the four preliminary numbers published previous to 1829, and the 
volumes for 1829, 1830, 1 83 1 , 1833, 1834, 1835, l8 4 2 > 1846, 1847, 
1856, 1865. The committee acknowledged their indebtedness to 
Mr. Wm. Mclntyre for the first two volumes (1829 and 1830) ; the 
Morris Perot Estate for a number of volumes, including several ol 
the rare ones; Dr. Susan Hayhurst for quite a number of volumes; 
Messrs. Seabury & Johnson, of New York, for some recent back 
numbers, and to Mr. M. I. Wilbert for having secured several o r the 
earlier and more rare volumes. 

The editor's report was read by Prof. Henry Kraemer. On 
motion of Professor Remington, it was ordered that so much of the 
report as the editor might select be published in the Journal (p. 223). 

The report of the Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings was 
read by Professor Remington : " During the past year the meetings 
have been held regularly, and have been of professional and prac- 
tical interest. Much of the time has been devoted to discussions 
following the reading of the papers. The minutes of the meetings 
have been published regularly in The American Journal of Phar- 
macy, and reports of the meetings have been sent to various of the 
drug journals, and in some cases to the daily papers. It is proposed 
to consider some of the legal, ethical and professional problems which 
confront the pharmacists at succeeding meetings, and members are 
urged not only to attend the meetings, but to bring forward sug- 
gestions whereby the conditions of pharmacy may be improved." 

Librarian's Report. — Owing to the illness of the librarian, Mr. 
Wiegand, the report was not presented, but it was stated that during 
the past year 108 volumes of theses had been bound. 



250 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am May?i904 arm- 

Curator's Report. — Joseph W. England reported: " The Museum 
is in good condition and has received a number of contributions 
during the year. The collection of official drugs and preparations 
in the students' reading-room is likewise in good order, and is daily 
studied by the students with interest and profit. The need of ad- 
ditional shelf-room grows more imperative, especially in view of the 
recent addition by the Historical Committee." 

The following-named gentlemen, proposed for honorary member- 
ship at the quarterly meeting in December, were then balloted for 
and unanimously elected : 

Prof. Dr. Julius Wiesner, of Vienna. 

Prof. Dr. A. E. Vogl, of Vienna. 

Prof. John J. Abel, Johns Hopkins University. 

Prof. W. G. Farlow, Harvard University. 

Mons. Eugene Leger, Paris. 

Mons. Prof. Emil Bourquelot, Paris. 

Mons. Alf. Riche, Paris. 

Mons. Eugene Collins, Paris. 

Mons. Prof. Guignard, Paris. 

The president appointed the following as delegates to the Penn- 
sylvania Pharmaceutical Association for the meeting to be held at 
Cambridge Springs, June 2ist-2 3d: H. L. Stiles, W. L. Cliffe, 
Joseph W. England, Mahlon N. Kline and C. A. Weidemann. 

Announcement was made of the death of Mr. Frank Luerssen, at 
Salem, N. J., on January 6, 1 904. He was elected a member of the 
College in 1897. 

The annual election being next in order, Wallace Procter and 
C. Carroll Meyer were appointed tellers, who, after a ballot, reported 
the unanimous election of those proposed by the Committee on 
Nominations, as follows : 

President, Howard B. French ; First Vice-President, William J. 
Jenks; Second Vice-President, R. V. Mattison, M.D. ; Treasurer, 
James T. Shinn; Corresponding Secretary, A. W. Miller, M.D. ; 
Recording Secretary, C. A. Weidemann, M.D. ; Curator, Joseph W. 
England ; Librarian, Thomas S. Wiegand ; Editor, Henry Kraemer ; 
Trustees, Samuel P. Sadtler, Wm. L. Cliffe and Joseph L. Lember- 
ger. Publication Committee : Henry N. Rittenhouse, Samuel P. 
Sadtler, Wallace Procter, Joseph W. England, Henry Kraemer, 
Joseph P. Remington and Martin I. Wilbert. Committee on Phar- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1904. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



251 



maceutical Meetings : Henry Kraemer, Joseph P. Remington, C. B. 
Lowe, M.D., William L. Cliffe and William Mclntyre. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., Secretary. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The seventh of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phil- 
adelphia College of Pharmacy for 1903-04, was held Tuesday after- 
noon, April 19th, with Dr. C. A. Weidemann in the chair. 

William A. Selser, a well-known apiarist, of Jenkintown, Pa., was 
the first speaker on the programme, and read a paper on " The 
Origin and Formation of Honey and its Relation to the Polaris- 
cope," which will be published in the June issue of this Journal. 
Mr. Selser made the statement that while there are a number of 
methods for the detection of adulteration in honey, yet the results 
obtained by means of the polariscope are the only ones that can be 
relied upon with certainty. 

Mr. E. M. Boring referred to a paper which appeared in this 
Journal some years ago, and in which the claim was made that 
honey kept in the light will crystallize, whereas if kept in the dark 
it will remain fluid. Apropos of this statement, Mr. Selser said that 
all pure honey will crystallize or " candy " in time. He said that in 
order to preserve it in a fluid condition it should be kept thoroughly 
quiet and at an even temperature. He further stated that honey as 
capped in the cells of the hive is practically free from air and will 
not crystallize, unless the hives be moved, so as to cause injury to 
the caps ; and also that in the bottling of honey it is necessary to 
use a wax which is air-tight. In reply to a question by Mr. W. A. 
Rumsey in regard to the use of water for liquefying crystallized 
honey, Mr. Selser said that its use was unnecessary, and that if the 
honey were carefully heated it would liquefy. 

Dr. Lowe brought up the question of poisoning by honey, and in 
the discussion of this subject Mr. Selser stated that in the cases on 
record of which he was aware, it appeared that it was the comb 
which contained the poison rather than the honey itself. 

A. Augusto, an Italian pharmacist of Philadelphia, read an inter- 
esting paper on "The Italian Olive Oil on the American Market." 
(See page 219.) An instructive feature of the discussion on this 
paper was the denial by Mr. Augusto of the statement current for 



252 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1904. 



many years that large quantities of cotton-seed oil are exported to 
Italy from this country and returned to us as olive oil. He said that 
cotton-seed oil is generally used by the Italians for burning in their 
lamps, it being free from odor. According to Mr. Augusto, when a 
good olive oil is burned there is no odor, but if a second-quality oil 
be used, the odor is quite disagreeable. Another point, which was 
emphasized by Mr. Augusto, was the fact that the so-called Italian 
olive oil on the American market is manufactured in New York. 
Professor Kraemer confirmed this statement by referring to a bulletin 
recently issued by Dr. Wiley, of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, in which he showed that the so-called olive oil on our markets 
is a product due to the genius and skill of certain manufacturers in 
New York. 

In view of the statement made by Mr. Augusto in regard to the 
testing of the oil, namely, that the tester must be familiar with the 
genuine product in order to judge of the quality of a sample, Pro- 
fessor Kraemer remarked that one would be inclined to look upon 
the usual tests as more or less fallacious. He then referred to the 
practice of testing teas, wines, etc., by means of the senses, and 
also to the fact that this is one of the methods employed by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture for testing tobaccos. 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., presented a paper entitled, " The Pharmacist 
and the Pharmacopoeia," in which he traced the evolution of the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia and the several dispensatories. (See page 203.) 

J. W. P. Outerbridge, P.D., a recent graduate of the college, 
exhibited and described a prescription file of his own devising. 
(See page 221.) 

Mr. Boring said that he used a device somewhat similar, that is, 
a perpendicular wire, but that he used clothes-pins for shoving the 
prescriptions up and down. Mr. Wilbert said that at the German 
Hospital it was desirable to refer to the prescriptions on file fre- 
quently and rapidly, and that he had found a box-file having two 
horizontal wires, so that the prescriptions hang on the wires, adapted 
to this purpose. When referring to the prescriptions the arrange, 
ment is such that the prescriptions stand in place, and those ahead 
can be turned down, thus facilitating the work. 

George E. Outhette exhibited a typewriting machine manufactured 
by the Blickensderfer Manufacturing Company, and adapted for 
writing labels. \ Florence Yaple, 

Secretary pro tern. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JUNE, 1904. 



THE FORTHCOMING PHARMACOPOEIA. 
By Joseph P. Remington. 

While it is too soon to review in advance the Eighth Decennial 
Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, in detail, the interest 
in this edition has been so widespread, and the inquiries about the 
changes have increased to such an extent, that it seems only right 
to give to the pharmaceutical profession information about the most 
salient features. The work is now being printed and, if no unfore- 
seen accident occurs, it will be ready in October. For the first time 
in the history of Pharmacopoeial revision in the United States the 
work is being revised under the control of a chartered organization. 
As is well known, previous revisions were conducted by a body 
known as the Committee of Revision, which had entire charge of 
the work, including the sale of the book and the control of the 
finances. Owing to the immense increase in what are known as 
new remedies within the last ten years, and the greatly enlarged 
scope of the work of revision, it was deemed best in 1900 to relieve 
the distinguished Chairman, Dr. Charles Rice, of part of his burden 
by separating the financial and commercial duties from the work of 
revision, and to place under his leadership the important duty of 
preparing the manuscript and the other work in charge of a Board 
of Trustees. To accomplish this, a charter for the United States 
Pharmacopoeial Convention was granted on the 7th day of July, 
1900, in Washington, by the District of Columbia. By this charter, 
the objects above outlined were secured, and thus the whole work 
of revision has been given a legal and official status, which remedied 
a fundamental need demonstrated by previous revisions. 

(253) 



254 



The Forthcoming Pliarmacopceia. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
June, 19C4. 



Interest in the forthcoming revision has been enhanced by the 
Food and Drug Laws of the various States, and the legislation in 
Congress which claimed the attention of the country at the recent 
session. One of the serious criticisms of the Pharmacopoeias of 
1880 and 1890 was that in many cases the requirements, notably in 
the chemical products, were entirely too stringent ; absolute purity 
in medicinal chemicals is unnecessary, and the standards were found 
to be in some instances impossible of fulfilment, unless the cost of 
the product was increased to such an extent as to make it an uncom- 
mercial article. 

On the other hand, the presence of impurities which would inter, 
fere with therapeutical action was to be carefully guarded against. 
The Convention of 1900 adopted the following general principles: 

" The Committee is instructed to revise as carefully as possible 
the limits of purity and strength of the pharmacopceial chemicals 
and preparations for which limiting tests are given. While no con- 
cession should be made towards a diminution of medicinal value, 
allowance should be made for unavoidable, innocuous impurities or 
variations due to the particular source or mode of preparation, or to 
the keeping qualities of the several articles." 

To carry out this direction, the Committee of Revision has adopted 
what has come to be known as the " Purity Rubric." This will be 
one of the features of the new book, and will be placed immediately 
under the official title and English name of the article. It will 
declare the percentage of the pure substance and the limit of innoc- 
uous impurity permitted, but will not prevent the sale of the abso- 
lutely pure article, or that of a higher grade, if any pharmacist 
chooses to use such. But it must be understood that the so-called 
Sl impurities " are innocuous, and this is controlled by chemical 
limitation tests, which exclude likely impurities of a harmful 
character. 

The introduction of methods of assay for a number of drugs, the 
quality of which can be controlled in this way, will nwk another 
advance by the forthcoming Pharmacopoeia, the number of assay 
processes having been largely increased. 

Another new feature will be the introduction of doses. This sub- 
ject occupied the attention of previous Conventions for a number of 
years. The introduction of doses was opposed mainly by the phy- 
sicians of previous Conventions, chiefly for the reasons that it was 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



The Forthcoming Pharmacopceia. 



255 



impossible to fix upon single quantities as doses, because of the 
idiosyncrasies of patients, and the danger of prosecution and liability 
to needless annoyances in prescribing through the limitations thus 
placed in a work of authority like the Pharmacopceia. If maximum 
doses were inserted, the physician who ordered a dose in excess of 
the quantity would be called up by the dispenser, or he would be 
required in every case to indicate by underscoring, or some similar 
method, that a dose above that directed by the Pharmacopceia was 
intended. On the other hand, pharmacists greatly desired the 
maximum dose inserted, in order to relieve them of the responsi- 
bility of determining whether a dose was excessive or dangerous. 
But in the Convention, the views of the pharmacists prevailed, but 
it was necessary to avoid maximum or minimum doses, and insert 
an average dose, as will be seen by the following instruction to the 
Committee of Revision : 

" After each pharmacopceial article (drug, chemical, or prepara- 
tion) which is used or likely to be used internally or hypodermic- 
ally, the committee is instructed to state the average approximate 
(but neither a minimum nor a maximum) dose for adults, and, 
where deemed advisable, also for children. The metric system to 
be used, and the approximate equivalent ordinary weights or meas- 
ures inserted in parenthesis. It is to be distinctly understood that 
neither this Convention nor the Committee of Revision created by 
it, intends to have these doses regarded as obligatory on the physi- 
cian, or as forbidding him to exceed them whenever in his judgment 
this seems advisable. The committee is directed to make a distinct 
declaration to this effect in some prominent place in the new Phar- 
macopceia." 

The question of nomenclature is always an important part of 
pharmacopceial revision. Conservatism here is very desirable. 
Change merely for the sake of change should be avoided, and it is 
gratifying to report that this principle is being observed in the pres- 
ent revision. No change is likely to be adopted without strong 
reasons. Difficulty has been encountered in selecting names for 
the synthetic remedies, a number of the prominent ones having 
been admitted, and although the use of long chemical names has 
been discouraged, in a very few cases it has been impossible to 
avoid introducing such. 

The use of synonyms has been discouraged, and this is in accord 
with the general principle of placing in the Pharmacopceia prepara- 



256 The Forthcoming Pharmacopoeia. { Am ju°n U e?i904 arni ' 

tions which can be controlled by standards or an official description, 
and leave no room for evasion. This will require more care on the 
part of physicians in writing their prescriptions. The extension of 
the list of synonyms, particularly with pharmaceutical preparations, 
will often prove a hardship to the druggist. If, for instance, Turl- 
ington's Balsam is recognized as a synonym for compound tincture 
of benzoin, any druggist selling Turlington's Balsam not made 
strictly by the new Pharmacopceia, will be liable to prosecution, 
and the sale of Turlington's Balsam made by any other process 
would invite prosecution. Care in the selection of synonyms is, 
therefore, very important. One of our Judges in a Western court 
decided that a grocer who made essence of lemon by a process 
other than that of the U.S.P., 1890, although it yielded a finer 
product, was liable to damages, and he was accordingly mulcted. 
This was due to the fact that the U.S.P., 1890, inserted as a syno- 
nym under Spiritus Limonis the words " Essence of Lemon." This 
will be controlled in the new Pharmacopceia by inserting the follow- 
ing declaration : 

li The standards of purity and strength prescribed for any article 
in the text of this Pharmacopceia are intended to apply to such 
article only when used for medicinal purposes, and when professedly 
bought, sold, or dispensed as such." 

Again, much annoyance has been experienced through the 
requirement of pharmacopceial standards when applied to articles 
used for technical purposes or in the arts, as in the case of muriatic 
acid and similar products. It is a manifest absurdity to apply phar- 
macopceial standards to such products. 

The subject of weights and measures has attracted some attention 
recently, and the introduction of alternative quantities into the 
Pharmacopceia has been advocated by some writers. There may 
be, of course, two opinions upon this subject, but the instructions of 
the Pharmacopceial Convention are mandatory, and the President of 
the Convention has sent to the pharmaceutical journals the follow- 
ing communication : 

To the Pharmaceutical and Medical Professions of the United States : 

So many communications have been received, either through the mail or 
through the columns of various pharmaceutical journals, by the Board of Trus- 
tees of the U. S. Pharmacopceia, concerning the introduction of alternative 
formulae into the Parmacopoeia, and so wide a misunderstanding apparently 
exists concerning the functions of the trustees, that it seems necessary, as 



Am ju°n u e^i904 arm *} The Forthcoming Pharmacopoeia. 257 

President of the U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention, that I should explain the 
situation to the pharmaceutical and medical public. 

The organization which has been provided for the production of the new 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia consists of the Pharmacopoeial Convention, which meets 
every ten years, in which all authority exists, and from which any right to act 
is derived. By the Convention are appointed the Board of Trustees and Com- 
mittee of Revision. 

Chapter IV, Article 2 (Abstract of Proceedings of the U. S. Pharmacopceial 
Convention), states that the " Board of Trustees shall have the management 
and control of the affairs and funds of this Convention, except as herein other- 
wise directed," and then continues in detail to direct that the trustees shall 
transact financial and other allied business ; whilst Chapter V, Article 2 (ab- 
stract of Proceedings of the U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention), puts the whole 
preparation of the manuscript of the Pharmacopoeia directly under the exclu- 
sive control of the Committee of Revision. 

It is plain that the Board of Trustees can therefore act only after the Com- 
mittee of Revision shall have made its report, and that the only function that 
it has in regard to the manuscript itself is to see that it has been prepared in 
accordance with the directions of the Convention. 

Whether it is wise to introduce into the formulae of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 
alternative quantities, is a question well worthy of discussion and of solution. 
It is plain, however, that the settlement of matters of such primary import- 
ance in the Pharmacopoeia naturally belongs to the Convention and not to a 
Committee, and the Convention very properly took action in this matter in 
1900. The action taken may or may not have been the best possible, but the 
right and power of the Convention to act is unquestionable. 

Section 7, page 30 (Abstract of Proceedings of the U. S. Pharmacopoeial 
Convention), says in regard to the formulae : "The Committee (of Revision) 
is instructed to retain the metric system of weights and measures as adopted 
in the Seventh Decennial Revision." The word used in the text is not 
" advised " or " recommended," but " instructed," and for one or both of the 
subordinate bodies of the Convention to absolutely disregard the instructions 
of the Convention, would be a direct breach of faith, and would establish a 
most disastrous precedent, which would destroy the confidence that any future 
convention might have in the carrying out of its instructions by its appointed 
Committee of Revision. Such a precedent might well undermine the whole 
fabric of Pharmacopoeial Revision. 

In order to guard against such a calamity, Chapter 5, Article 2, of the Ab- 
stract of Proceedings of the U. S, Pharmacopceial Convention, expressly 
states that the " Committee of Revision shall execute such orders or reso- 
lutions as shall have been assigned to it by the Convention." Certainly the 
duty of obedience could not be more fully formulated. 

The U. S. Pharmacopoeia has, by the Acts of Congress and of various State 
Legislatures, been given in the United States the force of law, and it behooves 
a law-making body to adhere in the closest manner possible to the rules of par- 
liamentary procedure, mu. h more to those of ordinary good faith ; so that the 
question as to whether alternative quantities shall or shall not be used in the 
formulae of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia is a matter of little importance compared 
with the question whether the Board of Trustees and the Committee of Revi- 



258 Solution of Chlorinated Soda, \^'z^;vm £va ' 

sion shall or shall not comply with the instructions of the body to whose 
action they owe their existence, and whose mandates they were created to put 
into execution. 

While the process of revision has been actively progressing, an 
important movement for an International Pharmacopoeia of potent 
remedies met in Brussels in 1903, and drew up a schedule of 
strength for " Medicaments Heroique." As it is most desirable 
that the United States Pharmacopoeia should act in harmony with 
this body, and thus in time bring about international uniformity, 
the strengths of some of the important galenical and pharmaceuti- 
cal preparations in the new Pharmacopoeia will be changed , for 
instance, tincture of aconite will be reduced to 10 per cent, in 
strength, syrup of ferrous iodide will be reduced one-half to 5 per 
cent., while other minor changes will be made. The International 
Congress adopted the standards of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
lor arsenical liquids, namely, I per cent. 

In conclusion, it may be said of the new Pharmacopoeia that 
while it contains a number of what may be called innovations, 
these have not been inserted without weighty reasons, and for the 
purpose of representing the spirit of progress which must ever re- 
main the principal reason for revision. A consideration of the 
amount of labor made necessary by the principles above outlined 
should go far to account for the delay of one year in issuing the 
book. 



SOLUTION OF CHLORINATED SODA. 

By H. V. Arny and J. F. Wagner. 

Noting that samples of this official solution prepared by the class 
in practical pharmaceutical chemistry invariably proved deficient in 
chlorine when assayed, the writers undertook an investigation of 
the causes leading to this deficiency, the object first sought being to 
learn whether the manufacture of the small quantity assigned to each 
student (100 grammes finished solution) was a source of error, 
whether the manufacture of 1,000 grammes would yield a stronger 
product. 

A preliminary analysis of the method of the Pharmacopoeia of 
1890 revealed at least one fault to which deficiency of chlorine con- 
tent of the finished prcduct is due. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
June, 1904. 



Solution of Chlorinated Soda. 



259 



The Pharmacopoeia of 1890 demands that 75 grammes chlorinated 
lime, containing not less than 35 per cent, available chlorine, should 
yield 1,000 grammes of solution, containing at least 2-6 per cent, 
chlorine. The 75 grammes chlorinated lime is supposed to contain 
26 25 grammes chlorine (75 X 0-35), and this volatile body is sup- 
posed to be held during the entire intricate process prescribed by 
the Pharmacopoeia, resulting in a finished product containing 26 
grammes of the 26-25 grammes of available chlorine found in the 
original lime. How well this is accomplished the figures given below 
well show. 

The very volatility of the available chlorine in the preparation 
under discussion precludes the manufacture of the solution by the 
process of 1890 with a loss so small as that just given. The loss of 
chlorine by volatilization is known to all, but the following figures 
express the fact still more strongly : 

Per Cent. CI. 

Solution of chlorinated soda, assayed on day of manufacture . . i'89 

two days after " . . 1*87 
" " " " one week " " . . 172 

The point may be raised that a minimum of 35 per cent, available 

chlorine is demanded by the Pharmacopoeia of 1890, and that the 

use of a stronger chlorinated lime will insure full strength Labar- 

raque's solution. 

But is it a simple matter for the retail pharmacist to secure full 
strength chlorinated lime ? 

Stevens (Proc. Mich. Ph. Assn., 1897, p. 42, through Proc. A. 
Ph. A.) reports an examination of thirty-two samples, with results 
showing chlorine strength varying from less than 1 per cent, to 
31 per cent. 

Puckner (Proc. 111. Ph. Assn., 1897, p. 70, through Proc. A. Ph. A.) 
reports on ten samples, showing that bulk chlorinated lime varied 
from 31-5 per cent, to 34-6 per cent, available chlorine, while that in 
packages ranged from less than 1 per cent, to 23-65 per cent. 

Even the firm of Squibb, so noted for careful selection of the best 
in the drug line, makes no pretenses of furnishing lime of Pharma- 
copceial strength, labeling their product, " 32 per cent, to 35 per 
cent, available chlorine." And it might be added that the two 
samples of chlorinated lime used in the following experiments were 
Squibb products ; yet both assayed under 30 per cent, available 
chlorine, thus showing that a marked deterioration had occurred 
during the time it was in the jobber's hands. 



26o 



Solution of Chlorinated Soda. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
June. 1904. 



And yet the retailer is supposed to take a chlorinated lime; 
macerate with three successive portions of water, with no especial 
care to either obtaining a definite quantity of filtrate or of insuring 
complete exhaustion of the lime ; treat the filtrate with warm sodium 
carbonate solution; warm the mixture, if gelatinous; and, finally, 
filter ; to do all this in open vessels and still get a finished filtrate 
containing 26 of the 26-25 grammes of chlorine supposedly contained 
in the original substance. 

Verily, this result is what our German friends would call " fast 
quantitativ," and is on a par with the ease and simplicity (theoreti- 
cal) of the Pharmacopceial method of making spirit of ammonia and 
with the airy directions given for making the official iodized sulphur. 

Perhaps some hair-splitting chemist, by some miracles of chem- 
ical manipulation, may secure perfect results from the Pharma- 
copceial methods of making the three substances just cited ; but it is 
the opinion of the writers that these methods are far beyond skill of 
the retail pharmacist for whom the recipes are originally intended. 

Let us give figures obtained in the manufacture and assay of 
several lots of Labarraque's Solution by the process of 1890, and let 
it be explained that we will, in the tabulated statements, make use 
of the following abbreviations : 

Labarraque = Solution of chlorinated soda, 

Lime = Chlorinated lime. 

Hypochlorite Sol. = Solution of chlorinated lime, the intermediate product in 
the method of the U.S. P., 1890, for making Labarraque. 

Lime residue = The chlorinated lime supposedly exhausted with water by 
the process of 1S90. 

In the first two experiments, having previously found the lime 
deficient in chlorine, the amount of that chemical employed in the 
process was increased in direct proportion to its chlorine deficiency, 
with a view to start with same amount of chlorine demanded for 
official chlorinated lime. This necessitated addition of extra sodium 
carbonate to insure complete precipitation. 

The titration, as mentioned above, was performed by the method 
of the U.S.P., 1890, adding potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid 
to a definite quantity of the solution and titrating the liberated 
iodine against decinormal sodium hyposulphite V. S. ; starch muci- 
lage being used as the indicator. In the following tables this volu- 
metric solution is abbreviated to Thio. 

10 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1904. 



•} Solution of CJilorinated Soda. 261 



Experiment A. — Method, U.S. P., 1S90; 100 grammes. Used io-i 
grammes lime containing 26 per cent. CI = 26-26 grammes CI. 
Obtained So c.c. hypochlorite solution, 100 grammes Labarraque, 
grammes lime residue. 

674 gins. Labarraque required 38*3 c - c - — Thio, equalling 0*13935 gms. CI. 

10 

io* " Labarraque required $6"S " — Thio, equalling 0*2009 

10 

Average 10 gms. " contained 0*200895 

6*74 gms. hypochlorite sol. req'd. 54*1 c.c. — Thio, equalling o* 1913s 

10 

Average 10 gms. " " contained 0*28384 

Whole lime residue required . . jj'S c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*27^17 

10 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The lime contained 2*626 gms. CI. 

" hypochlorite solution contained 

" Labarraque contained 2*0089 " " 

" lime residue " 0*27517 " " 

Experiment B. — Method, U.S. P., 1890; 1000 grammes. Used 
101 grammes lime containing 26 per cent. CI == 26-26 grammes CI. 
Obtained 530 c.c. hypochlorite solution, 1000 grammes Labarraque, 
grammes lime residue. 

674 gms. Labarraque required 39*4 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*3935 gms, CI. 

10 

io* " " " 5S*5 " — Thio, equalling 0*2069 

10 

Average, 10 gms. Labarraque contained 0-206825 

" 1000 " " " ......... 20*6825 

6*74 gms. hvpochloritesol. req'd 74*6 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*26386 

10 

io* *' " " " 110*7 " —Thio, " 0*39156 

10 

Average, 10 gms. " " contained o 39151 

Total lime residue required . . — c.c. — Thio, equalling 

10 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The lime contained - 26*26 gms. CI. 

" hypochlorite solution contained " " 

" Labarraque contained 20*6825 " " 

" lime residue " u " 

It will be noticed that the figures in the two experiments just 
given are incomplete; because the work was merely preliminary. 



262 Solution of Chlorinated Soda. { Am ju°ne"'im rm ' 

They are given, however, because they show that the addition of an 
extra amount of chlorinated lime does not raise the chlorine value 
of the finished Labarraque to the normal, even when the increase 
in amount is directly proportionate to the deficiency in the chlorine 
strength of the lime. 

Finding this plan of making up the deficiency of commercial 
chlorinated lime unavailing, and choosing as our main object a 
demonstration of the loss of chlorine in each of the three stages of 
the 1890 method, in future experiments with the process of 1890,. 
we employed the pharmacopceial amount of chlorinated lime — 75. 
grammes to 1000 grammes finished solution. Thus we try to show 
what would result in the manufacture of Labarraque by a retail phar- 
macist who uses the best chlorinated lime offered him in the open 
market. 

In most of the experiments the same lime was employed, it being 
titrated from time to time to notice loss of chlorine on standing, the 
exact chlorine strength being indicated in each case. 

Experiment C. — Method, U.S.P., 1890 ; 100 grammes. Used 7-5. 
grammes lime containing 28-8 per cent. CI = 2- 16 grammes CI. 
Obtained 42 c.c. hypochlorite solution, 97 c.c. (100 grammes) 
Labarraque, grammes lime residue. 

1 c.c. Labarraque required 5 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0-017685 gms. CI. 

10 

5 c.c. " " 25-1 c.c. ^ Thio, " 0-887787 

10 

Average, 10 c.c. Labarraque contained 0*1772 

" 97 c.c. " " 17188 

N 

5 c.c. hypochlorite sol. req. 59*3 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*209744 

10 

42 c.c. " contained 1 761849 

Whole lime residue required 53*6 c.c. ? Thio, equalling 0-18958 

10 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The lime contained 2*16 gms. CI. 

" hypochlorite solution contained 176 

" Labarraque contained 17188 " " 

" lime residue " -. • 0-1895 " " 

Experiment D. — Method, U.S.P., 1890; 1000 grammes. Used 75 
grammes lime containing 28-3 per cent. CI = 21-225 grammes CI. 
Obtained 450 c c. hypochlorite solution, 1000 grammes (970 c.c.) 
Labarraque, grammes lime residue. 



A ^/nne;5of m } Solution of Chlorinated Soda. 263 

1 c.c. Labarra que required 5 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*017685 gms. CI. 

10 

5 c.c. " " 25*1 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*0887787 " " 

10 

Average, 10 c.c. Labarraque contained 0*1772 

" 970 c.c. (1000 gms.) Labarraque contained . 17*1887 

5 c.c. hypochlorite sol. req. 60*3 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*21328 

10 

450 c.c. " " contained I9'i953 

Whole lime residue required 363 c.c — Thio, equalling 1*2839 

10 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The lime contained 21*2250 gms. CI. 

11 hypochlorite solution contained I 9' I 953 " " 

" Labarraque contained 17*1887 " " 

f< lime residue " 1*2839 " " 

Experiment E. — Method U.S. P., 1890; 1,000 grammes. Used 
75 grammes containing 28*1 per cent. CI = 21 075 grammes CI. 
Obtained 432 c.c. hypochlorite solution, 1,000 grammes (969 c.c.) 
Labarraque, 71 grammes wet lime residue. 

N 

1 c.c. Labarraque required 5*2 c.c. — Thio, equalling o'oi83924 gms. CI. 

10 

5 " " " 26*1 " —Thio, " 0*0923157 " 

10 

Average — 10 c.c. Labarraque contained 0*184277 " " 

969 c.c. (1,000 grammes) Labarraque contained, 17*8564 " " 

1 c.c. hypochlorite sol. required 12*2 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*0431514 " " 

10 

5 " " " 61-5 " ^Thio, " 0*2175255 " 

10 

Average — 10 c.c. hypochlorite sol. contained 0*43328 " " 

432 " " " " 18*7176 " " 

2 gms. lime residue required 13 *4 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*473958 " " 

10 

71 " " " contained 1*6825 " " 

CONCLUSIONS . 

The lime contained 21*075 " " 

" hypochlorite sol. contained 18*7176 " " 

" Labarraque " 17*8564 " " 

" lime residue " . . 16825 " " 

Thinking that a possible source of chlorine loss in the foregoing 
experiments might be found in the calcium carbonate precipitate 
from which the finished Labarraque is filtered, two samples of this 
were assayed : 

Whole precipitate from Experiment C contained but .... 0*032807 gms. CI. 

" " M " E " " . . . 0*10477 " " 



264 



Solution of Chlorinated Soda. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



The amounts represent, respectively, 1*3 per cent, and 0-4 per 
cent, of chlorine, with which we began, and show that the washing 
of the precipitate with the water needed to bring the finished 
Labarraque to the required weight, if carefully carried out, removes 
all but the last traces of chlorine. 

Therefore, whatever loss occurs during the manufacture of Labar- 
raque's Solution, is due either to retention of chlorine in the chlorin- 
ated lime residue or to evaporation of chlorine during the process of 
manufacture. 

Since the process of 1880 prevented, as far as possible, loss by 
evaporation, experiments were made to see if the process on the 
whole was superior to that of 1890. 

It will be recalled that the U.S. P. of 1880 directs mixing of the 
chlorinated lime with water in a tightly covered vessel and to the 
paste is added the sodium carbonate solution and finally sufficient 
water to bring the mixture to a definite weight. Lastly, the clear 
solution is syphoned from the precipitate. 

By this method loss of chlorine through evaporation is largely 
avoided, and results given below show the advantage of this precau- 
tion. On the other hand the following figures show that the chlor- 
inated lime is poorly extracted, and that this disadvantage out- 
weighs the advantage gained by prevention of evaporation. 

Experiment F. — Method of U.S.P., 1880; 1,000 grammes; made 



from 80 grammes lime containing 28-3 per cent. CI = 22-64 grammes 
CI. From this obtained 759 grammes (724 45 c.c.) Labarraque and 
241 grammes moist lime residue: 

1 c.c. Labarraque required 6*6 c.c. — Thio, equalling 0*02334 gms. CI. 

10 

5 «.« " " 33-2 " ^Thio, " 0*1174 " " 

10 

Average — 10 c.c. Labarraque contained 0*23414 " " 

" 724*45 c.c. " " 16-9629 " " 

N 

2 gms. lime residue required in c.c. —Thio, equalling 0*03926 " " 

10 

241 " " " contained 4'73°9 " " 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The lime contained 22*64 " " 

" Labarraque contained 16*9629 " " 

" lime residue " 4'73°9 " " 



Am 'Ju O ne?l904 arrl, '} Solution of Chlorinated Soda. 265 

Experiment G. — Method of U.S.P., 1880; 1000 grammes. Made 
from 80 grammes lime containing 28.3 per cent, chlorine == 22 64 
grammes CI. From this obtained 805 grammes (767 c.c.) Labar- 
raque, and 195 grammes moist lime residue. 

1 c.c. Labarraque required . . 6*35 c.c. ^ Thio, equalling 0*022459 g m - CI. 

5 c.c. " " . .31-8 " —Thio, " 0*11247 " 

10 

Average, 10 c.c. Labarraque contained 0*22477 " 

767 1 ' " " 17*2403 gms. 

2 gms. moist lime residue req'd 12.5 c.c. ^ Thio, equalling 0*04421 gm. 

195 " " " " contained 4*3102 gms. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The lime contained 22*64 gms. CI. 

" Labarraque contained 17*2403 " " 

" lime residue " 4*3102 " " 

Since the process of 1880 seemed to show no chance of variation 
when manufacturing different quantities, no experiment involving 
the manufacture of 100 grammes was made. 

It will be seen from the two experiments just given that the 
retention of chlorine by the insoluble lime residue is enough to 
render the process more wasteful of chlorine than that of 1890. 
Another objection is found in the uncertainty as to the amount of 
finished solution ; since the lime residue is included in the final 
weight of the preparation. 

The latter disadvantage could be remedied in an ideal recipe by 
washing the residue with water, sufficient to bring the finished solu- 
tion to a definite weight. Perhaps such washing may prove success- 
ful in removing most of the chlorine from the residue, though the 
evaporation of chlorine during washing is a factor to be considered. 

Experiments based on the lines just suggested are being carried 
on and will be published, provided the Pharmacopoeia of 1900 does 
not make the much needed change. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

(1) The process of manufacture of solution of chlorinated soda 
given by the Pharmacopoeia of 1890 will not yield in the hands of 
the average operator a product of official chlorine strength. 

(2) It leads to loss of chlorine, and that at every stage of the 
operation ; part being retained by the incompletely washed chlorin- 



266 



Solution of Chlorinated Soda. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



atcd lime, and part lost by vaporization ; this loss being shown, not 
only in the finished solution, but also in the intermediate product, 
solution of calcium hypochlorite. 

(3) The process of U.S.P., 1880, is even more wasteful of chlorine 
than is that of 1890. The loss is chiefly from one cause, however — 
retention of chlorine by the lime residue. The loss by evaporation 
is much less than in the process of 1890, and altogether it is a more 
sensible process, the chlorine strength being easily within the limits 
required by the Pharmacopoeia. 

(4) While the process of 1 880 is more wasteful of chlorine, the 
finished Labarraque is a stronger body than that yielded by the 
process of 1890. 

(5) A comparison of chlorine loss in the process of the two Phar- 
macopoeias is shown in the following tabulation of experimental 
data : 



u. s. p., 1890. 

Per Cent, of 
Gms. CI. Total Chlorine. 

A. 100 gms. Labarraque * == 2*0089 

Lost in lime residue = '2751 10*4 

" by evaporation = '3420 13.0 



io'i gms. lime contained 2 "6260 

Chlorine loss during entire operation 23*4 

C. 100 gms. Labarraque = 17183 

Lost in lime residue = '1895 87 

" by evaporation = "2517 11. 6 



7*5 gms. lime contained 2*1600 

Chlorine loss during entire operation 20*3 

D. 1000 gms. Labarraque = 17*1887 

Lost in lime residue = 1*2839 6 '°5 

" by evaporation = 27524 12 96 



75 gms. lime contains 21*2250 ■ 

Chlorine loss during entire operation 19* 

K. 1000 gms. Labarraque = 17 "8564 

Lost in lime residue . . . = 1*6825 7*9 

" by evaporation = i*53 6t 6*2 



75 gms. lime contained 21*0750 

Chlorine loss during entire operation 14*2 



The Origin and Formation of Honey. 267 



u. s. p., 1880. 

P. 759 gms. Labarraque = 16*9629 

Lost in lime residue = 473°9 2 °'9 

" by evaporation ' = '9462 4*1 



80 gms. lime contained 22*6400 

Chlorine loss during entire operation 25* 

O. 805 gms. Labarraque = 17*2403 

Lost in lime residue = 4*3102 19* 

" by evaporation =. 1*0895 4*8 



80 gms. lime contained . 22*6400 

Chlorine loss during entire operation 23*8 



Pharmaceutical Laboratory, 

Cleveland School of Pharmacy, April, 1904. 



THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF HONEY, AND ITS 
RELATION TO THE POLARISCOPE. 

By Wm. A. SELSER. 

The origin and formation of honey is the result of a com- 
bination, and a combination which nothing else can duplicate. (1) 
The nectar from the plant life. (2) The action of the bee in its own 
body. (3) Its deposition and evaporation. 

No other known sweets that could be gathered by the bee would 
result in honey, although the two second combinations might be 
present. For instance, quite a lot of very bad adulteration is palmed 
off" on the public by feeding the bees a dilution of cane sugar. Root 
(page 200, of the 1903 edition of the Honey Bee) states that sugar 
syrup fed to the bees might be chemically a sort of honey, yet be a 
fraud on the consumer. I am glad to state it would never be a fraud 
on the chemist. No adulteration would be easier detected. Then 
we have again, for the first combination, the honey dew produced by 
the excretion of a plant louse sprayed, as it were, upon the leaves 
of the plant, and gathered by the bees. This is not honey, nor 
could any process by man yet discovered take the first combination, 
nectar from the plant life, without the agency of the bee and by any 
chemical manipulation produce honey. We have a very pleasant 
sweet produced by man from maple nectar boiled down, commonly 
known as maple sugar. 



268 



The Origin and Formation of Honey. 



A.m. Jour. Pharni. 
June, 1904. 



Like the question once asked : " When a rifle bullet was shot 
through a board, which went through first — the bullet or the hole ? " 
They naturally go together. So we would answer when asked which 
would be the most important factor in the production of honey — the 
nectar or the bee ? we would say, they inseparably must go together. 

The first combination (nectar) as produced by nature under cer- 
tain conditions, primarily possibly for the fertilization of the blossom, 
is a very thin, watery fluid, insipidly sweet, with very little flavor. 
This fluid is taken into the mouth of the bee and chemically changed, 
and by the salivary secretion being mixed with the fluid supplied by 
large glands from the head and thorax, converting this fluid into 
dextrose and levulose, resulting in a fruit-sugar or honey, then 
deposited by the bee in the little wax cells and evaporated by the 
action of the bee's wings under a high temperature about 50 per 
cent., and then capped over and sealed like a housewife would seal 
fruit when it is about 75 per cent, or 85 per cent, solid, ripe honey 
containing on the average about 15 per cent, to 25 per cent, of water. 

A great deal of honey is of a poor quality on account of the bee- 
keeper rushing his product to the market and extracting it before it 
is thoroughly evaporated. This causes fermentation and destroys 
both quality and flavor. Formic acid, as made by the bee, makes 
honey somewhat of an antiseptic, preventing decomposition. 

POLARISCOPE. 

While there are a number of methods of analyzing honey to 
determine its adulteration, yet by the aid of the polariscope is the 
only acknowledged method to-day that has any degree of certainty 
in its results. 

In the bulletin published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
in the year 1892, Bulletin No. 13, Division of Chemistry, we have a 
very full and complete result of vast researches in the line of the 
polariscope work. On page 789 of that bulletin, we have the anal- 
ysis by the polariscope of honeys that are given at dextro-rotation. 
This at first might baffle the chemist, but the invert or second read- 
ing has classed them in a separate class by themselves. 

On page 801 we have the statement that at the present time no 
genuine samples of honey collected in this country have shown a 
right-handed rotation ; yet the suspicion is thrown out that a honey 
gathered from the excrescence of the pine tree shows a low right- 
hand reading, and yet might be classed as pure. 



Am *jun u e n i9w arm "} The Origin and Formation of Honey. 269 

In trying to perfect myself in polariscope work, this thought has 
been a great bone of contention in all my laboratory work. I visited 
personally Professor Wiley, chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, and he 
acknowledged that this was the one great drawback in the positive 
proof of low reading right-handed honeys. It did not suggest itself 
at that time, which was about the year 1895, that there was any 
method by which positive proof could be obtained. In analyzing 
honey by the polariscope for the Pure Food Inspector of the National 
Bee-keepers' Association in nearjy all the Western States, I never 
ran across any honey which showed this peculiarity gathered from 
the excrescence of the pine. 

In 1902 a large syrup-packing company of San Francisco shipped 
to the East several car loads of bottled honey, one car load coming 
to Philadelphia, and distributed by the commission men to the 
grocery trade generally. I secured several samples of this honey, 
and found that it showed under the first reading -f- 2-5 and under the 
invert reading — 1-5. I immediately pronounced this as adulterated, 
and so informed the trade. I had my opinion confirmed by L. F. 
Kebler, now of Washington, but at that time chief chemist of the 
Smith, Kline & French Company. 

I then went to Washington and had the same sample analyzed 
in the Department Laboratory ; and after a long consultation 
with Professor Wiley, he distinctly stated that while he felt there 
was a grave suspicion of adulteration, it could not be proven. In 
other words, " guilty but not proven." The Professor said it looked 
to him as if that showed a trace of gathering from the pine of Cali- 
fornia. I was completely stunned in my opinion at this conference, 
for I felt that the whole work of the polariscope was uncertain and 
the whole chain of evidence was only strongest at its weakest link. 
I immediately came to the conclusion that there was only one posi- 
tive proof, and that was for a practical apiarist to visit the large 
apiaries in the United States, wherever practicable, watch what the 
bees were working on, take the honey out of the hives, and analyze 
it for the results. I started on a three months' tour, costing me 
$1,500 — visiting the large apiaries of the South and West, going as 
far as Vera Cruz, Mexico. My closest and most careful observations 
and samples were from California, as this sample of honey in 
question was said to come from Santiago County. 

All my samples gathered outside of California, except from 
M^squoit, in Texas, would show a left-hand first reading of — 8 9, 



2/ 7 Q 



The Origin and Forination.of Honey. 



Am. Jour. Pnarm. 
June, 1904. 



invert, reading of — 10 and a fraction up. In Santiago County I se- 
cured seven samples of the White Sage, the lowest reading being 

— 12.8; first invert, — 1 6-6. The highest reading being — 18-7 and 

— 22 invert. The Black Sage showed a lower reading, — 6*0 ; 
second, — 8.3. The Wild Buckwheat, in the hills of Santiago 
County, showed a reading of — 9 first, — 12 second. The Prune 
Bloom, near Los Gatos, showed also a low reading of first, — 6-5 ; 
invert, — 6-5. Some samples of the Orange Blossom also showed 
as low a reading as — 5-4, but I found the average of this — 7. 

The most important sample secured was from an apiary situ- 
ated right in the midst of the pine forests in the mountains, to 
the extreme east of Redlands. This was taken from different 
hives and showed, first reading, — 14 ; second reading, — 23-2 ; but 
the lot of samples showed an average of the first reading, — 15. 

I then felt I had sufficient proof that the parties who had packed 
this honey had adulterated it, but wanting to exhaust every ave- 
nue of proof, I visited San Francisco, staying there a considerable 
time, employing detectives to visit this large packing house, and I 
there had sufficient proof to show that cane sugar and glucose had 
been used in large quantities in their establishment. A most sig- 
nificant fact was, while this packing company wrote to the grocers 
in the East, positively denying my charges, saying the honey was 
strictly pure, I never, individually, heard a word further about it, 
but the very next season I received a sample from this company 
with the price of the analysis accompanying it, and found the re- 
sults showed a first reading, — 17; invert, — 21-6, showing that 
this article was strictly pure, and that they had used honey from an 
entirely different source from that previousy packed. 

On my return the Department of Agriculture wrote me for a 
copy of my analysis, and I received this extract from the reply of 
Chief Wiley: 

" The remarkable fact is shown by your investigations that even 
honey gathered in the vicinity of the pine trees is strictly left- 
handed. The honey still shows the peculiarities that led me to 
believe it an adulterated or artificial honey, and the result which you 
have obtained is entirely corroborative of that view. I believe 
that under pure food laws, a conviction could be had upon the evi- 
dence in this case, especially when compared with all the other data 
of California honeys which you have collected. You certainly have 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Elizabeth Marshall. 



271 



gone into this in a most painstaking and thorough manner, and 
deserve the praise of all interested in pure honey for what you have 
done. You will understand that we place our laboratories always 
at the service of anyone who is interested in stamping out adultera- 
tion in honey, or in foods of any kind. 

" Respectfully, (Signed) H. W. Wiley, Chief." 

I fully believe that the result of this experiment will enable us to 
prove before any court of law the adulteration of any honey yet 
put up in the United States for commercial purposes. 

JENKINTOWN, PA. 



ELIZABETH MARSHALL, THE FIRST WOMAN 
PHARMACIST IN AMERICA. 

By M. I. WlI^BERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

It may not be generally known that it is now a full hundred years 
since a woman first presided over an apothecary shop in Philadel- 
phia,- and that this, so far as known, was the first pharmacy in 
America to be so controlled. 

The circumstances that led up to the opening of the shop in the 
modest parlor of the house, then 56 Chestnut Street, were referred 
to by Mr. Evan T. Ellis, in his story of «« A Very Old Drug Store " 
(A. J. P., 1903, page 57), and will be referred to again, at some 
length, later on. 

Elizabeth Marshall was the oldest daughter and the oldest living 
child of Charles Marshall, the first President of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, or, as it was then called, " The Philadelphia 
College of Apothecaries." She was born in the house 56 Chestnut 
Street, old number, on January 28, 1768. As a child she was much 
in the company of her grandfather, Christopher Marshall, and 
appears to have been his favorite grandchild, being repeatedly men- 
tioned, in a commendatory way, in the unpublished portions of his 
diary, now in the possession of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Some of the details of the business conducted by Christopher 
Marshall and his lineal descendants may not be out of place here, 
despite the fact that much has been but recently told by Mr. Ellis 
in the paper referred to above. 



272 



Elizabeth Marshall. 



Am. .lour Pharm. 
June, 1904 



Christopher Marshall in the early decades of the eighteenth cen- 
tury was one of the very few druggists in Philadelphia. His shop 
is described by the annalist of the time as being " In a two-storied 
building with a projecting roof, from which was suspended a large 
gilded ball." This sign was characteristic of this early shop, which 
was usually referred to as being " at the sign of the golden ball." 
In this modest shop, at 46 Chestnut Street, near Second, Christo- 
pher Marshall kept on hand such medicinal preparations as were 
used by the medical men of those days, in their practice, and also 
sold such household remedies, herbs, spices and tea, as were thought 
necessary to supply the modest wants of the pioneer residents of 
Philadelphia. 




Charges Marshal. 
The First President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, from a Water- 
Color in Possession of Charles Marshall, Germantown. 

Having amassed what was, at that time, considered to be a liberal 
competence, Christopher Marshall retired from active business in 
1 771, and was succeeded by his three sons, Benjamin, Christopher, 
Jr., and Charles Marshall. The business was conducted at 46 Chest- 
nut Street by Benjamin Marshall & Brothers until the death of the 
elder brother, Benjamin, in 1778, when the business was continued 
by Christopher, Jr., and Charles Marshall. 

It is probable that this store was one of the first in which phy- 
sicians' prescriptions were compounded ; exactly when this innova- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Elizabeth Marshall. 



273 



tion was introduced does not appear, and there is no positive evidence 
that such is the case. From the fact, however, that Dr. Abraham 
Chovet, one of the first physicians in this country to write prescrip- 
tions, was an intimate friend of the family, particularly of Christopher 
Marshall and his two remaining sons, it is quite probable that he 
patronized the store with which they were connected. 

The firm gradually increased their business, and besides being 
importers as well as exporters of all kinds of crude drugs and doing 
a general wholesale and retail drug business, also ventured into the 
manufacture of chemicals. 




ELIZABETH MARSHAU. 

From a Silhouette in Possession of Charles Marshall, Germantown. 

This manufactory is referred to, in " Watson's Annals of Phila- 
delphia," as being in " a grim and forbidding. looking building on 
Third Street near the stone bridge over the Cohocsink." It was 
generally shunned by the small boy of that period on account of 
the gruesome tales that had been circulated in connection with it 
and also on account of the noisome odors that emanated from it at 
certain times. Christopher Marshall died May 6, 1797, aged eighty- 
seven years and five months. Shortly after this Charles Marshall 
retired from active business, retaining, however, a pecuniary interest 
in the firm. 

The unfortunate circumstance that brought disaster to the now 
aged Charles Marshall is recorded in the biographical sketch by 



274 



Elizabeth Marshall. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Dillwyn Parrish (A. J. P., 1865, page 242), as follows: u A few years 
after his retirement from active business, the establishment, with 
which his name had been for many years associated, loaned the en- 
dorsement of the firm to a large amount, and involved all connected 
with it in bankruptcy. The senior partner, who was entirely igno- 
rant of these proceedings, was then in advanced life, but met the 
shock with fortitude and without hesitation gave up his property for 
the benefit of his creditors. 

" This sad occurrence made it necessary to change his manner of 
life, and in 1804 it was concluded that his daughter Elizabeth, a lady 
of singular good sense and varied attainments, should open a store 
and conduct the business of a pharmaceutist, with the aid of her 
father. The small front parlor of their dwelling, then 56 Chestnut 
Street, opposite Strawberry Alley, was appropriated to this purpose." 

In this connection it may be of interest to note that the name, 
Elizabeth Marshall, apothecary, does not appear in any of the early 
directories of Philadelphia ; it does appear, however, as a con- 
tributor to the Pennsylvania Hospital, in the printed records of that 
institution. 

That the store at 56 Chestnut Street was well thought of at the 
time, would appear from the following quotation, taken from an 
address by Daniel B. Smith, delivered before the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, September 24, 1829. (A. J. P., 1829, page 241.) 

" Less than thirty years ago almost the only apothecary's shop in 
Philadelphia, where the physician was sure of obtaining the latest 
foreign preparations, of having his medicines prepared under the 
eye of the master and with competent pharmaceutic skill, or in 
which a strict system of accountability was carried through the de- 
tails of the shop, was that of Charles Marshall, the first president of 
this institution." 

When we remember that all of the details of this shop were pre- 
sided over by the daughter, it is indeed a well-merited compliment. 
From a monetary point of view, the business was successful from 
the very start. This was, no doubt, largely due to the fact that 
many of the leading physicians and business men, sympathizing 
with the misfortune that had come to Charles Marshall, a man well 
known and greatly admired for his probity and ability, were liberal 
in their patronage. It was little wonder then that the business grew 
rapidly, and that the store had to be repeatedly enlarged to meet 
the constantly-increasing demands for space. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Elizabeth Marshall. 



275 



The number of apprentices gradually increased until as many as 
twelve were employed at one time. Among these early appren- 
tices were some of the most prominent pharmacists of Philadelphia, 
and it may well be said that all of them, in later years, were grateful 
indeed for the practical training they received from this skilled and 
highly efficient woman pharmacist. 

In the matter of practical contributions this store was also one of 
the first to appreciate the necessity of and to provide distinctly 
American preparations. Many of the preparations now extensively 




From a Painting in Possession of Charles Marshall, Germantown. 

used originated in this store, and were first made popular as the 
favorite prescriptions of one or the other of the Philadelphia prac- 
titioners of that time. Among the more widely known of these 
preparations, we may mention brown mixture, the mistura glycyr- 
rhizse composita of the United States Pharmacopoeia. This prepa- 
ration is said to have originated in this store about 1814, as the 
favorite prescription of Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, a well-known 
American botanist and teacher of materia medica, and the sue- 



276 



Elizabeth Marshall. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



cessor of Dr. Benjamin Rush as professor of the practice of medi- 
cine in the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. 

That Elizabeth Marshall was a good business woman is evident 
from the fact that the shop over which she presided not alone sup- 
plied a suitable living for herself, her father and other members of 
her family, but also contributed no mean sums to worthy charities, 
and finally enabled her to retire with a competence after a business 
career of not more than twenty-two years. 

The father, Charles Marshall, died August 22, 1825, in his eighty- 
second year. Dillwyn Parrish, in his biographical sketch quoted 
above, gives the following interesting description of him : 

" In stature Charles Marshall was about 6 feet high, of slender 
mould, clear complexion, blue eyes and graced with a benignant ex- 
pression of countenance, heightened in its effect, toward the end 
of life, by the snowy whiteness of his hair, which in ample volumes 
descended nearly to his shoulders. His costume was uniformly 
plain in color, being the drab then in vogue with the Society of 
Friends, of which he was a consistent and lifelong member." 

Shortly after her father's death Elizabeth Marshall sold out her 
interest in the store to two of her former apprentices, Charles Ellis 
and Isaac P. Morris, and retired from active business. 

The remaining years of her life were spent quietly, but not idly. 
One contemporaneous writer says of her : " While life lasted she 
was devoted to those active, yet unobtrusive duties of benevolence 
which are the chief ornaments of the Christian character. Even 
when afflicted by disease she was not unmindful of those who, by 
vicissitudes incident to man, were made dependent on the hand of 
charity. She was beneficent and kind to all, and dispensed her 
charities with a liberal hand." 

Another writer says : " The uniform cheerfulness which she dis- 
played under every circumstance evinced that conscious rectitude 
and peace of mind which ever adorns the Christian." 

Elizabeth Marshall died July 26, 1836. The simplicity and 
purity of her character, coupled with her skill and probity in busi- 
ness, and her benevolence and charity in private lite, made her well 
known and highly respected by all classes of society. But for us, 
and for future generations, it is her heroic spirit of self-sacrifice, 
that, above all, is particularly attractive, and makes her worthy of 
emulation for all times to come. 



Am jine!"i9 P (S ai " m '} Glycerophosphate Preparations. 2J7 

THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE GLYCEROPHOSPHATE 
PREPARATIONS. 

By Melvin W. Bamford. 

At this time, when preparations of the salts of glycerophosphoric 
acid are attracting considerable attention, it might be of advantage 
to make an effort to secure some degree of uniformity in the strength 
and nomenclature of these preparations. Something should cer- 
tainly be done in this direction because otherwise there appears to 
be danger that there will be the same confusion with preparations 
of glycerophosphates as has always existed with preparations of the 
hypophosphites. With this latter class it has never been possible for 
a physician to know what would be used in his prescription for com- 
pound syrup of hypophosphites, nor for a pharmacist to know just 
what a physician might mean when he wrote compound syrup of 
hypophosphites. Under, this title we have any number of prepara- 
tions ranging from one containing only the salts of calcium, sodium 
and potassium, to one containing iron, manganese, strychnine and 
quinine in addition to the first three mentioned. 

For a parallel case with the glycerophosphates we rind, on refer- 
ring to the price lists of two of the largest manufacturers of pharma- 
ceuticals in the country, that one lists a preparation containing the 
salts of calcium, sodium, potassium and iron as compound elixir of 
glycerophosphates, and the other manufacturer under exactly the 
same title lists a preparation containing calcium, sodium, iron, man- 
ganese, quinine and strychnine. 

For some reason, which is not altogether apparent, these prepara- 
tions of the glycerophosphates are only from a half to a third as 
strong as the preparations of the hypophosphites. The difference 
in the price of the salts probably has some influence on this, the 
cost of the glycerophosphates being about three times as high as 
the cost of the hypophosphites. 

Pharmaceutically and medicinally there seems to be no reason 
why the glycerophosphate preparations should not be made as con- 
centrated as those of the hypophosphites. This is especially appa- 
rent when it is considered that Dr. Robin, to whose work these salts 
in large degree owe their popularity, used a more concentrated 
solution and in relatively larger doses than is provided for by most 
of the preparations now on the market. The syrup of Dr. Robin's, 



278 Glycerophosphate Preparations, ( Am j5m rm ' 

which was his favorite formula, contains approximately 65 grammes 
of glycerophosphates in 1,000 grammes of syrup, while the U.S.P. 
syrup of hypophosphites contains 75 grammes in 1,000 c.c, which 
would make them very nearly equal in total salt content. 

Considering that these preparations of the glycerophosphates are 
nearly all made up with a hydro-alcoholic base and are used largely 
in nervous disorders, and that their use in some cases is continued 
for months, it would seem very desirable to administer them in small 
doses rather than large doses ; in other words, to make the prepara- 
tions more concentrated. 

In view of these conditions, the writer has prepared a set of 
resolutions for your consideration, to be discussed and amended if 
deemed advisable, which it is hoped will prevent an increase in this 
confusion, and possibly aid in remedying existing conditions. 

RESOLUTION. 

Whereas, There seems to be danger that the preparations of the 
glycerophosphates are getting into the same state of confusion, as 
to strength and nomenclature, as the preparations of the hypophos- 
phites : 

Whereas, There is no apparent reason why the nomenclature and 
strength of the preparations of the glycerophosphates should not 
conform with those of the hypophosphites in the United States 
Pharmocopceia and National Formulary ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the assembled members of the Philadelphia Col. 
lege of Pharmacy use their influence toward that end, and do hereby 
endorse the strength and nomenclature given in the following list 
of those preparations, which in each case correspond with the 
preparations of the hypophosphites in the United States Pharma- 
copoeia and National Formulary : 

Elixir gycerophosphatum, elixir of glycerophosphates, 1,000 c.c, 
to represent : 



Calcium glycerophosphate 45 grammes. 

Potassium glycerophosphate 15 " 

Sodium glycerophosphate 15 " 

Elixir glycerophosphatum cum ferro, elixir of glycerophosphates 
with iron, 1,000 c.c, to represent : 

Calcium glycerophosphate 25 grammes. 

Potassium glycerophosphate 15 " 



Am '/u^;Sol Tm '} The Nestor of Chicago Pharmacy. 279 

Sodium glycerophosphate 15 grammes. 

1 Iron glycerophosphate 10 " 

Elixir calcii et sodii glycerophosphatum, elixir of calcium and 

sodium glycerophosphates, 1,000 c.c, to represent: 

Calcium glycerophosphate 35 grammes. 

Sodium glycerophosphate • -35 " 

Elixir glycerophosphatum compositum, compound elixir of glycer- 
ophosphates, 1. 000 c.c, to represent : 

Calcium glycerophosphate 35 grammes. 

Potassium glycerophosphate 17 '5 " 

Sodium glycerophosphate 17 '5 " 

Iron glycerophosphate 2*25 " 

2 Quinine glycerophosphate 1*125 " 

3 Strychnine glycerophosphate '33 " 



THE NESTOR OF CHICAGO PHARMACY. 
By Albert E. Ebkrt. 

Ezekiel Herbert Sargent; born at Dover, N. H., November 13, 
1830; died at Chicago, April 24, 1904. 

Mr. Sargent lived with his parents until six years of age, when he 
went to live with his half-brother at Lowell, Mass. After eight 
years of schooling, he was, at the age of fourteen years, apprenticed 
to the drug business with the firm of Carleton & Hovey, Lowell, 
Mass., with whom he remained for seven years. Among his clerk 
associates at this store were Chas. T. Carney, of Boston, Mass.; 
Henry M. Whitney, of Andover Depot, Mass.; Fred W. Willis and 
James W. Mill, later of Chicago. 

Dr. F. Scammon, one of the pioneer druggists of Chicago, seek- 
ing a competent associate in his established drug business, was 
recommended by Messrs. Cutler Brothers, wholesale druggists, of 
Boston, Mass., to secure Mr. Sargent for such position. Dr. Scam- 
mon invited Mr. Sargent to come to Chicago, which he did, arriv- 
ing in the early part of 1852. A partnership was formed under 
the firm name of F. Scammon & Co., consisting of Dr. Franklin 
Scammon, Myrick L. Scammon and E. H. Sargent, to succeed to 
the business of F. Scammon, 119 Lake Street, and which had just 
been removed to its new quarters at 140 Lake Street. Mr. Sargent 

1 This is ferrous lactate in the hypophosphite preparation. 

2 This is quinine hydrochlorate in the hypophosphite preparation. 

3 This is an equivalent quantity of tincture of nux vomica in the hypophos- 
phite preparation. 



280 The Nestor of Chicago Pharmacy. { Am jiSefiSSf" 11 * 

assumed the general management of the drug business, which at 
that time was largely wholesale, Mr. Mynck Scammon giving his 
attention to a side line of the business, consisting of daguerreotype 
material, and Dr. F. Scammon looking after the manufacture of lin- 
seed oil, which was carried on extensively at that time by the firm 
of Scammon & Haven. The firm of F. Scammon & Co. did a pros- 
perous business, and was continued until 1856, when it was dis- 
solved. Mr. Sargent associated himself with Mr. John C. Ilsley, a 
clerk of Sears & Smith, under the firm name of Sargent & Ilsley, and 
they purchased the drug part of the business of F. Scammon & Co., 
continuing the same at the old stand as a wholesale and retail drug 
business. The new firm started out with all the prospects of pros- 
perity ; times were good and business was good. But soon the 
financial horizon throughout the United States began to darken, 
and the panic in the fall of 1857 burst in all its fury over the North- 
west, and many of the strongest business firms went to the wall. 
The young firm struggled on until the fall of 1859, when it was 
wound up, and the business was sold out to Messrs. Wright & 
French, formerly of Boston, Mass., who removed the retail part of 
the business to the northwest corner of Randolph and State Streets, 
and placed Mr. Sargent in charge of the same. Through his efforts 
it soon became one of the leading retail drug businesses not only of 
the city of Chicago, but of the Northwest. 

In the summer of 1870, Mr. Sargent purchased the interest of his 
partners, and became the sole owner of a prosperous business of 
high reputation, which he had so successfully established ; but he 
was not allowed to enjoy the fruits of his labors for any length of 
time, as the great fire of 1871 came upon him just when he felt that 
he was free from all financial entanglement, and the bright outlook 
was again darkened by the great calamity, which left him penniless. 
However, with that indomitable energy that characterized the peo- 
ple of the stricken city, Mr. Sargent began at once to re-establish 
himself in the retail drug business at the northwest corner of Wabash 
Avenue and Sixteenth Street, and very soon did a good business. 
Here he added physicians' supplies, including surgical instruments 
and appliances, and remained, in this location until 1878, when he 
removed to 125 State Street, adding here chemists' and assayers' 
apparatus and supplies to his increasing business, which became so 
extensive that in 1892 he removed to larger quarters, at 106 and 108 



Am jlZ r ,\m arm '} The Nestor of Chicago Pharmacy. 281 

Wabash Avenue. In January, 1903, having purchased the stock of 
chemicals and chemical apparatus of Messrs. Richards & Co., 108 
Lake Street, which with his similar stock he removed to the pres- 
ent quarters, 143 and 145 Lake Street. The drug and physicians' 
supply department was removed to 30 East Washington Street. 

The above recital of Mr. Sargent's business career indicates the 
success of a most upright, honest and conscientious pharmacist of the 
past century. Let us scan his life and work from the professional 
side. He was in the foremost rank of advanced pharmacy and medi- 
cine. We do not over-estimate by saying that he contributed more 
to the progress of these professions in Chicago and the Northwest 
than any other man of the period. He was one of the charter mem- 
bers of the College of Pharmacy, organized in 1859, and of which 
institution he was an officer and guiding spirit for nearly half a 
century. He became a member of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association in 1864, an d was its president in 1869, one of the foun- 
ders of the Illinois State Microscopical Society and the State Phar- 
maceutical Association, a director of the Chicago Botanical Garden, 
a member and officer of the Chicago Academy of Science, a trustee 
of the School of Pharmacy of the Northwestern University, a mem- 
ber of the committee of the World's Congress in 1893, the oldest 
living member at the time of his death of Oriental Lodge of Free 
Masons of Chicago, a member of the church of the New Jerusalem. 
He was honored by the University of Illinois in bestowing upon him 
the honored title of Master in Pharmacy, he was equally honored by 
honorary membership by the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, 
New Hampshire Pharmaceutical Association, and many other 
societies. 

He was married to Miss Mary Elmer, of JefTersonville, Indiana, 
and had two children, a son and a daughter, the latter, Mrs. T. P. 
Smith, Jr., with the widow surviving him. 

Mr. Sargent was present at the golden jubilee meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, held at Philadelphia, 1902, 
although he was not feeling well at the time. After the meeting he 
made a short visit to friends in Massachusetts, and on returning 
home took to bed and lingered along from a complication of dis- 
eases due to old age until the end came. The funeral services took 
place April 27th, at 2 o'clock at the residence, 4822 Kenwood 
Avenue, largely attended by old citizens of Chicago, members of 



282 Formulas for Galenical Preparations. { Am j^efiSS™' 

the Masonic and religious societies, the medical and pharmaceutical 
professions, and especially attended by the members of the Chicago 
Veteran Druggists' Association, of which he was an honored past- 
president. He was buried at Oakwood Cemetery. The pall-bearers 
were Prof. J. H. Long, Thomas N. Jamieson, W. Bodemann, Henry 
Biroth, Thomas H. Patterson and Judson S. Jacobus. It was in 
everybody's mind, " That a good man has passed away, and the 
world is better for it that he has lived." 

Among those who had tutelage and training under Mr. Sargent, 
we recall, previous to the fire, Samuel H. Larmanie, Peter J. Singer, 
Albert E. Ebert, Thomas W. Baird, Louis Strehl, John Corbidge, 
N. Gray Bartlett, Thomas N. Jamieson, Judson S. Jacobus, Isaac H. 
Fry, Edwin R. Smith, Edward C. Jones, H. M. Palmer, George Ives, 
Fred M. Schmidt, Rollin A. Keyes. 



FORMULAS FOR SOME GALENICAL PREPARATIONS OF 
THREE VEGETABLE DRUGS THAT MERIT 
FURTHER MEDICAL ATTENTION. 1 

By George M. Beringer. 

Galega Officinalis Linn'e. — This perennial herbaceous leguminous 
plant is indigenous to Southern Europe, and is but slowly acquiring 
a reputation as a valuable galactagogue. It is now more than 
thirty years since Gillett-Damitte, in 1873, in a communication to 
the French Academy, reported that experiments demonstrated a 
real foundation in fact for the popular belief in the galactagogue 
value of this plant. Since then a number of other investigators 
have confirmed this conclusion. The generic name, u Galega," is 
derived from the Greek and signifies to lead or induce milk, showing 
that as long ago as the time when Linnaeus wrote his il Species 
Plantarum " this property was attributed to this particular species. 

The tops, including stems and leaves, are the parts used for stimu- 
lating lacteal secretion. To the root is ascribed diaphoretic, diuretic, 
antispasmodic and anthelmintic properties. The older writers 
recommended an infusion of the herb (10-200), given in tablespoon- 
ful doses every hour or an aqueous solid extract given in 5-gramme 



1 Read at the meeting of the New Jersey State Pharmaceutical Association at 
Bernardsville, May 25, 1904. 



Am 'j J u°ne,'i9w arm '} Formulas for Galenical Preparations. 283 

doses from four to eight times per day. Neither of these are inviting 
forms of administration, and to this fact may be attributed the lack 
of the extended use which the remedy seems to merit. The fluid 
extract and syrup are more modern and elegant preparations for the 
exhibition of this medicine, and the following formulas for these 
are submitted : 

EXTRACTUM GAEEGAE EEUIDUM. 

Goats' Rue herb in No. 30 powder 1,000 grammes. 

Diluted alcohol, sufficient quantity to make 1,000 c.c. 

Moisten the powder with 500 c.c. of the menstruum and pack in 
a percolator; then add enough of the diluted alcohol to leave a 
layer above the drug, and when the percolate begins to drop, cork 
up the percolator and cover it, and allow the materials to macerate 
for two or three days. Then proceed to percolate until the drug is 
exhausted. Reserve the first 900 c.c. of the percolate and recover 
from the remainder the alcohol and evaporate to a soft extract; 
dissolve this in the reserved portion and make the finished product 
measure 1,000 c.c. by the addition of sufficient diluted alcohol: 

SYRUPUS GAEEGAE. 

Fluid extract of Goats' Rue 15 c.c. 

Syrup ...... 105 c.c. 

Oil of fennel seed 1 c.c. 

Mix. 

Hawthorn Berries — Cratcegus Oxyacantha [Gartner) ; Mespilus 
Cratcegus (Linne). — The hawthorn, or white thorn, is another Euro- 
pean plant that has long been used in household medication. The 
leaves, the bark of the twigs, the flowers and the fruit have all been 
so used. 

The fruit is a drupe-like pome about four or five lines long, oval 
in outline, externally dull-red in color. It rarely contains more than 
one stony kernel, which is entirely imbedded. 

The fruit is said to possess a decided action as a cardiac tonic. 
The fluid extract is the proper form for its exhibition, and the fol- 
lowing is the formula adopted by the writer : 

EXTR ACTUM CRAT^GI FI/UIDUM. 

Hawthorn berries in No. 30 powder 1,000 grammes. 

Glycerin 50 c.c. 

Alcohol and water, of each a sufficient quantity to 

make 1,000 c.c. 



284 Formulas for Galenical Preparations. { Am j J u n U e'-i9£ arm ' 

Mix the glycerin with 600 c.c. alcohol and 250 c.c. water and 
moisten the drug with a portion of this mixture. Pack in a perco- 
lator and pour on enough of the menstruum to leave a layer of 
liquid above the drug, and, as soon as the percolate commences to 
drop, cork up the percolator, cover it and allow to macerate for two 
or three days. Continue the percolation, gradually adding the 
balance of the mixture, and continue with a menstruum of 2 
volumes alcohol and I volume water until the drug is exhausted. 
Reserve the first 850 c.c. of the percolate, recover the alcohol from 
the remainder and concentrate to a soft extract. Dissolve this in 
the reserve and make up the volume to 1,000 c.c. with a mixture of 
alcohol 2 volumes and water 1 volume. 

Lachnanthes — Wool Flower, Red Root. — The entire plant of 
Gyrotheca capitata (Walt.), Morong., Lachnanthes tinctoria, Ell. 
The subject of this note is an indigenous plant of the Atlantic sea- 
board of the United States, from Massachusetts to Florida. It is 
found growing on the borders of ditches in sandy swamps and the 
cranberry bogs of New Jersey appear to be favored spots for its 
habitation. I have found it growing as far from the coast as Atco 
and Berlin, in Camden County. The materials for the experiments 
of the writer were collected near Hammonton, in Atlantic County, 
where it is fairly abundant. 

Lachnanthes is a perennial herb \y 2 to 2^2 feet high. The lower 
leaves are equitant ; the upper or stem leaves are alternate, being 
gradually reduced in size until those at the top become mere bracts. 
The plant is largely propagated by stoloniferous rhizomes ; the roots 
are fibrous and have a bright red color. The flowers are in dense 
terminal cymous panicles, are yellow and externally densely woolly. 
The capsule is three-valved, and each cell contains about six disk- 
like seeds. The seed-coat also contains a bright red coloring matter 
and an intensely bitter principle. When chewed the plant colors 
the saliva yellowish-red and leaves a decidedly acrid taste. This 
acridity is probably due to calcium oxalate, as numerous acicular 
crystals of this salt are shown on microscopic examination of sec- 
tions. The acridity largely disappears on drying. 

The coloring matter present in the roots and seeds attracted the 
attention of the early observers and writers, and J. Redoute (" Les 
Liliacese ") wrote : " The roots and seeds yield to simple infusion a 
red color analogous to that obtained from garance (madder), but not so 



Am j J u O n U e r ,'i P 904 arr11 '} Formulas for Galenical Preparations. 285 

solid or useful." Gronovius in his "Flora Virginia," 1772, states : 

My inquiries lead me to think more favorably of this Heritiera as 
one of the plantae tinctoria of the United States." Heritiera tinc- 
toria was the name by which Gmelin had designated this plant. 

Lachnanthes was used by the Indian tribes of the Southern States 
— especially the Seminoles of Florida. They called it " spirit weed,'' 
and used to chew the roots and tops with water. Millspaugh 
(" Medicinal Plants ") says : " The root was esteemed as an invigor- 
ating tonic by the aborigines, by whom it was said to cause brilliancy 
and fearless expression of the eye and countenance, a boldness and 
fluency of speech and other symptoms of heroic bearing, with, of 
course, the natural opposite after-effects." 

Porcher (" Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests ") states 
that " the root is astringent and tonic," which is but a repetition of 
the statement in Griffith's Medical Botany." 

The Homeopaths have used the remedy and Lippe has tested it, 
and described the symptoms and therapeutic action. (Hale's "New 
Remedies" and Hugh's "Pharmaco-Dynamics.") Millspaugh (Joe. cit.) 
says : " A tincture of the root has been recommended in typhus and 
typhoid fevers, pneumonia, various severe forms of brain disease, 
rheumatic wry-neck, and laryngeal cough ! " Alter describing the 
physiological action of the remedy he observes : " The action of 
this drug appears as far as proven to be quite similar to that of 
Pulsatilla." 

Recently the drug has attracted some attention in England as 
a valuable remedy in the treatment of tuberculosis, and Dr. H. R. 
D. Spitta and Dr. A. Latham have published in the Lancet a note 
on their experiments on the chemical constituents and also physio- 
logical experiments on healthy as well as tuberculous animals.. 
Guinea-pigs were killed by small doses of the extract, death being 
preceded by paralysis of the extremities. Their results seem to 
agree with the statement made by Homeopaths that the action of 
this drug is largely upon the cerebro-spinal system, 

No complete chemical investigation of this plant has yet been 
published. The late Prof. Henry Trimble intended to make such an 
examination from materials supplied by the writer. His work on 
this subject was not published, and was probably not completed be- 
fore his decease. If time will permit the writer will undertake this 
again when fresh material is obtained. 



2 86 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



This plant should be collected for its drug value while in bloom, 
which occurs, according to locality, from June to September. August 
is the proper time for collection in New Jersey". The tincture of 
the fresh plant is believed to be the best form for its exhibition, and 
is prepared as follows : 

TINCTURA I^ACHNANTHIS. 

Take of the fresh plant freed from sand and dirt by 

washing in clear water 1,000 grammes 

Cut up and pound to a pulp, then add alcohol .... i,coo c.c. 

and set aside to macerate for seven days. Then express and wash 
the dregs with sufficient alcohol by soaking and expressing until 
2,000 c.c. of tincture is obtained. Filter and preserve in well- 
corked vials. The dose of the tincture is from 10 to 30 minims. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE LITERATURE RELATING 
TO PHARMACY. 

BY M. I. WlIvBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

New pharmaceutical journals are usually considered as being 
among the more interesting novelties in pharmaceutical literature. 
This, to an extent at least, is due to the fact that they are almost 
invariably an indication of the needs and wants of an appreciably 
large class of pharmacists. This is particularly true where these 
new journals embody any new or novel features either in their con- 
tents or in their proposed aims. Among the pharmaceutical journals 
that have been but recently established is The Journal of the 
.Alumni of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. This, as its rather 
lengthy name would indicate, is being published in the interest of 
the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. The Journal appears to 
be intended as a quarterly of 48 pages, octavo, and is well printed 
on a good quality of paper. The material contained in the two 
numbers so far issued is well calculated to arouse the interest and 
the enthusiasm of the alumni of the college, and, if possible, to 
induce them to make additional and renewed efforts in advancing 
the interests of their alma mater. 

Another comparatively new venture in the pharmaceutical journal 
line is the Vierteljahresschift fur praktische Pharm acie, published by 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



287 



the German Apotheker-Verein, Berlin. This is also a quarterly and 
is intended, primarily, as a review of current pharmaceutical litera- 
ture, particularly of such new remedies and novelties as are intro- 
duced from time to time. 

Pharmacy and Chemistry are to be particularly well represented 
at the St. Louis World's Fair. Group 23 is entirely devoted to the 
chemical and pharmaceutical arts. According to the announce- 
ments already published, this group comprises laboratory supplies, 
chemicals, drugs, pharmaceutical preparations, artificial textiles, 
paints, pigments, dye stuffs, rubber goods and pyrotechnics. 

In addition to this there will also be an interesting outdoor 
exhibit of growing medicinal plants, made by the Bureau of Plant 
Industry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. This exhibit will 
be under the personal supervision of Dr. Rodney H. True, the 
Physiologist to the Department of Agriculture, and will comprise 
growing specimens of a very large number of medicinal plants. In 
addition to the plants actually under cultivation the Bureau of Plant 
Industry will also have an indoor exhibit in which different parts 
of plants, properly dried and prepared, will be shown. 

Weeds Used in Medicine is the title of a " Farmers' Bulletin " 
recently issued for gratuitous distribution by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 

The object of this particular publication is to instruct farmers and 
others that may be interested how to gather^and prepare a number 
of the more common weeds that are used as medicines. 

The Bulletin contains 31 illustrations of the weeds described and 
may be had on application to the Secretary of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The History of the Paris School of Pharmacy has been prepared 
and is now in course of publication. It is being issued to commem- 
orate the centennial celebration or the founding of the school and 
is to be quite an elaborate publication. It is to contain biographies 
of the several professors that have been connected with the school 
since 1803, also a history of the origin and progress of the school 
since its inception. 

A Histoiy of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, by Wilbur L. 
Scoville, is to be found in the second number of the Journal of the 
Association of the Alumni of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy 
,(March, 1904, page 6). From this sketch it appears that the Massa- 



288 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



chusetts College of Pharmacy is one of the oldest pharmaceutical 
associations in the United States, being organized in 1823, or about 
two years after the founding of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. As a teaching institution, however, or as an incorporated 
society it only dates to 1852, the regular courses of lectures were 
not commenced until 1866, while the date of the first graduation is 
given as 1869. 

The Affiliation of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York 
with Columbia University (A. J. P., 1904, page 191), has been most 
liberally commented on in a number of pharmaceutical as well as 
medical journals. With but few exceptions, the consensus of opinion 
appears to be that it has been a step in the right direction and that 
it bodes well to place pharmacy in this country on a much higher 
plane than that occupied by it at the present time. That this par- 
ticular move was quite in keeping with the spirit of the times is 
evident from the proposed scheme to merge the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology with Harvard University, with a view of 
increasing the efficiency of the two institutions. 

This evident tendency to bring technical teaching more closely 
in contact with, or to make it a part of the curriculum in the larger 
universities, will and must increase the demands made on the various 
schools for a more thorough education and training, and this in turn 
will of itself insure a marked improvement in the social condition 
of the persons engaged in these particular lines. 

The Physiological Standardization of Drugs , particularly of digi- 
talis, has been criticised by several German investigators recently. 
Among others C. Focke, of Diisseldorf [Arch. d. Phar. t 1904, page 
699), asserts that frogs caught at different seasons of the year will 
give variable results. To get correlating or absolutely reliable 
results it would be necessary to confine experiments to the summer 
season, as it has been found that frogs caught at this time of the 
year show the least variability. 

Adulterated Powdered Gentian. — H. S. Collins (Chem. and Drug., 
1904, page 404) reports meeting with several samples of powdered 
gentian which he found to be grossly adulterated. The general 
appearance, aroma and residual ash gave no ground for suspicion. 
In three samples examined the adulterant was powdered almond 
shells, and in two others pine wood and woody tissue, in addition to 
the almond shells. In this connection Collins calls attention to the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



289 



fact that too much reliance should not be placed on the physical 
appearance or on the residual ash, and suggests that the microscope 
offers the most reliable means for determining the genuineness or 
otherwise of powdered drugs. 

False Ipecacuanha. — W. Brandt (Apothek. Zeitg., 1904, page 
102) describes several roots that have been offered in Germany in 
place of true ipecac. The roots are said to be quite distinctive and 
not readily to be mistaken for Rio ipecac. The starch grains are 
comparatively large, and in many of the cells raphides of calcium 
oxalate are not only more numerous, but the needle-like crystals 
appear to be larger than in true ipecac. 

A False Scammony Root. — Harold Dean (Phar. Jour., 1904, page 
327) says that the root of Ipomoea Orizabensis (Ledan),also known 
as " woody jalap " or " male jalap," has recently appeared on the 
market in considerable quantities. It is said to yield from 12 to 18 
per cent, of a resin closely resembling, if not identical with, the 
resin of scammony. 

This root is supposed to be the source of much of the " commer- 
cial scammony resin " that is being sold in England at the present 
time. As true scammony root only yields from 5 to 6 per cent, of 
resin, the preference of manufacturers for the root of Ipomoea Oriza- 
bensis is readily explained. 

Spurious Virginia Prune Bark. — At a recent meeting of the Phar- 
maceutical Society, London {Phar. Jour., 1904, page 360), Horace 
Finnemore, pharmacist to Guy's Hospital, London, called attention 
to a sample of wild cherry bark that had come to the pharmacy of 
the hospital in the ordinary course of business, which when 
moistened with water did not develop the odor of benzaldehyde. 

Examination under the microscope showed it to be devoid of the 
characteristic stone cells found in Prunus Serotina, but to have nu- 
merous crystals of calcium oxalate, in stellate masses, and scleren- 
chymatous fibres. 

These fibres appear to be characteristic of the bark. Mr. Finne- 
more, while not able to definitely decide on the botanical origin of 
the spurious bark, suggests that it has many points in common with 
that obtained from Prunus Avium. 

The present status of our knowledge of strophanthus seeds was 
carefully reviewed by several writers in a recent number of the 
" Berichte der Deutschen Pharmaceutischen Gesellschaft." E. 



290 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Gillig believes that the most desirable seed available at the present 
time is that of Strophanthus Gratus (Wal. and Hook.). Strophan- 
tus Gratus contains a glucoside that is readily crystallized. This has 
been designated gratus strophanthin by Thorns, who believes it to 
rnve high therapeutic value. It has the following chemical compo- 
sition: C 30 H 4 O 12 qHjjq. Gratus strophanthin is soluble in 100 parts 
of water at ordinary temperatures, more readily soluble in alcohol 
and amyl-alcohol ; it is but slightly soluble in ether, chloroform and 
acetic ether. 

Mydriatic Alkaloid in Lactuca Virosa. — Messrs. E. H. Farr and R. 
Wright at a recent meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain contributed an account of a careful investigation into the 
controversy on the existence of a mydriatic alkaloid in Lactuca 
Virosa. The results of a careful investigation appear to confirm 
Dymond's assertions that Lactuca Virosa contains a mydriatic alka- 
loid in demonstrable quantities. (See A. J. P., 1892, page 46) 

The Distribution of Alkaloids in Conium Maculatum, was the sub- 
ject of another very interesting paper, presented by Messrs. Farr 
and Wright, at a recent meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society. 
{Chem. and Drug., 1904, page 266.) 

They demonstrate that the development of the alkaloid is closely 
associated with the development of the fruit. 

The amount of alkaloid found varied from 0*03 1 per cent, in the 
leaves of young plants to 0-975 P er cent, in the green fruit of plants 
having reached their full growth. 

The results obtained by the writers of this paper would appear to 
favor the continued use of conium seed in preference to any other 
portion of the plant. 

Fetron. — This is the name given by the manufacturers to a new 
ointment base that is said to combine many of the qualities of lanolin 
and vaseline, facilitating absorption while at the same time providing 
an efficient protective covering. 

Fetron is a solution of stearic acid anilide in vaseline. The former, 
a white crystalline substance, melting at 93 C, and formed by 
heating anilide with stearic acid. Stearic anilide offers great resist- 
ance to chemical reagents, being unaffected by boiling with caustic 
alkalies, and passing through the human system unchanged. It may 
be mixed with a great diversity of medicaments without influencing 
their action or exerting any of its own and does not become rancid 
or decompose on exposure. 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. \ 
June, 1904. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



291 



Stearic anilide is soluble in ether, alcohol, chloroform, benzine, 
benzol and carbon disulphide. [Apothek. Zeitg., 1904, page 234.) 

A Differential Test for Phenacetin and Acetaniliei is given by Et. 
Barral (Jour, de Phar. et de Chemie, 1904, page 237), as follows: 

A solution of phosphomolybdic acid added to an aqueous solution 
of acetanilid gives a yellow precipitate, which does not dissolve on 
heating. The same reagent added to a solution of acetanilid gives 
a bright yellow precipitate, which is readily dissolved again on 
heating. 

Mandelin's reagent — ammonium vanadate, 1 ; sulphuric acid, 200 
— produces a bright red color in a solution of acetanilid that is 
rapidly changed to a greenish brown. In a solution of phenacetin 
the same reagent produces an olive-green color that on heating is 
changed to brown and ultimately black. 

The Inclusion and Occlusion of Solvent in Crystals has been investi- 
gated by Theodore William Richards {Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, T903, 
page 28), 'who advances this as one of the most frequent as well as 
one of the most insidious sources of error in quantitative chemical 
investigations. 

Mr. Richards recounts several experiments that would appear to 
indicate the prevalence and magnitude of the possible inaccuracy 
from the unexpected included mother liquor and also demonstrate 
the difficulty of eliminating the mother liquor by ordinary means. 
This occluded solvent is distinct from the water of crystallization 
and is even more difficult to eliminate than the latter* 

It is for this reason that Mr. Richards believes it to be practically 
impossible to determine with the exactness demanded in the most 
accurate work, the true weight of any salt containing water of 
crystallization. 

The N-rays discovered by a French physicist, M. Blondlot, 
nearly a year ago, have been attracting considerable attention dur- 
ing the past few months. This is largely due to the work that has 
been done in France by Charpentier, Blondlot and others. 

N-rays appear to be a form of radiation quite distinct from the 
Roentgen, or X-rays ; they do not affect photographic plates 
directly, but do have the property of increasing the luminosity of 
phosphorescent bodies, like sulphid of calcium. 

The sources of N-rays are numerous and new ones are constantly 
being discovered. It has been found that they are emitted by a 



292 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
June. 1904. 



number of sources of artificial light, also by a vacuum or X-ray tube 
in action. 

Charpentier has demonstrated that the human body is a constant 
and varying source of N-rays, depending apparently on the 
activity of the tissues composing the particular part under observa- 
tion. 

The Constitution of Epinephrin. — According to Dr. H. A. D. 
Jowett, it is now generally considered that the Epinephrin of Abel, 
Suprarenin of Furth and the Adrenalin of Takamine are in reality 
more or less pure forms of the same constituent ; a catechol deriva- 
tive with possibly a hydrogenized pyrrhol nucleus. 

His investigations of this material have led him to agree with 
Aldrich that it has the composition C 9 H 13 N.0 3 . (Client, and Drug., 
1904, page 276.) 

A Danger of Adrenalin. — Neugebauer [Am. Med. f 1904, page 762, 
from Centbl. f. Phar.) reports that he has seen several cases of local- 
ized gangrene following the use of solutions to which adrenalin had 
been added, for the infiltration-method of local anaesthesia. 

Elderly persons were especially liable to this, and he therefore 
cautions against the use of adrenalin in old people. 

Bactericidal Powers of Alcohols. — G. Wirgin (Zeit. f. Byg., 1904, 
page 149, through Brit, and Col. Drug., 1904, page 351), from a 
large number of experiments that he has made, concludes that the 
disinfecting power of an alcohol rises with its molecular weight. 
Tertiary alcohols, however, are weaker than primary or secondary 
alcohols of the same series. The strength of an aqueous solution 
which acts most powerfully is, for methyl alcohol, 60 to 70 per cent.; 
ethyl alcohol, 60 per cent.; propyl alcohol 30 per cent., and for 
the higher alcohols the saturated solutions. 

Upon dry germs absolute alcohols are practically without action, 
and the same is true of the higher concentrations of water soluble 
alcohols. 

Alcohol from Faces. — The wide publication that was given to the 
proposition that it was possible to obtain alcohol from the destruc- 
tive distillation of faecal matter has apparently led to a more or 
less widespread misconception of the commercial practicability of 
the scheme. While it has been asserted that as much as 7 or 
even 9 per cent, of alcohol has been obtained from faecal matter, 
these statements have so far at least not been duplicated by repu- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June, 1904. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



293 



table chemists. The best that has been done to the present time 
is not more than one-tenth the amount claimed by the original 
projectors. (Phar. Jour., 1904, page 466.) 

The Production of Oil of Rose in Bulgaria. — An interesting article 
on the rose-oil industry in Bulgaria has recently been published in 
the Pharmaceutische Post, Vienna (1904, page 77). 

The oil of rose of the ancients, referred to by Dioscorides in his 
Materia Medica, was produced by macerating rose leaves in olive 
oil. In this shape the perfumers used it for many centuries. The 
distillation of rose leaves was probably first introduced about the 
eighth century, and it was not until the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury that the minute oil globules that occasionally appeared on 
the surface of rose water were collected and used. 

In Bulgaria the centre of the rose industry is found in Kazanlik, 
Nova-Zagora and Tchirpan. This region is about 400 meters above 
the sea level, and has a range of temperature of 55 to 60 degrees 
centigrade. By far the greater number of Bulgarian distillers use 
Rosa Damascena Miller, beginning to gather the flowers about the 
middle of May and continuing for about one month. 

It requires 3,000 kilograms of rose petals to produce one kilo of 
the oil. The crop in 1903, the largest for thirty years, was 6,260 
kilograms, in place of 3,900 kilograms in 1902, and 3,200 kilograms 
in 1901. 

Formation of Terpene compounds in chlorophyl containing organs. 
— E. Charabot and A. Hebert have found that the systematic and 
complete removal ot the inflorescences from growing peppermint 
plants brings about a marked increase of the stem and green parts, 
and a corresponding increase in the percentage yield and absolute 
weight of oil obtained on distillation. 

Light has a marked influence on the secretion of essential oil, 
more being formed in those parts freely exposed to its influences 
than in those which are shaded. (Phar. your., 1 904, page 466, 
from Compt. Rend.) 

Oil of Cassia. — Schimmel & Co., in their Bericht for April, 1904, 
state that they have on several occasions recently observed that 
samples of oil of cassia sent them for examination had been adul- 
terated with colophony (rosin). 

The adulterated oils leave a greater residue on distillation, and 
also give a decided precipitate when treated with a saturated alco- 
holic solution of acetate of lead. 



294 Some Recent Literature. { Am '/u n U e;im rm ' 

Anethol. — According to the recent Bericht of Schimmel & Co., the 
use of anethol is rapidly displacing that of oil of anise. This is, of 
course, due to the fact that the slight difference in price is more 
than compensated for by the 10 per cent, of other and usually use- 
less constituents that are present in commercial oil of anise in 
addition to the anethol. 



SOME RECENT LITERATURE. 

AN ATTEMPT AT A CHEMICAL CONCEPTION OF THE UNIVERSAL ETHER. 

D. J. Mendeleeff, the celebrated author of the " Periodic System 
of the Elements," has published some speculations in regard to the 
ether. 

From a realistic standpoint it is inevitable that weight and chem- 
ical individuality should be ascribed to the ether. It must be a 
distinct chemical substance so light that it can escape the attraction 
of the fixed stars by the swiftness of the motion of its molecules ;. 
it can have no chemical affinity ; its power of diffusion must be so 
great that it can penetrate all bodies, and thus elude being weighed, 
although it actually possesses a very minute weight. It can be 
assumed to be an inactive gas of the argon-helium series with very 
small atomic weight. By means of interpolation the author has 
predicted new elements (scandium, gallium, and germanium), and 
he ventures to make ^mpolations below helium. In the place 
before hydrogen he assumes the existence of an inactive element,, 
which possibly is identical with coronium, with an atomic weight 
estimated at about 4. The ether must have a still smaller atomic 
weight, the value of which, < 0-17, on account of the double extra- 
polation, is very uncertain. For the ether as an element the author 
proposes preliminarily the name Newtonium. He calculates also,, 
that, in order that it might escape from the largest bodies of the 
universe, the atomic weight of the ether might necessarily be as 
small as one-millionth of that of hydrogen. 

The author gives, in addition, a realistic explanation of radio- 
activity by supposing that the radio-active elements (U, Th, Ra), on 
account of their abnormally high atomic weights, are capable of 
holding a relatively large number of the ether atoms about their 
large centres of mass, without combining with them chemically, and 
that the arrival and departure of the ether molecules is accompanied 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1904. 



Some Recent Literature. 



295 



by disturbances in the ethereal medium which produce the rays of 
light.^-From an abstract in Chem. Centralblatt (1904, i, 137), through 
Am. Jour. Set., March, 1904, page 243. 



A NEW METRIC MEDICINE GLASS. 

After considerable discussion as to the feasibility of making a 
moulded, conical glass that would be sufficiently inexpensive to be 
used as a medicine glass, and after submitting several models and 
offering a number of suggestions, M. I. Wilbert (Amer. Med. f May 
7, 1904, p. 735) was finally successful in inducing one of the large 
manufacturers of hollow ware to undertake and make for him a 
moulded glass that would conform to his ideas and requirements. 

The resulting medicine measure, a picture of which is appended, 
is of inverted cone-shape, with a heavy base or foot. It is 75 mm. 
high, over all, and has an inner diameter of 50 mm. at the lip, while 
at the base the inner diameter is but 10 mm. At the i-teaspoonful 
mark, which is 25 mm. above the bottom, the inner diameter of the 
glass is about 20 mm., while at the 2-teaspoonful mark, 35 mm. 
above the bottom, the diameter is but little more than 27 mm. 

Specimens of this medicine glass shown at the meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association at Mackinac Island (August, 
1903) were favorably commented on by a number of the members. 

As will be noted, this glass conforms to one of the most reasonable 
requirements for measures of capacity, and one that should be insisted 
on for all measures intended for liquids, namely, 
that the height of the contained liquid at any 
given graduation, should be greater than its 
diameter. 

The evident advantages possessed by a gradu- 
ated conical glass, to measure differing quantities 
of liquid, are so apparent that it is surprising 
indeed that this particular shape has not been 
suggested or used before as a popular dose 
measure. 

In actual practice these glasses have proved 
to be even more satisfactory than was at first 
expected. In addition to being infinitely more accurate as dose 
measures, particularly for the I- and 2-teaspoonful quantities, they 
also facilitate the administration of doses of liquid medicines. This 




METRIC MEDICINE 
GLASS. 



296 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { Am ju O ne?i904 arm ' 

latter is due to the fact that the short sloping sides of the glass 
make it possible to bring the edge of the glass to the lips of the 
patient without slopping or spilling any of the contained liquid, 
while the comparatively wide mouth of the glass facilitates drinking 
from it. In addition to this the glass has no sharp corners and is 
therefore very readily cleaned and easily kept clean. 

The most surprising advantage, however, is the durability that 
the glass has been demonstrated to possess. This particular shape 
has been in use at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, for nearly a 
year, and during that time, despite the fact that there has been a 
decided increase in the number of patients treated, they have broken 
less than one-half the number of medicine glasses that were used 
for a similar period of the previous year. This is all the more sur- 
prising as it had been argued that a glass having a foot like a goblet, 
would necessarily be more fragile than one having straight sides. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Pharmaceutical Formulas, being a supplementary volume com- 
prising a consolidation of the Medicine-stamp Acts (with historical 
notes) ; formulas for known, admitted, and approved remedies ; an 
Australian Hospitals Formulary ; and many other recipes. Pub- 
lished at the offices of The Chemist and Druggist, 142 Cannon 
Street, London, E. C. Branch offices : Adelaide, Melbourne and 
Sydney, Australia. 1904. 

In an editorial note it is stated that " the publication of this sup- 
plementary volume of ' Pharmaceutical Formulas' is necessitated by 
changes in the administration of the Medicine-stamp Acts, conse- 
quent upon judicial decisions whereby medicines which are sold 
under names referring to ailments of the human body become 
dutiable on and after March 31, 1904; but if such medicines are 
sold by registered chemists as ' known, admitted and approved ' 
remedies they are exempt from stamp duty." The Board of Inland 
Revenues has wisely exempted the formulas published in the British 
Pharmacopoeia and other well known books of reference. The 
subscribers of the The Chemist and Druggist were invited to con- 
tribute their formulae for publication in the present volume and all 
those received up to the end of 1903 are included. 

" Each important chapter is prefaced by remarks which indicate 



Am ju°n u e?i904 arm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 297 

the nature of the contents, especially in respect to liability to duty 
or otherwise. As the primary object of the volume is legal rather 
than pharmaceutical, there is more variety in the formulas than the 
writer of a book of formulas would ever dream of presenting, but 
the collection has the great merit of representing the actual working 
formulas of those who have been selling the preparations." 

The book contains chapters on the following subjects : The medi- 
cine-stamp Acts; Australian formulas; preparations with ailment 
names (abscess-croup) ; preparations for coughs, indigestion, neural- 
gia, toothache ; preparations with body-names, with descriptive 
titles ; galenical preparations ; miscellaneous preparations ; prepara- 
tions chiefly for the toilet ; unclassified formulas ; etc. A good 
index completes the volume. The book is very interesting in pre- 
senting, as has already been stated, actual working formulas. Care 
must be exercised in the practical use of the book, as some of the 
formulae can be improved. The book is also valuable from a 
historical point of view, containing, as it does, without any editing 
the formulae sent in by the subscribers of The Chemist and Druggist. 

Universite de Paris. Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie. Theses 
for obtaining the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy of the University 
of Paris during 1 903- 1 904: 

"Histologic Comparee des Gelsemiees et Spigeliees," by Edmond 
Morelle. An illustrated monograph on the comparative histology 
of gelsemium and spigelia and other members of the Loganiaceae. 

" Contribution a l'Etude de la Presure chez les Vegetaux," by 
Maurice Javillier. A thesis on the rennet-like ferments found in 
plants. 

" Action de l'Eau sur la Secretion Urinaire," by Henri-Joseph 
Bretet. A thesis on the influence of water on the character of the 
urine. 

"Dosage de l'Azote Nitrique," by Leon Debourdeaux. The 
author gives, as a result of his work on the determination of nitric 
acid, a modification of the method of Pelouze-Fresenius. 

" Des Bacteries Denitrifiantes," by Augustin-Francois-Alexis 
Boutron. A monograph in the denitrifying bacteria, giving morpho- 
logical data, character of cultures and biochemical character. 

" Contribution a l'Etude des Fluorures," by Paul-Edouard 
Defacqz. A study of the fluo-chlorides, fluo-bromides and fluo- 
iodides of the alkaline earth metals. 



298 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { Am 'j u O ne"i904 arm ' 

" Essais sur les Chromites de la Serie Magnesienne," by Abel- 
Auguste-Marie Esnault. An essay on the chromites of magnesium, 
manganese, iron, metal and cobalt. H. K. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at 
the fifty-first annual meeting held at Mackinac Island, Mich., Au- 
gust, 1903. Also the constitution, by-laws and roll of members. 
Baltimore, 1 903. 

This, the fifty-first annual volume of the proceedings of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, has finally been distributed 
to the members. It contains as a frontispiece a very creditable half- 
tone portrait of the late George Washington Kennedy, who for 
many years was the secretary of the Council of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, and was also the secretary of the committee 
of the Council on membership. 

While this volume does not differ materially in style and general 
make-up from any of the volumes that, have preceded it for a 
decade or more, it nevertheless fully maintains the standard that has 
been established by these annual volumes for the variety and inter- 
esting nature of their contents. 

This particular volume, like those immediately preceding, is rather 
a ponderous one, containing, as it does, upward of 1,100 pages of 
printed matter. Of these, 567 pages are devoted to the minutes of 
the proceedings at the Mackinac meeting, and 423 pages are taken 
up by the report on the progress of pharmacy. The whole volume 
is covered by an index that takes up 17 double-column pages, com- 
prising upwards of 1,250 references. 

Altogether it may be said that this latest volume of the proceed- 
ings constitutes an almost inexhaustible mine of pharmaceutical 
information, and that it is practically indispensable to the pharma- 
cist that wishes to keep well informed, or to remain in touch with 
the progress that is being made in his particular line. 

Despite the many excellent features that are embodied by these 
annual volumes, there are several rather serious objections that can 
be made to the book as published at the present time. The first of 
these is the unnecessary and unusually undue delay in publication. 
This is a fault that has been called attention to repeatedly, and is 
one that should be remedied, if the proceedings are to be of the 
greatest possible interest and value to the members of the Associa- 
tion. 



AOT 'j J u°riTi904 arm '} Obituaries — Pharmaceutical Meeting. 299 

The second objection that might rightfully be advanced is the 
very conservative use of the editorial blue pencil. 

The volume before us contains page after page of matter that 
could very well have been omitted, as it does not furnish interesting 
reading, nor does it add in any way to the value of the remaining 
material. In this connection a very large amount of the, at times, 
verbose discussions might very well have been omitted entirely, or, 
if included, instead of being given verbatim and in detail, would be 
of much greater interest, and more likely to be considered, if given 
in abstract. 

The third objection, and again a serious one, in connection with 
a volume that is intended to be used as a reference book, is the 
sparseness of the index, although here there appears to be a decided 
improvement over the index in the volume immediately preceding. 

These several shortcomings are, of course, inherent, and can only 
be remedied if the several members of the Association, recognizing 
that they exist, demand the necessary changes. 

Apart from these and similar shortcomings, that are really mere 
secondary and detail matters of opinion, the volume now before us 
is one that should be found in every up-to-date pharmacy, and is, 
taken all in all, the strongest argument that could possibly be 
offered for a pharmacist to seek membership in the American Phar- 
maceutical Association. M. I. W. 



OBITUARIES. 

Dr. Alois Philipp Hellman, the founder of the Pharmaceutische 
Post, Vienna ; also one of the founders of the Austrian Pharmaceu- 
tical Association, died May 29, 1903, in his sixty-third year. 

August Garcke, the oldest, and probably the best-known, Ger- 
man botanist ; Professor of Botany at the University of Berlin, died 
January 10, 1904, in his eighty-fifth year. 

Professor Garcke was born October 25, 18 19; his "Flora of 
Germany " is a well-known and frequently-quoted handbook. 

M. I. W. 

PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 
The last of the present series of pharmaceutical meetings of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held on Tuesday afternoon, 
May 17th, Mr. Walter A. Rumsey, a member of the Board of 
Trustees, presiding. 



300 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am Ap?n r ;i9w ar,B " 

Mr. Eugene Ross, traveling representative of the manufacturing 
firm of Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, N. J., was the first 
speaker introduced and gave a most interesting address, entitled 
" A Pharmacist's Impression of the Orient," which will be published 
in a later issue of this Journal, and exhibited in this connection 
some very valuable and interesting Japanese and Chinese souvenirs. 
Mr. Ross said that in Japan physicians dispense their own medicines 
and that there are no pharmacies proper. There are, however, 
numerous places for the sale of patent medicines, but nothing con- 
taining poisons is allowed to be sold by their proprietors. Chemists 
occupy a more responsible position, being licensed by the Govern- 
ment to examine all chemicals and medicines brought into the 
country, and to receive the revenue therefrom. In addition whole, 
sale druggists in Japan must submit samples of their products to 
the Government for analysis, after which the chemists' stamps are 
placed upon the articles examined. If, however, the chemicals or 
medicines should not be found to be up to the standard, the chemist 
is fined from I to 10 yen ($1 to $10) for his failure to report correctly 
on the samples submitted. Thus, as a matter of fact, very pure 
chemicals are sold in Japan. 

Mr. Ross further said that pharmacy in Japan dates back nineteen 
years, when the first Japanese Pharmacopoeia was published. This 
work was modelled after the German Pharmacopoeia. In addition 
all chemicals used to be obtained from Germany. The German 
influence is still strong, but the Japanese Government is becoming 
more liberal, and they are now looking to America and other coun- 
tries for example. Some of their methods are so arbitrary, how- 
ever, that it is predicted that in five years there will not be a foreign 
chemist in the country. 

With regard to China, Mr. Ross said that it was very difficult to 
learn much about either pharmacy or medicine there. The medi- 
cines are mostly put up in wax and bear a seal upon the outside, 
which latter custom seems to prevail everywhere in the East. As 
is well known ginseng is largely used and is said to be in almost 
every preparation used. 

Mr. Ross also visited the English colonies in South Africa, and 
said that there is a very great difference between Japan and these 
countries in pharmaceutical practice. The stores are very modern 
and carry a large stock ; the physicians write prescriptions and 
these are put up by pharmacists or chemists who are well educa ed. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
June, 1904. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



301 



In the discussion of his address Mr. Ross said, in reply to a ques- 
tion by Professor Sadtler, that the metric system is used abroad 
altogether, and that the goods made by his firm for the Eastern 
market are put up in metric quantities. 

Commenting upon trade conditions in the East, Mr. Ross said that 
he had visited the countries all the way from South Africa to Japan, 
and had found American goods to be the best in the Eastern market 
and everywhere in demand. In addition he said that our trade with 
the Orient had quadrpuled within the last fouryears. 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Chairman of the U.S. P. Revision Com- 
mittee, rea^j a paper giving some of the salient features of " The 
Forthcoming Pharmacopoeia" (see page 253). It was stated that 
the work is now being printed, and that it will in all probability be 
ready in October. Professor Remington also said that for the first 
time in the history of pharmacopceial revision in the United States 
the work is being revised under the control of a chartered organiza- 
tion. Probably one of the most conspicuous changes in the new 
book will be the introduction of doses. 

Replying to a question by Dr. Lowe, Professor Remington said 
that the 1890 U.S. Pharmacopoeia went into effect ninety days after 
it was issued, and that the new edition would probably be made 
effective in January, 1905. He said that it was important to have 
the date when the edition becomes authoritative stated on the title 
page. 

Mr. Samuel R. Kennedy, a condensed-milk manufactuturer of 
Philadelphia, read a paper on the " Condensed Milks of Commerce," 
in which he showed that the quality of condensed milk depends very 
largely on the quality of the cow's milk used in its manufacture, and 
said that in order to secure milk of the proper quality the con- 
densed-milk manufacturers make contracts with dairymen stipulat- 
ing the care which they shall exercise, not only with regard to 
cleanliness, but also as to the kind of food which they shall give the 
cows. Speaking of the uses of condensed milk, Mr. Kennedy said 
that it forms a body for many food-products, it being a constituent of 1 
nearly all kinds of candy. Owing to the perishable nature of cow's 
milk, nearly all restaurants use condensed milk, which is diluted 
with fresh milk. Another advantage which this milk has is its 
property of curing bad coffee, or coffee that has stood for some 
time. 



302 Pharmaceutical M&eiing. { Am /june?im rm 

In reply to a question by Mr. Joseph' W: Enfffand as to the use 
of preservatives in evaporated cream, Mr. Kennedy stated that in 
the case of plain heavy condensed milk the cane sugar which is 
added owes its antiseptic properties in all probability to the bisul- 
phite of calcium which it contains, and that in evaporated cream 
nothing was added. He further stated that albumen was coagulated 
at 1 57° and casein at i8o°. 

Melvin W. Bamford, P.D., read a paper on the " Nomenclature 
of the Glycerophosphate Preparations," and offered a resolution 
recommending that an effort be made to secure greater uniformity 
in the strength and nomenclature of these preparations. (See page 
277.) The resolution was seconded by Professor Kraemer, who sug- 
gested that copies of the same be sent to the Committee on National 
Formulary, to the Committee of Revision of the U. S. Pharmaco- 
poeia, and to the American Medical Association, after which it was 
adopted by the members present. 

" A Quarterly Report on Progress in Pharmacy," by M. I. Wil- 
bert, Ph.M., was read by title owing to the lateness of the hour. 
(See page 286,) 

Professor Kraemer called attention to some authentic specimens 
of Pilocarpus leaves sent by Dr. Frederick B. Power, Director of the 
Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories, London, as follows : 
Pilocarpus Jaborandi Holmes (Jaborandi Folia, B. P.); P. micto- 
phyllus Stapf (Maranham Jaborandi) ; P. racemosus Vahl (Guada- 
loupe Jaborandi); P. pennatifolius Lem. (Paraguay Jaborandi); P. 
spica us A. St. Hil. (?) (Aracati Jaborandi) ; and also False Maran- 
ham Jaborandi (? Sivartzia decipiens Holmes) and Piper Jaborandi 
Veil. 

Attention was also directed to a number of specimens of vegetable 
origin collected by Jacob S. Beetem in Jamaica. They were as 
follows: Cacao pods, coffee berries, bay leaves, Ceylon cinnamon 
leaves, gamboge, lace bark, fruit of Mucuna pruriens (cowhage), 
seeds of Abrus precatorius, and some seeds and fruit known to the 
natives as ''stinking foe," "Job's tears," "soap berries," "John 
crows," " woman's tongue," and " baby's tongue." 

On motion of Joseph W. England a vote of thanks was tendered 
those who contributed to the interest and value of the meeting. 

Henry Kraemer, Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, i go 4. 



ROSENGARTEN & SONS. 
By William McIntyre. 

The manufacturing business of the firm of Rosengarten & Sons 
was established in 1822. The original partners were Seitler and 
Zeitler; the former a Swiss from one of the French Cantons, the 
latter a German from Wurzburg. 

George D. Rosengarten was at that time engaged in the wool 
business, and being a competent accountant, and having the confi- 
dence of this chemical firm, was engaged to settle the accounts. 
Being conversant with the French language as well as his native 
German, he was able to do this to their evident satisfaction. 

On December 1, 1823, ne became a partner of Carl Zeitler under 
the firm name of Zeitler & Rosengarten. From this time on nearly 
all the books of this firm and its various successors are still in a 
state of preservation, and the history can be followed with some 
exactness. 

Quinine Sulphate, Sulphuric Ether, Spirit of Nitre, Aqua Am- 
moniac, Acetic Ether and Hoffman's anodyne were made at this time. 

The first sale of Quinine by the firm of Zeitler & Rosengarten was 
made in December, 1 823. 

On October 13, 1824, Carl Zeitler withdrew, and the receipt 
showing that his interest was bought by Geo. D. Rosengarten still 
exists. From this time the business gradually increased, and later 
his cousins, Samuel and Hermann Rosengarten were employed. 

In 1832 Morphine Sulphate and Acetate were manufactured, the 
opium being bought from the local wholesale druggists. 

(303) 



304 



Rosengarten & Sons. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



Piperine was made in 1833; Mercurials and Strychnine in 1834. 
Veratrine had considerable sale, and was made in 1835 ; and Iodide 
of Lead, Deuto and Protoiodide of Mercury, Iodide of Iron and Iodide 
of Sulphur; Codeia, Bismuth and Silver salts were made in 1836. 

On February 15, 1836, the firm name became Geo. D. & S. 
Rosengarten, but this only lasted until March 10th of the same year. 

In 1835 N. F. H. Denis, a young Frenchman, a pupil of the great 
chemist Robiquet, was employed as chemist, and on January 1, 
1840, became a partner, the name of the firm becoming Rosengar- 
ten & Denis, and continued as such until 1853, when Mr. Denis 
withdrew. 

Samuel G. and Mitchell G., sons of G. D. Rosengarten, were 
then admitted to partnership, and the firm name changed to 
Rosengarten & Sons. 

In i860 H. B. Rosengarten and Adolph G. were admitted to part- 
nership. The latter enlisted in the 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry 
(Anderson Troop), rose to the rank of Major U. S. V., and was 
killed in a cavalry charge at the battle of Murfreesboro, Tenn., 
on the 29th of December, 1863, on the twenty-fourth anniversary of 
his birth. 

George D. Rosengarten retired from business in 1879, after fifty- 
six years of active business life. He was a director of the Mechan- 
ics Bank for more than fifty years, and of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
for a number of years ; upon his retirement from business he declined 
re-election to the boards of both of these corporations. He died 
March 18, 1890, at the age of eighty-nine. 

Frank H. Rosengarten was admitted to the firm in 1879. Mitchell 

G. died in 1898, and Samuel G. and Frank H. Rosengarten retired 
from the business the same year. The firm was then continued by 

H. B. Rosengarten and his sons, George D. and Adolph G. 

In 1 90 1 the business was incorporated under the laws of the State 
of Pennsylvania, with the title of Rosengarten & Sons, Incorporated. 

H. B. Rosengarten is president, George D. vice-president, and 
Adolph G. secretary and treasurer, who, together with Joseph G., 
Jr., and Frederic Rosengarten, constitute the board of directors, all 
of whom take an active part in the management of the business. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



305 



PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 
By Carl G. Hinrichs, Ph.C. 
[. GENERAL SURVEY. 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition can safely be said to be the 
largest World's Fair ever held. As to grounds and as to space cov- 
ered by buildings, it exceeds Chicago and Paris. Exhibitors have 
spared neither time nor expense to make their exhibits interesting 
and attractive. Especially in the mining and machinery divisions 
has an attempt been made to show motion exhibits ; thus what 
would attract the specialist only, becomes of interest to the average 
sightseer. Processes of various manufactures are shown in actual 
operation. In the pharmaceutical and chemical arts, however, pro- 
cesses are mainly indicated by the products formed in the successive 
steps, taken in the course of manufacture to the finished chemical. 

If one comes to the Fair with the expectation of finding the 
chemical and pharmaceutical exhibits collected in the Liberal Arts 
Building, as the Fair management's classification states, he will be 
disappointed. Subjects of pharmaceutical interest are to be found 
everywhere, every building shows some products of the soil or of 
man's handiwork that are distinctly pharmaceutical. 

How closely the leading exhibitors have adhered to the general 
classifications may be indicated by taking the case of the magnifi- 
cent display made by the German chemical industry. You would 
hardly expect to find this display in the Electricity Building. The 
connection between articles of common chemical manufacture, of 
technical and analytical furniture, glassware, balances, optical instru- 
ments, porcelain goods and the various instruments of precision 
used by chemists, with electricity, is surprising to the chemists and 
pharmacists. But if you pass through the exhibit a small case, con- 
taining some 200 chemicals made with the current will be found, 
and here is then the ostensible reason that all of Germany's great 
chemical industry has been located in this building. Most of these 
articles the writer was informed can not be made at a profit by 
electrolysis, still they enabled the Germans to locate in the most 
prominent building on the grounds, and not in the Liberal Arts 
way back by the fence. 

As pharmacy draws upon the three kingdoms of nature for its 
first products, and works these up in various ways, we really find 



306 Pharmacy and Chemistry. {^jS^iS?™* 

something distinctly pharmaceutical wherever we may turn. This 
being the case, the writer thought it might be of interest to note 
those exhibits that are of more than passing interest to the profes- 
sion, and state where they may be found. 

Entering the Mines and Metallurgy Building, the mineral wealth 
upon which the manufacturer of our chemicals draws is shown. 
Many exhibits strikingly show the great resources of the several 
States in certain lines. Pennsylvania has a colliery in miniature 
working full blast. Alabama's celebrated iron is shown in a colos- 
sal statue of Vulcan, whose head touches the roof. Colorado has a 
small nugget of silver that the Vulcan might use as a watch 
charm, and Irom which a paltry $6,000 in silver coin could be 
made. Minnesota constructed a large geological model of its iron 
ore beds, together with the method of shipping the mined ore on 
the iron steamers. 

While a great many of the exhibiting States show a certain 
sameness in their exhibits, such as large blocks of coal, minerals, 
building stones and oil, others have bestowed much care on the 
arranging and collecting of their mineral wealth, and of these 
Colorado undoubtedly leads. 

Colorado shows a large circular case filled with native gold in the 
various forms as found in this State ; also several cases of native 
silver. Especially striking are the cases of finely crystallized ores, 
gems and minerals found associated with the ores in the gangue. 
Two cases of uranium ores from Montrose County, one filled with 
select specimens of pitchblende and the second with carnotite, in 
which radio-active substances have been found. Rich telluride ores 
have been sawed in two — one part subjected to roasting, the other 
not. From the roasted ore, gold in form of drops seems to have 
exuded from every pore, while the ore proper appears grayish to 
bluish black and gives no evidence of the riches hidden therein. 

On the shores of the Great Salt Lake large quantities of salt are 
produced by solar evaporation, and some beautiful strings of large 
cubical salt crystals are seen in Utah's collection. Gypsum usually 
occurs associated with salt, and some giant crystals, 3 feet in height, 
probably the largest ever unearthed, are exhibited by Utah, together 
with some of the celebrated Richardson radium ores. 

Near Tiffany's gem exhibit, in which is the remarkable violet- 
colored gem kunzite, that glows so strongly when exposed to radium 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
July, 1904. j 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



307 



emanations, we found Welsbach's exhibit of rare earths. Here is 
given ocular proof of the care necessary in defining an element. 
Didymium has long been considered an element, and you still find 
didymium salts quoted by large firms. Didymium nitrate is also 
here shown in a very large jar, and this salt has a fine rose color. 
Chemists have doubted that this salt contains more than one ele- 
mental substance; but, looking at the two products standing beside 
the large jar, their skepticism is changed to belief. For the Wels- 
bach Company shows a neodymium nitrate differing slightly from 
the rose-colored mother-salt, and a leaf-green nitrate of neodymium, 
both having been separated from the so-called didymium nitrate. 
To say an element " cannot be decomposed " had better be modified 
to " has not been decomposed," and we will always be nearer the 
truth. 

The bright-red banner of the rising sun is in this building, and 
everywhere you may go in this Fair it floats. Japan of all the 
foreign countries has the most complete exhibits next to Germany. 
It convinces us thoroughly of the great mineral wealth of the tight 
little islands. Of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, coal, 
sulphur and oil, Japan has abundance. The large stibnite crystals, 
over a foot in length, are always interesting, for much of the coarser 
grades of this antimony ore are liquated and sent to St. Louis to be 
converted into antimony salts. The reader may have often lifted a 
small portion of the Japanese Empire behind the counter, for this 
country is the richest in the world in antimony. 

Texas is here, and you should not miss the opportunity to take a 
look at the cinnabar ores of Brewster County, on the Rio Grande. 
This State will some day be a big producer of mercury; 1,000 
pounds of the metal is shown in an iron kettle ; a large cannon ball 
floating on the surface of the mercury convinces the public that 
mercury has a rather high specific gravity. 

Niagara Falls is represented by the various products made by the 
electric current. Artificial abrasive materials, as crystallized alumina, 
an artificial emery, with very little diluent, as iron oxide and sand, 
carborundum, a carbide of silicon, with the various grindstones, 
hones, etc., made from this artificial substitute for emery. A case 
of chemicals, such as caustic soda, bleaching powder, potassium 
chlorate, etc., of very high purity as made by electrolysis, will be of 
interest to the pharmacist. 



308 Pharmacy and Chemistry. { Am ju°iy?i9(M arm ' 

Drugs will be found in the Agriculture and Fish, Forestry and 
Game Buildings. 

The German section gives an idea as to how land is reclaimed, 
the effect of various fertilizers on like soil is shown by the products 
obtained. Peat and the products obtained by subjecting it to dry 
distillation are shown, such as acetic acid, methyl alcohol, paraffine, 
cresol oils and ammonium sulphate. 

German East Africa is tropical and abounds in drugs, such as 
gutta percha, rubber^ copal, vanilla, tamarinds, cacao, cocoanuts, 
sesame, cashew and betel nuts, archil and annatto, ginger and 
cinnamon. 

Italy evidently intends that it will, if possible, get in on the cam- 
phor proposition, for a wall case shows many nicely crystallized 
samples of camphor as prepared from trees of the Laurus Camphora 
grown under the direction of the experiment stations. 

France has mainly a wine, olive oil, mineral water and chocolate 
display. The associated colonies, Algiers, Reunion and Bourbon, 
show drugs. Algiers has evidently a bright future as a cork-pro- 
ducing State ; bales of the finest quality are shown. Bourbon has a 
small case of vanilla, bottles containing the bean are studded with 
vanillin sublimate and the delicate odor is noticed through the 
locked case. 

The Reunion Botanical Department has a tasty display of spices, 
benzoin bark used for tanning, and the peculiar jointed roots of the 
citronella. 

Great Britain and Colonies exhibit rubber made from the juices 
of many spurious rubber plants, products known as " hard Ashanti 
lump," "soft akim," "salt pond nigger," "white krepi ball," also 
genuine para biscuit rubber made from the Hevea trees. Nuts, 
shells and the commercial article, the kernel of the palm nut and the 
palm oil, are represented. 

Japan's breweries make a big show of the celebrated " soy ; " this 
is a sauce much used by the Japanese. The peculiar peppermint 
oil so rich in menthol, and menthol in crystals of several inches in 
length are very prominent. Various seed oils, as rape seed ; tea, 
tobacco, pepper, wax and honey, are of importance. 

Formosa, Japan's colony, is tropical and grows spices, such as 
ginger and turmeric. The camphor wood, a large pagoda of pressed 
camphor, trade packages of camphor and safrol make up the most 
interesting part of this exhibit. 



Am 7u°i"'i9oS* m '} Pharmacy and Chemistry. 309 

Ceylon is distinctly an isle of spice. Here are displayed thirty 
to forty different trade grades of cardamoms, also the seed and wild 
cardamom pods ; cloves, ginger, mace, the natural nutmegs that 
have neither been limed nor peeled, turmeric, Ceylon cinnamon in 
bales, cacao, betel nuts, cocoanuts, cinchona bark, etc. The lemon 
grass and yellow and greenish citronella oils of many native distillers 
are shown, also cocoanut oil. A hundred grades of tea, and last, 
but not least, the far-famed delicacy, birds' nests. This exhibit 
might properly be called a drug merchant's sample house. 

Porto Rico has the usual run of tropical produce, such as cacao, 
ginger (both the white and the yellow), tamarinds, cassia fistula, bay 
leaves, cocoanuts, rubber and annatto. 

Honduras exhibits a large trunk of the rubber tree, rubber, 
bundles of sarsaparilla, cascarilla, in fact, a whole division devoted 
to many strange drugs. 

Costa Rica displays fibres, woods, barks, fruits. Many bundles 
of india rubber, with a bottle of the latex, from which the rubber 
is obtained, make up a separate division. Many drugs, as cinchona, 
cassia fistula, pepper, ginger rhizomes, untreated and on the point 
of sprouting. Annato seeds in the bursting pod — imagine a jimp- 
son-weed burr flattened and you have some idea as to the shape of 
the annatto pod. The seeds are red in color, very angular and 
somewhat larger than a mustard seed. The annatto paste is also 
represented. 

The Fish, Forestry and Game Building is just north of the Agri- 
culture Building ; the dressed woods are most prominent, still the 
barks, roots, resins, etc., come in for their share of attention. 

Egyptian Soudan is the home of gum arabic and all qualities and 
forms of this drug are shown, also rubber, sesame and ivory tusks. 
Most interesting is a sample of common salt made from the saline 
earth found in the Soudan ; the color is grayish white. It comes in 
forms indicating that in the moist state the salt had been packed in 
horns. 

The Siamese evidently hold drugs of secondary importance ; sam- 
ples of gum benzoin, gamboge, dammar, unpeeled sticklac and india- 
rubber are placed high up in a dark case. 

Ceylon has a trader's case of tanning materials such as myrobalans 
and cashew nuts, acacia and cinnamon barks, rock alum ; also flour 
made from the sweet potato, plantain, cassava and tapioca. The 
deadly cobra is shown in the jungle scene. 



310 Pharmacy and Chemistry. { Am 'j J u °iy' i«5f ,rm *" 

Japan has a many-sided fish industry, the modes of fishing pur- 
sued, the smacks and products, make an interesting exhibit. Sev- 
eral dozen different kinds of fish oils such as herring, cod-liver, 
sperm, whale and sardine oils are made by the Japs. 

Venezuela, among a hundred odd drugs, shows copaiba oil, 
vanilla, asphalt, copal, kola, cusparia, divi-divi ; also the extract, 
cinchona and simaruba. A peculiar turtle oil that has a buttery 
consistency and color is among the oddities ; a root called " Flam- 
esco " is said to be used in syphilis. 

Brazil has a large collection of barks as used in the tanning of 
leather. The many barks, seeds, etc., used in that country for medi- 
cines, and to which not much attention is paid outside of that coun- 
try, are shown. 

Georgia, noted for several centuries as the home of naval stores, 
has a handsome exhibit in this line. The mode of tapping the pine, 
the tools used, the big copper stills, worms and containers em- 
ployed in the turpentine industry are instructive. A hundred trade- 
brands of resin, resin oils, spirits as used for various purposes are 
shown. 

In the Liberal Arts Building French, English and American 
chemical manufacturers are represented by elegant exhibits, many 
of which are characteristic. The production of finely crystallized 
and consequently very pure compounds is the rule. The industries 
represent all phases of the chemical technology. 

The South Metropolitan Gas Company, of London, S. W., shows 
the relative amounts of the various products obtained by the frac- 
tional distillation of gas tar. Such are benzol, toluol, cresols, naph- 
thalin, anthracene, pitch, etc. 

The British Cyanides Company exhibits beautifully crystallized 
and very transparent prussiate of soda ; this salt crystallizes some- 
what larger and has a somewhat paler tint than the corresponding 
potassium salt here also shown. 

R. & J. Garroway have an assortment of the sulphates : ferrous, 
soda, alumina ; also large blocks of sal ammoniac are shown. 

The tropical cocoanut is worked up by J. Crosfield & Sons, of 
Warrington, England, select samples of coprah beans, coprah hulls, 
butter, layers of the press cake sold as cattle food ; also the pre- 
pared edible butter colored yellow. 

Soda and sodium silicate as made by Loewig's process are shown. 



Am 7u°i""iFo4 arm '} Pharmacy and Chemistry. 311 

The silicate resembles broken glass fragments, having a bright sur- 
face and of a greenish to brownish color. 

Grove & Co. and Hill & Co. have a case showing sulphur, glycer- 
ine and ammonium carbonate. The ammonium carbonate is a very 
large chunk, and the separate glass receptacle is coated with a fine 
sublimate. 

The Brewer's Supplies are represented by Collet & Co. and Ken- 
dall & Sons ; these exhibit the sulphites such as the magnesium salt, 
butyric and valeric acids, the beer color sucrosan, etc. 

The United Alkali Works and Bruner, Mond & Co. show the 
alkali for which they are noted ; the celebrated Mond nickel goods 
are also here. 

Cordite explosive in long thin sticks, resembling very dark-colored 
Ceylon cinnamon, and the various form of shell used with this explo- 
sive, make an interesting case. Picric acid is one of the constitu- 
ents of this terrible explosive. 

That England is still on the map so far as the manufacture of 
artificial dyes from coal tar is concerned, is strikingly shown by the 
Levinstein Ltd. exhibit. These people have books of colored stuff, 
showing the value of dyes, also the dyes. A few bottles of Naph- 
thylamine labeled, 4,000,000 pounds annual production, nitro- 
naphthalin, 5,000,000 pounds, and other bottles with similar labels, 
are shown. As these products are only used as starting materials for 
the many modern fast dyes, an idea of the vast production is implied. 

What will interest the pharmacist the most are the utensils used 
over a hundred years ago by pharmacists , old oxymel jars, and oil 
bottles of porcelain, looking more or less like tea-pots or squat wine 
decanters, quaint iron and bronze mortars, the various helms, retorts 
and adapters, reminding one of old alchemistic prints, etc. Messrs. 
Corbyn & Stacey have brought these over. 

Penect alum crystals in large regular octahedrae, as made by 
Peter Spence & Son, fill two large cases. Thallous, ferric, caesium, 
chromic, rubidium, sodium and potassium alums in perfect 3-inch 
crystals are prominent. Isomorphism of the alums is finely demon- 
strated by growing potassium alum over chrom alum, and vice 
versa, also iron alum over potassium alum. In Ostwald's " Inor- 
ganic Chemistry " it is stated that soda alum does not exist'; look- 
ing at the fine soda alums shown here, one is convinced of the 
contrary. 



312 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



The mineral started with is bauxite ; extracting the alumina from 
this leaves a brownish residue, containing among other substances 
titanium. The various salts of this commonly regarded rare element 
are prepared in commercial quantities by this same firm. Twine 
and yarns mordanted with these salts and then dyed present a 
peculiarly high gloss, e.g., cotton twine has been so treated. 

There are many other manufacturers in this British section, repre- 
senting the usual run of fine chemicals, but we have not the space 
to analyze them in this letter. 

Research work done at Owens College (now Victoria University) 
by Professor Schorlemmer on Pennsylvania petroleum many years 
ago is of historical importance, also the zinc ethyl made by the cele- 
brated Frankland. Most interesting is Sir Henry Roscoe's conclu- 
sive work, showing that the then held elemental vanadium was in 
fact an oxide of this element. The various chlorides and oxides 
of this element show striking colors ; the solutions of the sesqui- 
oxide is green, the dioxide is greenish-blue, the tetroxide is deep 
blue, and the common pentoxide is yellowish. The pentoxide is 
also shown in large prisms, their color and appearance remind one 
of permanganate of potassium. 

The Wellcome Research Laboratory shows the many beautiful 
products isolated from plants under Professor Power's direction. 
The exhibit is very tasty and elegant in appearance. Hundreds of 
compounds in small watch-glasses and vials show what has been 
accomplished in the last few years by this enterprising firm of 
Borroughs, Wellcome & Co. Both Professor Power and Mr. Well- 
come were students of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and 
Americans. 

France got here a little late, and as a result is somewhat behind 
in its installation ; but, from what I can see, will have an elegant 
display of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Poullenc Freres, of 
Paris, show finely crystallized samples of potassium iodide, iodoform, 
sulphates of nickel, etc. Over a pound of metallic lithium in sticks, 
boron and silicon crystallized, a calcium-aluminium alloy of silvery 
appearance are among the more uncommon in this exhibit — the 
only one installed at this writing. 

The Mallinckrodt Chemical Works are located near the British 
chemists, and make a very fine showing. The morphine, ether 
and cocaine, for which the firm is noted, find prominent places in 



Am 'ju°iy?i904 arra '} Pharmacy and Chemistry. 313 

the large display of fine chemicals exhibited. The most unique is 
the group of cocaine crystals, many of which are over 3 inches in 
length. The firm's initials are done in crystals of terpinhydrate. 

In the Electricity Building, as stated, will be found the German 
chemical exhibit. The Germans have intended to make this an 
educational exhibit, and commercialism had to take a back seat. 
The individual firm is not in evidence as in the British section. All 
firms have pooled their interests, and make a great display where 
duplication of same subjects is unknown. They have succeeded 
remarkably well. 

The time when chemists worked in the dark cellars and were 
more or less associated with the Evil One by the ignorant populace, 
is shown by actual utensils of an alchemist's laboratory as borrowed 
from the great Niirnberg collection of things alchemistic. In a dark 
cellar-like grotto, we see the walls and ceiling hung with crocodiles, 
salamanders, snakes, turtles and the like. Old-fashioned furnaces, 
with retorts of a peculiar green glass and with helms of the same 
material, and also adapters and receivers of various forms, show with 
what these active workers performed the operations of distilling. 
On the floor are spread ores and gangues as found in Freiberg. Old 
works of the period are found in the general library of the exhibit. 

Opposite the alchemist's laboratory is that of Liebig's at Giessen. 
Here are the long-armed balances he used, the furnace and bulbs 
used in combustion analysis that bear his name. The many com- 
pounds prepared in the Giessen laboratory during his stay, are 
arranged along the walls. In looking at the little Liebig had to 
work with, and contrasting that with what is found in many of the 
State institutions, it is forcibly brought home that some men may do 
much with very little, and they that have very much seem to do little. 

Synthetic perfumes in pint bottles, such as ionone, rose, etc., an 
entire case of so-called synthetics, many fine inorganic compounds, 
thousands of dyes and the various organic compounds of technical 
or theoretical importance, make up a large part of the exhibit. 

Historical work is illustrated by samples of that extremely rare 
element, Germanium, as separated by the celebrated Freiberg 
chemist, Clemens Winckler. 1 Also the first contact appliance for 



1 We have almost as fine a sample in our owu collection — a present from 
Winckler. 



314 



The New Medical Laboratories. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



the preparation of sulphuric acid without the use of the large reac- 
tion chambers of the old method is shown by the same chemist. 
The first indigo as prepared by Baeyer is here as a minute sub- 
limate of blue in a broken test-tube. 

Ostwald's appliances, balances of precision, thermometers, gas- 
measuring burettes, appliances for working with liquefied gases, 
electric furnaces, Jena glassware, royal porcelain, and in fact almost 
anything that a chemist might occasionally use in the line of appa- 
ratus is shown. 

Haereus shows his molten quartz apparatus. Small tubes, retorts, 
crucibles, flasks of thin quartz are blown by glassblowers, the only 
difference being that with glass a smoother finish is obtained than 
with quartz. These quartz goods may be heated to a white heat 
and plunged into cold water without cracking. 

Goldschmidt's thermite has a separate case. Thermite is a mix- 
ture of the metallic aluminum in powder with an oxide of a metal, 
say iron ; on causing a sudden ignition of the mass by a spark from 
the so-called Ziindkirsche, iron free from carbon is produced in the 
molten state, while alumina is the product of combustion. Many 
metals as uranium, tungsten, chromium, that are with difficulty pro- 
duced by other operations, are readily produced in like manner, in 
a molten state, and in large quantities. 



THE NEW MEDICAL LABORATORIES OF THE UNI- 
VERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

The ceremonies connected with the dedication of the new labora- 
tories of pathology, physiology and pharmacology of the University 
of Pennsylvania, on June ioth, were not only of great general 
interest, but the event was one of the most important in the history 
of the University, and has a direct bearing upon the practice of 
medicine and pharmacy in America. 

" The last quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed the conver- 
sion of the teaching and practice of medicine from a theoretical to 
a practical and demonstrative basis. This momentous change, than 
which nothing more revolutionary and beneficent has been achieved 
in the history of the intellectual development of the race, has been 
the result of the establishment of laboratories in which research in 
medical science might be conducted. By means of the facilities 



Am j J u°iy?im rm '} The New Medical Laboratories. 315 

offered in these laboratories, workers have not only enormously 
increased our knowledge of the structure and functions of the 
human body, and of the nature of disease, but have also provided 
methods which have already robbed some of the most direful pesti- 
lences of their chief terrors. Hitherto America has scarcely kept 
pace with foreign countries in provision for scientific study in medi- 
cine and in incentives to its prosecution. While this aspect of 
medical education has not been wholly disregarded in this country, 
the limitations placed upon institutions of learning by their inability 




The New Medical Laboratories of the University of Pennsylvania. 



to provide adequately out of their means for the support of labora- 
tories has had a detrimental effect upon the growth of American 
medicine. In other countries the national and municipal govern- 
ments have done what in this country is left to the accident of private 
inclination and beneficence. 

11 In view of these contingencies, the University of Pennsylvania has 
constructed a new medical laboratory which was formally dedicated 
on June 10, 1904. In completeness of equipment this new building 
is without a rival. It provides for the teaching of students and the 
carrying on of research work on physiology, pathology and phar- 



3i6 



The New Medical Laboratories. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



macology, in which departments of medicine the greatest advances 
have been made in the past, and may be predicted for the future. 

"The opening of these laboratories is not simply of local but of 
national interest. The construction of the building has occupied 
about four years, and has cost, exclusive of its ground and equip- 
ment, in the neighborhood of $700,000. The erection of a new 
medical hall, an anatomical building and auxiliary buildings, adjoin, 
ing the building dedicated, is also contemplated in the near future. 
These with the present hospitals and clinical laboratories will form 
one of the most extensive systems of buildings devoted to the 
teaching of medicine in Europe or America. 

u The new building is quadrangular in shape. It is located on the 
south side of Hamilton Walk, between Thirty-sixth and Thirty- 
seventh Streets, on the site of the old Veterinary Hall and Hospital. 
The building is two stories in height above a high basement, and 
measures 337 feet in front by nearly 200 feet in depth. The long 
front faces north, securing a maximum amount of the best light for 
laboratory purposes. Along the front are arranged small rooms for 
research, offices for professors and assistants and similar purposes. 
These open into private corridors, so that those employed in these 
rooms may pursue their work without interruption from those pass- 
ing through the main halls. 

" Perfect lighting of all the laboratories has been obtained, the size 
of the courts and the height of the front building insuring good 
north light to the laboratories of pharmacy and pharmacodynamics 
on the first floor, and to the large laboratories on the second floor 
devoted to pathology, where microscopic work is to be done — the 
north front of these rooms, facing on the courtyard, being almost 
wholly of glass and extending higher than the front, so that steady 
north light will be thrown to the back of the room. 

" The basement rooms are also well lighted. Here will be located 
locker, recreation and toilet-rooms for the students, janitor's quar- 
ters, rooms for practical instruction in physical diagnosis and 
bandaging, rooms for sub-section teaching in physiology, store- 
rooms, research-rooms, etc. 

"The first floor of the new laboratories is to be devoted to physi- 
ology and pharmacodynamics. The department of physiology on 
the first floor will have provided one large room, in which there will 
be ninety cabinets fully equipped with such apparatus as is required 



Am 7u°iyj9(5f rm '} The New Medical Laboratories. 317 

in the practical exercises in physiology carried on by the students. 
Three rooms have been especially constructed and equipped for 
aseptic operations on the lower animals, one of them being a prepara- 
tion room for the operators, another a preparation room for the 
animals and another for operating. These will be equipped with 
the most modern appliances, so that operations may be carried on 
under the most favorable conditions known to modern surgery. In 
the north front are a number of small rooms which have been set 
apart for the instructor and his assistants for instruction in advanced 
physiology, etc. A well-equipped shop has been provided for the 
construction and repair of apparatus. In the east wing are a num- 
ber of rooms for sub-section instruction in special departments in 
physiology — digestion, circulation, respiration, calorimetry, nerve- 
muscle, special senses, etc., respectively. There has also been pro- 
vided a photographic dark-room and an adjoining room for projection 
and other optic apparatus of the greatest importance in the making 
of diagrams, charts, lantern slides, etc. 

" The department of pharmacology has also been provided for 
on the first floor. This contains a large laboratory for practical 
pharmacodynamics, a large laboratory for practical pharmacy, a 
museum, a library and various rooms for the instructor and his 
assistants for research work, etc. 

" The second floor will be devoted exclusively to pathology, with 
temporary accommodations for a number of the professors of other 
departments until the completion of future building operations, 
rendering possible the final transfer of the entire medical school to 
buildings adjacent to the present new building. An examination of 
the plans will reveal the general purposes of the floor. Aside from 
the provisions for lecture-rooms, the chief purpose of the plan of 
operation and construction looks to laboratory instruction. The 
entire north front of the building (with the exception of the tempo- 
rarily arranged private rooms for various professors and the general 
pathological office) is devoted to laboratories for advanced students 
in experimental pathology and pathological bacteriology and the 
special research and assistants' rooms. The east wing accommo- 
dates the laboratory of advanced pathological histology and a 
seminar and journal room ; the west wing is occupied by the patho- 
logical museum, the gross morbid anatomy demonstration room, a 
room for museum preparation, photographic rooms and rooms for 



3 18 The New Medical Laboratories. { Am ju°iy!"'iS arm ' 

animal operations. The museum and gross morbid anatomy dem- 
onstration rooms are in close proximity to the large class laboratory 
of pathological histology in the west end of the southern part of the 
building with the important aim of closely relating the instruction 
carried on in each. This last laboratory, that of pathological his- 



Pr.AN of Basement. — i Bottom of Amphitheatre. 2 Materia-Medica Museum. 5 Instruc- 
tor's Room. 14 Students' Recreation Room. 15 Students' Rocker. 1 7-19-22-23-25 Janitor's 
Quarters. 21 Dynamo Room. 26 Fan Room. 27 Buffer and Grinding Room. 30 Motor 
Room. 38 Sub-section Teaching, etc., in Physiology. 39 Alcohol Store Room. 40 Fan Room. 
41 Toilet Rooms. 42 Pathological Preparation Room. 50 Bottom of Amphitheatre. 51 Re- 
search Room. 52 Repair Room. 53 Storage Room. 57 Pathological Store Room. 80 Physi- 
cal Diagnosis, Bandaging, etc. 83 Store Room. 84-85 Fan Rooms. 86 Store Room. 93 
Department of Physiology. 94 Pathological Store Room. 95 Fan Room. 96 Class Room. 

tology, the front of which consists almost entirely of glass, is located 
so as to face a spacious court to the north, thus insuring excellent 
and uniform light, and admirably adapting it for microscopic work 
carried on by a[ large class. In a similar section of the building, east 
of the central'hall, with similar front arrangements to ensure light 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



The New Medical Laboratories. 



319 



for microscopic work, are located two smaller laboratories to be 
employed in the teaching of surgical pathology, neuropathology and 




First Floor Plan.— 100 Amphitheatre. 104 Library. 105 Instructor of Pharmacy. 107 
Storage Room. 114 Laboratory of Pharmacy. 115 Operator's Preparation Room. 116 Oper- 
ating Room. 117 Animal Preparation Room. 11S Dark Room. 119 Respiration, Caiorimetry. 
120 Optical. 121 Circulation. 123 Nerve Muscle. 124 Digestion. 125 Special Senses. 126 
Chemical. 127 Construction and Repair Shop. 130 Tinker Shop. 131 Seminar and Confer- 
ence Room. 132-133 Advanced Physiology. 134 Assistant to Professor of Physiology. 136 
Laboratory of Professor of Physiology. 137 Study of Professor of Physiology. 139 Toilet 
Room. 140 Pharmacodynamic Preparation Room. 141 Demonstration Room. 142 Patho- 
logical Preparation Room. 143 Professor Duhring. 150 Amphitheatre. 151 Storage Room. 
152 Prof. H. C. Wood. 153 Weighing Room. 154 Chemical Room. 155 Research Room. 156 
Research Room. 157 Dr. H. C. Wood, Jr. 164 Laboratory of Pharmacodynamics. 1S0 Stu- 
dents' Laboratory for Practical Exercises in Physiology. 181-1S2 Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology. 183 First Assistant in Physiology. 184 Second Assistant in Physiology. 1S5 Third 
Assistant in Physiology. 187 Research Room. 188 Reading Room. 1S9 Library of Physi- 
ology. 190 Dean's Office. 191 General Office and Waiting Room. 192 Clerks' Office. 193 
Ladies' Toilet Room. 194 General Information Bureau. 195 Physiological Preparation Room. 
196 Demonstration Room. 197 Physiological Preparation Room, (Dental, Veterinary and 
Biological). 



clinical pathological technology, and private rooms for the instruc- 
tors in these branches are arranged to open upon these large labor. 



320 



The New Medical Laboratories. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



atories. In order to provide for special occasions when a larger body 
of men are likely to require temporary accommodations than is 
ordinarily contemplated in either of these laboratories, it has been 
arranged that a movable partition may be withdrawn so as to throw 




Second Floor Plan.— 201 Research Room. 202 Gynaecological Pathology. 203-204 
Surgical Pathology. 205 Clinical Pathology. 206-207 Neuro-Pathology. 209 Surgical Patho- 
logical laboratory. 214 Neuro-Pathological and Clinical Pathological Laboratory. 221 
Seminar and Journal Room. 226 Advanced Pathological Histology. 230 Experimental 
Pathology. 231-236 Research and Assistant's Rooms. 237 Prof. A. J. Smith. 239 Pathological 
Office. 141-196 Demonstration Rooms. 242 Toilet Room. 243 Microscope Room. 264 Patho- 
logical Histological Laboratory. 265 Operating Room. 266 Photographic Dark Room. 267 
Photographic and Drawing Room. 268 Museum and Preparation Room. 269 Operating 
Room. 272 Gross Morbid Anatomy. 280 Museum. 284 Pathological Bacteriology. 285 
Sterilizing Room. 286 Dark Waini Room. 287 Refrigerator and Distilling Room. 288 Pro- 
fessor Tyson. 289 Professor Hirst. 290 Professor de Schweinitz. 291 Professor Clark. 292- 
293 Research Rooms. 297 Store Room. 298 Section Room. 3d floor of tower, Artists' Room. 
4th floor of tower, Professor of Pathology. 

the two rooms into one. In addition to the above apartments a 
number of small rooms devoted to storage or special technical work 
are provided upon this floor or elsewhere in the building in connec- 
tion with the general chair of pathology. 



Am. Jour. Phavru. 
July, 1904. 



The New Medical Laboratories. 



321 



" Besides the numerous laboratories, research rooms, etc., there are 
two demonstration and two lecture rooms in the building. The 
two demonstration rooms each seat 185 students. These rooms 
communicate with two preparation rooms each. At the rear of the 
building there are two large lecture rooms, each seating 400 stu- 
dents. Students enter these rooms from a landing at the main stair, 
midway between the first and second floors. The floors of the lec- 
ture rooms are on a level with the basement, and the lecturer will 
enter directly from the basement level, and all specimens needed to 
illustrate the lectures will be brought through this entrance, thus 
saving the crossing of the halls through which classes move. 

" The most modern apparatus has been installed for light and heat 
and ventilation." 

The formal exercises transferring the new laboratories to the 
University were held at 4 o'clock, and were imposing and dignified, 
and in every way fitting the occasion. There was a large attend- 
ance of representative and professional men, including members of 
the American Medical Association, who came by special train from 
Atlantic City, where they were convened in annual session. In 
the absence of the chairman of the Committee on Medical and 
Allied Schools, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, the duty of making the presen- 
tation devolved upon J. Vaughan Merrick, one of the oldest trustees 
of the University, who spoke of the growth of the Medical School 
during the past thirty years, it having at the beginning of this 
period a single building on Ninth Street. In accepting the new 
laboratories, Dr. Charles C. Harrison, Provost of the University, said 
in part, after referring to the ideals and purposes had in mind in 
the construction of this building : " This great building bears no one 
person's name, and is the result of no single benefaction. It has 
been built up, rather, by numerous gifts, memorials and offerings, 
so that many hearts are turning toward this place to-day, and will 
rejoice with us all when I announce that no shadow of debt falls 
upon the new medical laboratories of the University of Penn- 
sylvania." 

Then followed addresses by eminent medical men from four of 
the leading universities of the United States, which we are able to 
publish in part. 



322 The Teaching of Physiology, { Am 'j J u°iy"'i904 arm - 

TEACHING OF PHYSIOLOGY IN MEDICAL SCHOOLS. 

By Dr. H. P. BowdiTch, 
Professor of Physiology, Harvard University. 

In bringing the congratulations of a sister institution on the 
occasion of this important step taken by the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in the advancement of medical education, it may, perhaps, be 
appropriate for me to dwell upon the proper relation of the sciences, 
so sumptuously installed in these new buildings, to the general work 
of medical education. 

With regard to the methods employed in giving instruction in 
physiology, the great change which has recently taken place in 
all our large medical schools cannot fail to strike even the 
most superficial observer. This change, which has been quietly 
going on for the last ten or fifteen years, consists mainly in 
the great development of the laboratory method of instruction. 
This is but a logical result of clearly apprehending the fact that 
physiology is merely the physics and chemistry of living matter 
and of applying to that science the methods of instruction already 
adopted and approved by the physicist and the chemist. The ex- 
tension of the laboratory method is, however, also to be regarded 
as a reaction against the too exclusive use of the so-called didactic 
method of instruction, as a result of which students, getting their 
knowledge wholly from lectures and text-books, often failed to realize 
that physiology is just as truly an experimental science as either 
physics or chemistry, and were thus insensibly led to depend upon 
authority instead of upon the direct observation of nature. 

Of the great educational importance of this reaction and of the 
changed attitude of the student-mind determined by it there can be 
but one opinion. Whether we consider that the most important 
object of medical education is to " train for power " (to use Presi- 
dent Eliot's phrase) or regard the imparting of information as the 
chief end to be sought, the laboratory method has distinct advan- 
tages over all other methods. Contact with the phenomena them- 
selves and not with descriptions of them trains the mind of the 
student for power by teaching him to observe carefully and reason 
correctly, while, as a means of imparting information, the laboratory 
method has the great advantage of giving the best of all knowledge, 
viz., that which comes from personal experience. So valuable to the 
physician is the habit of mind thus cultivated that it may well be 



^iffl'mF*'} lhe Teaching of Physiology. 323 

doubted whether any preparation for a medical career is better than 
that afforded by a physiological laboratory. There are, of course, 
many physicians of the highest rank who have not enjoyed the 
advantages of a laboratory training, but they will, I think, all be 
found to have habits of accurate observation and careful reasoning, 
mental qualities which it is the special function of the laboratory to 
foster and cultivate. 

Having thus borne testimony to the value of the laboratory 
method, let me ask you to consider the limits, if any there are, to 
the application of this form of instruction. 

The most superficial examination of the question makes it clear 
that laboratory methods are extremely costly both in time and 
money, and that there are, in all the medical sciences, many subjects 
which cannot well be taught in this way. 

It is thus evident that a considerable portion of the instruction 
in physiology must be given by didactic methods, simply because 
this is the only practicable way of imparting necessary information. 
The ignorance of a young practitioner called to his first case of 
diabetes would scarcely be excused on the ground that he was 
" trained for power," and that there were no experiments on glyco- 
genesis in his laboratory course in physiology. 

In this connection it will be well to inquire how far didactic 
methods of instruction afford opportunities for mental training, and 
here I shall be compelled, I fear, to take issue with those of my 
professional brethren who regard text-books and lecture-room in- 
struction as essentially lifeless in their character. It seems to me, 
on the contrary, that the best lecturing is often the source of a dis- 
tinct mental stimulus, for, as Dr. Mitchell has well said, it " does not 
so much think for you as invite you to think along suggested lines 
of inquiry." 

In every department of medicine advanced instruction necessarily 
deals with subjects which lie within what Foster has called the 
" penumbra " of solid scientific acquisition, and about which conflict- 
ing views are therefore certain to be held. It is in inviting thought 
with regard to the evidence an experienced lecturer has his best 
opportunity to train the minds of his hearers. Other opportunities 
are also afforded by the historical presentation of subjects, about 
which differences of opinion no longer exist, for there are few things 
more instructive than to follow up step by step the lines by which 



324 The Teaching of Physiology. 

our knowledge has advanced, noting the marks which distinguish 
the paths which have been trodden successfully from those which 
have turned out to be " no thoroughfare." Even better opportunities 
for mental training than those which the lecture-room presents are 
afforded by the recitation, for here the minds of the teacher and the 
pupil are brought most closely into contact, the pupil's difficulties 
are appreciated by the instructor, and the point of view of the 
teacher can be learned by the pupil. It has always seemed to me 
that no higher enjoyment falls to the lot of the teacher than that 
which he experiences when, by a series of carefully considered 
questions, he leads his pupil onward from the known to the un- 
known, and notes the gleam of intelligence which illumines his 
countenance as a subject, previously obscure, becomes clear, as a 
result of his own mental operations guided by his teacher's skillful 
questions. It thus appears that no monopoly of opportunities for 
mental training can be claimed for the laboratory method of instruc- 
tion, while, for the purpose of imparting necessary information, lab- 
oratory work must, for reasons just given, be supplemented by 
didactic instruction. 

Recognizing, therefore, the importance of both the laboratory and 
the lecture room as educational agencies, let us consider what should 
be their relation to each other. The question is often formulated 
thus : Shall the experiments illustrate the lecture or shall the lecture 
explain the experiments ? If forced to decide between these alter- 
natives, I confess that I should be inclined to choose the latter, for, 
by giving precedence to the experiments, the teacher conforms his 
instruction to the law of growth of an experimental science. There 
are, however, many departments of physiology in which the experi- 
mental data suited for elementary laboratory instruction bear so 
small a proportion to the sum total of the knowledge which must be 
imparted to the student that the didactic instruction necessarily 
assumes the more important position and the lectures cannot, with- 
out a forced use of language, be described as explanatory of the 
experiments. It seems to me, therefore, that the wisest course at 
the present time is not to attempt to decide between the two above- 
mentioned alternatives, but to let the method of instruction vary 
with the subject. 

In thus classifying physiological subjects according to the methods 
best suited for teaching them, it must be borne in mind that such a 



Am j J u °i?!'"i904f rm '} Latent Power in the Laboratory. 325 

classification must necessarily be preliminary and tentative, and that 
improvements in laboratory technique will often result in transfer- 
ring certain subjects into that class in which the student has the 
inestimable advantage of direct personal contact with the phenomena 
to be studied. Indeed, there is nothing more encouraging to those 
who are engaged in working out these educational problems than 
the discovery that medical students, under proper instruction, can 
be safely trusted to employ the most refined methods of physiologi- 
cal research. Thus in the Harvard Medical School capillary electro- 
meters have been manufactured by the hundred and used success, 
fully by first-year students. 

It seems to me, therefore, evident that the reaction against purely 
didactic methods of instruction is a movement to be heartily wel- 
comed ; but, like all other reforms, it should be carefully guided, lest 
useful as well as useless things be swept away. It should be borne 
in mind that it is quite as possible to abuse the laboratory as the 
didactic method of instruction, and that, in all schemes of education, 
a good teacher with a bad method is more effective than a bad 
teacher with a good method. 



THE LATENT POWER IN, AND THE INFLUENCES 
EMANATING FROM, THE LABORATORY. 

By Prof. R. H. Chittenden, 
Director of the Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. 

Where could be found a more striking, more convincing demon- 
stration of the great advancement made of late years in the develop- 
ment of the scientific branches of medicine than the present labora- 
tories afford. So long as medicine and the related sciences were 
crude and inexact, so long as our knowledge was based mainly upon 
theories and hypotheses of doubtful origin, and still more question- 
able value, the laboratory counted for little. As scientific knowledge 
advanced, however, and it gradually became apparent that true 
progress was to be made only, or mainly, by actual observation and 
experiment, the laboratory became the field of work, and there 
gradually came full recognition of the necessity for practical study 
of the many questions that were constantly arising for settlement. 
No longer satisfied by the dogmatic statements of the earlier writers, 
thoughtful people began to ask for facts and demonstration, and the 
laboratory and its facilities grew side by side with a growing craving 



326 Latent Power in the Laboratory. { Am j J u °iy%££ arir ' 

for exact knowledge. Laboratories, such as we see before us to- 
day, testify in no uncertain language to the development of methods 
of exact study, and the fact that there is need of such facilities as a 
part of the equipment by which students are to be trained in the 
science and art of medicine testifies more fully than any words can 
do to the enormous advance that has taken place in the evolution of 
scientific medicine and in the consequent development of medical 
education. To pass through these laboratories, which are to-day 
thrown open for inspection, inspires one not only with admiration, 
but also with a full appreciation of the increased facilities for 
scientific work afforded, and with the fact that our knowledge has 
grown to such proportions that there is need of this practical exposi- 
tion in teaching. In other words, we see in these commodious 
laboratories clear demonstration that medicine has truly become an 
exact science. 

The laboratory is the foundation stone upon which is to be reared 
our temple of knowledge, and we do wisely when we build this 
foundation large and broad, a fitting support for a structure that 
shall tower aloft, casting abroad over the land a light bright enough 
to pierce the darkness of superstition and ignorance, and shedding 
a ray of hope for the relief of the afflicted and for the betterment 
of mankind. The laboratory, when under the supervision of a wise 
leader, properly trained and alive to the importance of what a true 
laboratory should provide, becomes to the student a revelation and 
an inspiration. Here he sees, perhaps for the first time, how true 
knowledge is gained, how facts are acquired, and he learns to observe, 
to see for himself those mysteries which, when described even by 
the words of a master, appear vague and indefinite. In the labora- 
tory, however, he is brought face to face with nature, and not only 
does he acquire knowledge of nature's ways, but, what is of even 
greater importance, he begins to learn something of himself, of his 
own powers of observation, of his own ability as an observer and 
interpreter of what nature has to show him. Gradually there creeps 
over him a confidence in himself ; he begins to feel free and inde- 
pendent ; he is no longer a slave to his text-book, no longer an 
unreasoning believer in the printed statement of the highest author- 
ity. Like Vesalius of old, who, following venerated custom, tried to 
believe Galen rather than his own eyes, he is ready to throw to the 
winds the writings of others and to believe what he has himself seen. 



Am j J a°iy!i£S arm '} Latent Power in the Laboratory. 327 

This is what the laboratory, when made proper use of, does for the 
student of medicine. It helps him on to man's estate, to the free- 
dom of intellectual supremacy ; it leads him into the field of logical 
reasoning ; it teaches him to see and to think for himself. It affords 
that training which leads to the development of the wise and skillful 
practitioner of medicine. 

Finally, to the exceptional mind, to him in whom burns the un- 
quenchable fire of genius, the laboratory provides the means by 
which discoveries of the greatest importance are brought to light. 
It may be a matter of purely scientific or theoretical interest. On 
the other hand, it may be a matter of the greatest practical impor- 
tance; but, whether the one or the other, knowledge is broadened 
and the world is enriched by a new fact added to the sum of human 
wisdom. And so I congratulate you, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, upon these new laboratories which promise so much for the 
dissemination of true knowledge, and which hold out the hope of 
increased enlightenment on many dark chapters which still confront 
us as we look through the volumes which contain our knowledge 
of the structure and functions of the human body. And what is 
your gain is also our gain and the gain of the whole world, for 
science knows no boundaries, and a new fact, full of import for 
health or disease, once brought to light, becomes the property of 
the world and casts its blessing upon all. May these laboratories 
fulfil your highest expectations and constitute a never-failing power 
for good in the University and in the community at large. 

It has been said that medicine, like Janus of old, in a good sense, 
bears a double face. On the one hand, she is an empiric; on the 
other a scientist — and science is ever rendering the practice of medi- 
cine more rational, more scientific. To-day medicine stands closely 
interlocked with science. It is a truism to say that the student of 
medicine must have training in those underlying biological sciences 
which are so essential for the true understanding of vital phenomena. 
As Professor Sherrington has well expressed it in a recent address, 
it is " necessary that the man go forth from his school equipped not 
only with the present applications of science to disease, but so pos- 
sessed of the root principles of the sciences adjunct to medicine 
that he may grasp and intelligently use the further developments of 
scientific medicine after he is weaned from his instructors and. the 
school. . . . What truer safeguard can a man have — alone, it 



328 



Latent Power in the Laboratory. 



Am. Jour. PJiarm. 
July, 1904. 



it may be, and isolated from the centres of knowledge ; what truer 
safeguard can he have against all the pseudoscientific quackeries of 
the day than some real knowledge of the principles of the sciences 
along whose lines the discoveries of medicine must develop?" And 
we may ask ourselves the question : Is there any one science to-day 
which promises more aid (direct and indirect) to the science and art 
of medicine than physiological chemistry? Surely, we have not 
only the promise, but the fulfilment of the promise, in the many dis- 
coveries which have come of late years from the various laboratories 
of physiological chemistry scattered throughout the world, and if 
we grant the truth of this contention, then certainly we must admit 
that physiological chemistry is destined to play an important part 
in the development of medical education, since it is adding continu- 
ally new discoveries which bear directly upon our knowledge of 
physiological and pathological processes, as well as discoveries which 
bear directly upon the art of medicine. Surely, there can be no 
clear or profound knowledge of abnormal or pathological processes 
without a thorough understanding of the normal processes of the 
body. The physiological must be clearly comprehended before we 
can intelligently unravel the pathological, and at almost every turn 
in physiology — in the study of normal function — we come in contact 
with some phase of physiological chemistry. The chemical pro- 
cesses of the body are indeed manifold, and it would be a one-sided 
physiology that attempted to explain the processes of the body 
without recourse to the aid furnished by physiological chemistry. 

The laboratories of physiological chemistry have indeed been 
fruitful sources of knowledge. In them, under the guidance of 
masters of their science, truths have been demonstrated that have 
contributed no small share to the development of modern scientific 
medicine, and the development of medical education has been in- 
fluenced in no small degree by the brilliant discoveries that have 
been inspired by the master minds of this particular science. 

Consider, by way of illustration, the Strassburg Laboratory of 
Physiological Chemistry during the active life of Felix Hoppe-Seyler. 
Coming to Strassburg from Tubingen, in 1872, Hoppe-Seyler 
gradually created there an institute which attracted students from 
all parts of the world, and up to the time of his death, in 1895, 
there was a never-ending series of important papers in physiologi- 



Am j J u°iy?i9w? rm '} Latent Power in the Laboratory. 329 

cal chemistry, many of which have left an indelible imprint upon 
scientific medicine. 

It would be a mistake, however, to assume that the influence of 
the Strassburg laboratory was limited to these scientific discoveries, 
valuable though they were and still are. It is only necessary to 
mention the names of two well-known physiological chemists, viz., 
Baumann and Kossel, at one time students in the Strassburg Lab- 
oratory, to understand the nature of this other influence which was 
constantly exerted during the lifetime of Hoppe-Seyler, and is still 
exerted by his illustrious successor, Professor Hofmeister. In Bau- 
mann and Kossel, as students and assistants in the Strassburg 
Laboratory, were found the exceptional minds ready to profit in 
highest degree from the instruction and inspiration provided. The 
smouldering fire of genius was fanned into flame, and two more 
physiological chemists were started on their way as teachers and 
investigators in their chosen field. One, as professor at the Univer- 
sity of Freiburg, lived long enough to make his name known wher- 
ever physiology and medicine are recognized as experimental 
sciences. The other, as professor at Marburg and now at the Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg, is at the height of his career as one of the 
foremost physiological chemists of this generation, adding each year 
some new fact to our store of knowledge of physiology and experi- 
mental medicine. 

Such, briefly depicted, is the character of the influences that may 
emanate from a single laboratory, and I would use the illustration in 
a two-fold manner. First, to indicate the enormous latent power in 
a laboratory of any kind, properly equipped and wisely conducted, 
for the judicious training of students and for the discovery of im- 
portant scientific truths — a power to which there is almost no lim- 
itation. Second, to indicate the intimate relationship which 
unquestionably exists between physiological chemistry and scientific 
medicine. Finally, as an ardent believer in the growing importance 
of physiological chemistry as a means by which many of the intri- 
cate problems which to-day confront us in the science and art of 
medicine are destined to be unraveled, I venture to prophesy that in 
the development of medical education, in harmony with the advance 
of medical knowledge, physiological chemistry will be found to 
occupy a more and more conspicuous position. 



330 



The History of Pathology. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPORTANCE OF 

PATHOLOGY. 

By Dr. George Dock, 
Professor of Medicine, University of Michigan. 

It is hard to believe, but none the less true, that when this school 
was founded, 140 years ago, medicine was but little in advance of 
its condition 2,000 years before. In the long interval medical 
knowledge had traveled in circles, never getting very far beyond 
the elementary pathological and clinical facts known in the age of 
Pericles. 

In the five centuries between Hippocrates and Galen there was no 
progress at all, and for nearly fifteen hundred years Galen and Hip- 
pocrates, with Aristotle, were deemed as infallible in medicine as 
the Fathers of the Church were in theology. Sydenham, inferior 
to the Greek and Roman masters in breadth of knowledge, was the 
first to apply the new principles of Baconian philosophy in medi- 
cine, and Sydenham's life was separated from that of John Morgan, 
the father of the Medical Department, by less than fifty years. 
Though the scholars of the Renaissance had shown that the Greek 
and Roman texts used through the Middle Ages were sadly cor- 
rupted from the originals, and though dissection of the human body 
was practiced in the fourteenth century by Modino and Guy of 
Chauliac, it was not until the genius of Vesalius dawned (15 14-1564) 
that the first severe blow was given to Galen's authority. About 
the same time pathological anatomy began to be cultivated, but the 
early observations were devoted chiefly to monstrosities and other 
apparently miraculous formations, and had little more relation with 
pathology than the stones collected by a small boy have to geology. 
The need of more rational methods was clearly stated by Bacon 
(" Of the Advancement of Learning." Book IV, Chap. 2), who 
urged the study of case-histories, the cultivation of morbid anatomy 
and ot vivisection of animals. The revelations of Harvey were 
essential to the ultimate development of pathology, but the first 
application of physiology, as the first application of physics and 
chemistry to pathology, caused confusion rather than enlightenment. 
Medicine had gathered in its course through the dark ages so much 
rubbish, such as magic, astrology, polypharmacy, the doctrine of 
signatures and all manner of mystic beliefs that still survive to vex 
the impatient, that it could follow but slowly the steep path of dis- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



The History of Pathology. 



331 



covery. Pathology consisted of dogma after dogma, system after 
system, each one having vital defects of basis or conclusion, and no 
radical change was possible until, in the eighteenth century, patho- 
logical anatomy was cultivated with all the enthusiasm of the early 
collectors, but with the definite aim of throwing light on medicine. 
Lancisi and Senac, in the first part of the century, are still quoted 
by modern writers, but it was Morgagni (1682-1771) who gave the 
first important impetus to pathology. In his epoch-making work 
on "The Seats and Causes of Diseases Investigated by Anatomy" 
(1761-1767) — how significant the title! — the result of inexhaustible 
energy and keen reflection during half a century — he began the 
systematic investigation of the differences between normal and 
morbid conditions, and the relation of diseased organs to clinical 
phenomena, including diagnosis and prognosis. The visit of John 
Morgan to the venerable author and the presentation to him, 
his relative — " affini suo " — as the old man playfully called the 
Philadelphian, form an interesting link between the origin of 
modern pathology and the University of Pennsylvania. Morgagni 
examined not merely rare and curious cases, but especially diseases 
of common occurrence, and in all his descriptions and conclusions 
he showed such accuracy and judgment that he not only made 
pathological anatomy the basis of medicine, but served as a guide 
and model to all who followed him. By an interesting coincidence, 
in the same year in which the first volume of Morgagni's work 
appeared, Leopold Auenbrugger published his book of percussion, 
opening the way to anatomic diagnosis, but the world was not yet 
ready for so great a discovery and could not use it for fifty years. 
Morgagni, however, great as his influence was, was not a pathologist, 
but a clinician with a firm anatomical basis for his reasoning. The 
broader field was soon occupied by John Hunter (1728-1793) and 
Xavier Bichat (1771-1802). Not less indefatigable than the Italian, 
and with a matchless fertility of mind and precision of observation 
and experimentation, Hunter included comparative pathology in his 
search, and so influenced men's minds that ever since his time dis- 
eases have been studied as biologists study other natural phenomena. 
The marvelous insight of Bichat made it clear that the seats of dis- 
ease were to be sought not merely in organs, but in the tissues that 
make up the organs, and also that the fluids of the body have an 
important part in pathology, at least as carriers of disease. During 



332 



The History of Pathology. 



Am. Jour. Phai m. 
July, 1904. 



and soon after the brief but momentous activity of Bichat there was 
a period that had an effect on pathology not unlike that of the 
French Revolution on political and social affairs, destroying medical 
ignorance as the latter swept away feudal abuses. And although 
medicine, too, had its Bourbons and reactionaries, its course was 
more steadily forward than that of contemporary politics. It would 
take too long to describe the course of pathological anatomy after 
Hunter and Bichat, and the names of Baillie, Bayle, Bretonneau, 
Corvisart, Laennes, Louis, Bright and Rokitansky are only the 
greater stars of a large and brilliant galaxy. These men not only 
put pathology on a firm foundation by showing the anatomic changes 
in the most important diseases, but they gave clinical medicine a 
positive basis by demonstrating the relation of the anatomic altera- 
tions to the newly discovered signs, often worked out by the same 
hands that revealed the anatomic changes. They showed how, by 
the cultivation of the hand, eye and ear, by the microscope and test 
tube, diagnosis could reach a precision impossible by the use of 
symptoms alone. 

But while pathological anatomy was having this salutary effect 
on practical medicine, it was also opening up larger vistas in the 
science of pathology. The creative mind of Johannes Mueller and 
the unparalleled activity of Virchow caused a productiveness greater 
than ever before. Mueller forever destroyed the power of dogma 
in pathology, and in its place put method. 

There are certain important aspects of the study and teaching of 
pathology that may be considered with advantage at such a time 
and in such a place. " Practical teaching " and " laboratory methods" 
are the watchwords of the day, but it is sometimes possible to see 
these methods carried on to the neglect of real learning. Without 
actual handling, seeing, analyzing, drawing and describing, such a 
topic as pathology cannot be mastered, but to do it properly requires 
sound preparation, cultivated habits of thought, patience, the neces- 
sary raw material, reagents and apparatus, and sufficient time. And 
yet time, in our crowded medical courses, is very often lacking, and the 
student is expected to get along very often without most of the 
other things. Few can learn to draw, paint or play a musical instru- 
ment without a teacher, and usually a certain degree of excellence 
is required of such teachers, and yet medical students are often 
expected to master various laboratory branches with few teachers, 



^'"'ju'iyriSf 11 " 113 '} The History of Pathology. 333 

and these very often poorly informed and untrained in imparted 
knowledge. A distinct need in the teaching of pathology is a 
sufficient number of able teachers. In any natural science, if not in 
all sciences, it is essential that the teacher should be an investigator. 
In pathology, the outlook of which changes so rapidly, nothing but 
participation in the development of knowledge will prevent the 
rusting of the faculties. This does not mean that every teacher and 
assistant in a laboratory must be a genius. Technical details and 
the making of autopsies can be left to dexterous prosecutors who 
are working to win their spurs ; the examination of students' work 
can be done by any well-informed, critical and conscientious young 
worker, but the direction of the work should be in the hands of the 
ablest man available, well trained, original in mind, receptive and 
sympathetic for every other branch of science. 

The elevation of the laboratory has led to a top-heavy way of 
teaching in some schools, by encouraging students to do advanced 
original work before their foundation is sure. The advantages of 
gradual advance from known to unknown are here abandoned, as 
we can sometimes see when students write articles on the protozoan 
origin of cancer before they have seen a dozen different examples of 
cancer or examined a known protozoon. 

The insufficient number of teachers in nearly all laboratories may 
have had something to do with another interesting development of 
the present time — the demand for research in institutions free from 
teaching duties, though this has come partly, no doubt, from a laud- 
able desire to more rapidly advance science for itself. The view 
that research can only be done by hermit- investigators is a perni- 
cious one in many ways. The original investigator, of course, needs 
time and often seclusion to perfect his work, and there have been 
and always will be some who can only work in retirement. For 
this end academies and institutes have in the past offered facilities 
and may with advantage be assisted in still further doing so. On 
the other hand, endowments to existing teaching laboratories could 
often more economically attain all desirable ends. The general 
statement that research is incompatible with teaching positions, 
even those entailing considerable expenditure of time, is refuted by 
the examples of such men as Helmholtz, Ludwig, His and a host 
of others within the most productive period of science. Not only is 
the combination possible, but it might be argued with considerable 



334 The History of Pathology. {^M™m rm ' 

success that the ultimate gain to knowledge would be greater by- 
keeping the example and methods of great investigators closely 
before younger minds, for these are things that cannot be trans- 
mitted by lectures or books. 

The hermit idea has even been applied to plans for hospitals. 
This also has sources of error — the one, that good work can be 
done in a hospital in which no research is carried out. The truth is 
that hospital physicians (and the argument is true of those in private 
practice) cannot remain efficient if they cease investigating. The 
other, hardly necessary to mention, because it refutes itself, depends 
on the fact that a hospital with research as its chief object, and 
relief of suffering secondary, is inconceivable. If hospitals can only 
be stimulated to better work by the endowment of institutes for clin- 
ical experiment, it might be worth the trial, but the whole course of 
medicine shows such a trial is unnecessary. The better way would 
be to furnish hospitals, including asylums of various kinds, with 
means of research, laboratories, apparatus and trained workers ; 
to have a sufficiently large corps of clinicians to carry on modern 
methods of investigating and treating the sick, and to choose for 
such positions only those who are capable of advancing the subject. 

The method that has been accepted as the solution of the problem 
in pathology is to appoint assistants to so-called fellowships, often with 
unnecessary or unwise restrictions on their time and work, and with- 
out proper facilities for either work or instruction. Often the ambi- 
tions of such appointees are so far removed from their positions 
that their own time, as well as that of those who should guide them, 
is thrown away. Science gains nothing. Thomas Fuller's remark 
is applicable here, that " many can play Apollo's lyre who are not 
able to guide his chariot," and the advance of knowledge would 
often gain more by giving an overworked teacher a servant at ten 
dollars a week than one or a half-dozen fellows at $500 or $1,000 
a year each. 

Another obstacle to the growth of pathology, and particularly of 
pathologic anatomy, is the neglect of or objection to autopsies, a 
difficulty that affects physicians in all kinds of practice, hospital or 
private, by depriving them of the most powerful incentive to care- 
ful work. This is the one feature that makes the scientific part of 
medical education in America still inferior to that of Europe, and 



Am. Jour. Pbarru. 
July, 1904. 



The History of Pathology. 



335 



one that prevents the keenest critical spirit from developing in the 
non-operative departments of practical medicine. 

The difficulty depends partly on a sentiment that is not new in 
the history of civilization, and is not associated, as is sometimes 
thought, with any one creed, race or color. The Roman, who 
thought it not only diverting but instructive to see the butchery of 
the arena, would never think of permitting the dissection of a cadaver 
in order to learn anything useful, and Charles V, who thought lit- 
tle of having men dissected alive, tried to prevent them from dis- 
section when dead. In some countries that we look upon as much 
below our own in civilization, benevolent people leave money to 
provide for autopsies on those whose families are unable to pay to 
have such operations made, while in America, so-called philanthro- 
pists busy themselves to prevent the bodies of those who never 
benefited humanity in life from doing so after death by reaching 
the dissecting table. In the lavish waste of life and health that 
occurred in army camps in the Spanish-American war it was no 
less instructive than depressing to see the neglect of pathologic 
anatomy. For weeks the question as to whether there was 
typhoid fever in the camps was met by contradictory assertions. 
It took months to get microscopes, culture and capable observers 
to the hospital. Yet a half-dozen autopsies could have settled the 
problem very quickly. While large sums were spent for instru- 
ments to treat wounds that never came, some of the largest hos- 
pitals did not possess a single autopsy instrument. It was said by 
those in high places that people would not like to have the dead 
soldiers examined ; but can we suppose that those who were willing 
to risk the mutilation of the machete would object to a decent 
autopsy, or that men who thought it sweet and glorious to die for 
their country would not be willing to be examined post mortem for 
the benefit of others ? 

The difficulty in respect to autopsies does not depend on public 
sentiment alone, but on a certain neglect on our own part. I think 
we may hope that as pathology gets everywhere out of cellars and 
back rooms, and has local habitation such as we see here, its culti- 
vation will assume a broader and more independent character. 



336 Development of the Medical Laboratories. { Am • J J u ly l ;•l| , o h 4f rm • 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEDICAL LABORATORIES 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

By Dr. Horatio C. Wood, 
Professor of Therapeutics in the University of Pennsylvania. 

In 1832, when the waves of excitement due to enraged Indians 
and epidemic cholera had subsided about Fort Dearborn on the 
shores of the Michigan Lake, 150 people represented the future 
city of Chicago. In 1 871 , less than half a century later, a great city 
lay in ashes, but with forces unabated and hope undismayed. It 
may well be that the man who contended with savages and pesti- 
lence saw the growth of the great metropolis and its purification 
by fire. 

It has so happened that my life has seen the growth of the 
laboratories of the Medical Department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania from their first shadow of existence to their present mag- 
nificence, and it has seemed to me that perhaps the first minutes of 
the half hour allotted to me in the present services could not be 
better spent than in showing the development of the Now out of the 
Then. 

In all ultrascientific treatises it is essential to begin with the defi- 
nition of terms. Owing to the fact that in the State of Pennsylvania, 
to modify, enlarge, or pervert the English language is not a penal 
offence, the term " laboratory " is often misused in medical catalogues 
and other aristocratic positions. Webster defines " laboratory " as 
" a workshop of a chemist ; also a place devoted to experiments in 
any branch of natural science, as a chemical, physical or biological 
laboratory." Frequently a place where lungs and spinal cords and 
various other things are cut and studied with the microscope is 
spoken of as a pathological laboratory. Perhaps by-and-by we shall 
call a room where potatoes have their eyes examined, their diseased 
parts excised, and themselves surgically prepared for the resurrec- 
tion of the springtime, a potato laboratory. In the earlier part, at 
least, of the present address the term laboratory is used in its 
original sense, to denote not a room, nor a house, nor anything, but 
a place — it may be a mansion, it may be four squares of brick pave- 
ment — within which experiments are performed. 

Somewhere in the early sixties, probably in 1864 or 1865, having 
a desire to study medicine experimentally, I found that the only 
man in the city of Philadelphia who could give me practical instruc- 



Am j J u °^f£ arm -} Development of the Medical Laboratories, 337 

tion was Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, who then had one or two rooms in 
the famous Chance Street building, the subsequent scene of the 
labors of Agnew, Keen, and others, and who was then engaged in 
various experimental investigations on the nervous system. It was 
not long before he made me a proposition to assist him in his 
researches and to publish with him the results of our work. This 
connection would have been formed had it not been for Dr. George 
B. Wood, who, by the greatness of his renown, the force ol his 
character, the extent of his pecuniary resources, and his lack of 
direct heirs, dominated at that time the College of Physicians, the 
Philosophical Society, and the Medical Department of the University, 
much more his struggling nephew, who, he insisted, by studying 
botany, should prepare himself for a career in materia medica and 
therapeutics : and so, having been instructed by Dr. Mitchell how 
to insert a canula into an artery, I graduated in practical physiology, 
and took up actively the study of botany and materia medica until 
three or four years later, when, having mastered the elements of 
those sciences, it was possible for me to revert to the study of 
experimental medicine. 

For the work to be done a workshop was necessary. The private 
treasury was so low that the luxury of a room in Chance Street was 
unthinkable. By this time Dr. George B. Wood had so advanced 
in age that he wanted the care of his garden, greenhouses and 
stables lifted from his shoulders, and made me his deputy. Having 
this authority, with his consent it was possible for me to use, accord- 
ing to the different stages of the weather, the back of the large 
yard, the stable, or the greenhouses as an experimental laboratory. 
Fortunately, at that time antisepsis had not been heard of. 

Instruments were very few. The old rifleman on the shores of 
Lake Michigan brought down unerringly the deer or the Indian with 
a weapon which the modern sportsman or fighter would consider 
hopeless ; and so the results of work in this primitive laboratory were 
accurate and permanent, although my young physiological hearers 
will smile at the statement that, with the aid of tin- and other smiths, 
we made our own instruments. Our hsemadynomometers, for 
instance, were obtained by boring a hole in the iron flasks in which 
mercury is ordinarily stored, inserting a U-shaped glass tube, fast- 
ening on a home-made scale, and then measuring blood-pressure by 
the eye. Under such circumstances was finished the first complete 



338 Development of the Medical Laboratories. { Am j J u ° 1 ^- ] | > ( S arm ' 

investigation of a human disease ever made on animals, namely, that 
on " Sunstroke, or Thermic Fever," published in 1870, a research 
which was so complete and final that of it Professor Osier wrote in 
1895 : "Very little has been added to our knowledge of sunstrokes 
since its completion." Some of the papers which emanated from 
this impromptu laboratory have had their results challenged, but a 
reinvestigation of the subject has in all cases confirmed the original 
conclusions, so that the accuracy of the out-door-greenhouse-stable 
work has been established by time. 

In 1870 the Medical Department of the University moved from 
NintlvStreet to its present location; but, although one or two rooms 
were assigned to the professor of physiology, no experimental work 
seems to have been done in them, so that for some years longer the 
institution was still dependent upon the bountifulness of Dr. George 
B. Wood for the continuation of its laboratory activity. 

It is a rather remarkable fact, though probably in accordance with 
the ordinary laws of progress, that in passing from the old to the 
new regime at the University, there were appointed demonstrators 
who were experimentalists and who from time to time made various 
researches, although the professor to whom they were subordinate 
was in no proper sense a practical physiologist. The first demon, 
strator of physiology was Dr, Henry C. Chapman, appointed in 
1876; he was followed in the fall of 1877 by Dr. B. F. Lautenbach, 
who in turn was succeeded in 1878 by Dr. Robert Meade Smith. 

In 1876 I was elected to the chair of therapeutics, being the first 
professor suffering from the itch for experimentation who had ever 
been injected into the Medical Department of the University, 
chemists excepted. All the rooms which might possibly have been 
used for a pharmacological laboratory were fully occupied ; the 
plans of the building had, however, fortunately been chiefly over, 
looked by Professor Rogers, who had reserved the lion's share for 
himself, and after some discussion it was decided that some of Pro- 
fessor Rogers' rooms should be occupied by the janitor, and the 
apartment which had been allotted to that worthy should be given 
to me. No allowance was made by the University for the furnishing 
of these rooms or for the purchase of furniture or of apparatus. I 
remember with what glee I bought for five dollars at the auction of 
the debris of the great Centennial celebration, in 1876, a very large 
heavy table which had been made for the purpose of the draughts- 



Am * ju"y,i904. rm *} Development of the Medical Laboratories. 339 

man, but whose fate was to become the centerpiece of a physiologi- 
cal laboratory. 

The Smithsonian Institute granted me $1,000 to assist in a 
research on fever, to which out of my own funds another $1,000 was 
added, and so the necessary apparatus was invented and manufac- 
tured, and all went as merry as the marriage bell. But, mark you, 
of necessity the laboratory contained no apparatus except that which 
was bought for some special investigation. Much horror was caused 
by a letter received from a distinguished foreign physiologist, who 
wrote directly after the publication of the v/ork on fever, that " since 
you are making such large researches in America I have intended to 
go and see your laboratories," and the relief was great when at the 
end of the letter were found the words, " but I find that circum- 
stances will prevent my visiting you." 

It is, perhaps, worthy of record, as told me by Professor Reichert 
in 1886, that when he entered upon his duties he found in the labo- 
ratories no apparatus which was not my personal property ; so that 
the first piece of physiological apparatus which ever belonged to 
the University was a Ludwig's kymographion, presented by Dr. 
S. Weir Mitchell shortly after Professor Reichert's election, an 
apparatus which, like its donor, was so well constructed that up to 
the present day it continues in its career of usefulness with its forces 
seemingly unabated. 

During recent years the development of the Experimental Labo- 
ratory of the Medical Department of the University has been rap. 
idly progressive. The election of Dr. Simon Flexner to the Chair 
of Pathology in 1899 led to rapid growth in the work on experi- 
mental pathology, and in 1895 a new impetus was given to experi- 
mental researches by the creation and endowment of the Pepper 
Clinical Laboratory, an institution that has already made itself an 
enviable reputation in the recent annals of experimental science. 

That much work has been achieved in these laboratories is shown 
by the fact that, independently of the Pepper laboratory, there have 
been published from them 250 experimental papers embracing a 
very wide range of physiological, pharmacological and pathological 
subjects. 

Hitherto we have been speaking of the experimental laboratory, 
but the term " laboratory " is also now used as the name of the 
workshop in which students are taught the practical details of 



340 Development of the Medical Laboratories. { Am j J u °£ r i£& arxu - 

the underlying medical sciences, and the building in which we 
now are has been erected chiefly to meet in the University the needs 
of the new method of instruction. There is in some quarters a ten- 
dency to question the value of this laboratory teaching. Without 
practical study, however, the student never can apprehend the 
foundationjprinciples and methods of the sciences, so that if phy- 
siology and pathology~are to the medical student worth studying 
at all, they are worth studying by the only method that can bring 
real knowledge and apprehension. Moreover, day by day in the 
ordinary practice of medicine the use of instruments of precision 
becomes j~more and more important, and, perhaps, as beneficial a 
result as is achieved by the laboratory is the acquiring by the 
student of the power of using delicate scientific apparatus and of 
correctly observing and recording the results reached. If nothing 
further were reached than to teach the student the proper use of his 
especial senses, much; would be gained. To be able to hear, t© see, 
to apprehend — thatjs knowledge above price to the naturally pur- 
blind and purdeaf children of men. 

The growth of science, the multiplication of instruments, the 
refinement of technique, make the well- equipped laboratory to-day 
essential, but to the end the Man will survive as the dominant fac- 
tor. I remember years ago in Philadelphia a group of physicians 
who were marvelously acquainted with the microscope, who spent 
their time in testing lenses, working with polariscopes, and study- 
ing eyepieces and adjustments ; vain labor was it, yielding but bar- 
ren fruitage. Of such as these Professor Leidy said to me one day : 
" It is not the object glass but that which is above the eye-piece 
that brings the result." Leidy knew comparatively little about the 
construction of the microscope, but using it, not as an object of 
study, but as an instrument, his master mind laid much of the foun- 
dation of our present knowledge of the lower forms of animal life. 

If, now, these great laboratories are to be used in a manner 
worthy of their possibilities, it is essential that they be employed as 
instruments, and that the men should be found who shall use them, 
not only for the purposes of teaching^ but also for the purposes of 
advancing the boundaries of medical science. 

The man having been found, it is essential that he be properly 
handled, if you will pardon the borrowing of an athletic term. For- 
merly our professors of physiology and pathology were medical 



Am 'ju?y;X rm *} Development of the Medical Laboratories. 341 

practitioners ; but what has been gained so far as the higher uses of 
the man are concerned, if he has been relieved from the burden of 
medical practice to be crushed under the burden of excessive teach- 
ing ? This is the peril of the hour so far as medical science is 
concerned. May I quote from the published report of a sister insti- 
tution, which we all delight to honor? From 1896 to 1900 the pro. 
fessor in charge published thirteen original papers, all, I believe, 
entirely his own work, and as valuable as pure water flowing from 
a mountain spring. In the fall of 1900 a new and much expanded 
physiological course went into effect ; in the three years subsequent 
to this the professor published one paper, with the assistance of a 
co-worker, probably a student. Why? Evidently because one 
back already loaded with a crate of earthenware cannot carry also a 
pack of dry goods, even though these goods be silken fabrics of 
deftest weaving, brilliant with the sunshine or dreamy with the 
mystery of the far-off Orient. 

It cannot be gainsaid that the requirements of increasing knowl- 
edge and the improved methods of modern teaching make instruc- 
tion far more laborious than it used to be. How, then, is this recent 
danger to be averted ? Simply by increasing the personnel of the 
teaching staff. This means increase of expenses, so that a labora- 
tory like the present increses the expenses of the medical school not 
only by the three or four thousand dollars a year which is required 
simply to keep it clean, warm and light, but also by requiring an 
increase of its staff of officers, unless its great opportunities are to 
be wasted. On the other hand, medical classes are being reduced 
by the higher standard of education required, by the multiplication 
of medical teaching institutes, and probably in the near future by 
the lessening of the demands for the profession through the improve- 
ments of sanitation. 

With greater need for money there is less income from students. 
Endowments are becoming as essential for medical departments as 
for other technical schools, and the institution which fails to get 
such endowments must in the long run be left behind. Better to 
have small laboratories with large endowments than large labora- 
tories with small endowments. Fortunate it is for the Medical 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania that in the character 
and record of its provost it has a guarantee that that which has 
been created shall not fail of use. 



342 Development of the Medical Laboratories. { Am / u °yS arm - 

But, Fellow Alumni of the University of Pennsylvania and all 
persons who are interested in the growth of this our Alma Mater 
not only as a centre of medical teaching, but also of medical thought 
and progress, we have no right to expect that one man or a few men 
shall obtain the pecuniary foundations upon which medical advance- 
ment must rest. It is an extraordinary fact that so far the technical 
schools in America which have received the least support are those 
connected with a profession which comes into the closest contact with 
the lives of the whole people. Are doctors afraid to talk freely of 
the needs of medical laboratories and of medical schools for pecuni- 
ary assistance? Is there a lack of enthusiasm among us? Or is it 
that morbid dread of financial discussion which led Dr. George B. 
Wood, as I have often heard him say, always to take the other side 
of the street when he saw a man approaching to whom he had sent 
a bill for services rendered ? I know not ; but certainly we are 
somehow at fault in not making plain, not our needs, but for the 
people's needs — for better education of doctors who shall serve 
them, and urgent hurry in the growth of that science which each 
day lifts more and more of the physical ills that burden the race. 

The profession, however, has not been so recusant as at first sight 
appears in this matter. To the modern school of medicine the hos- 
pital is a necessity, and in the foundation of hospitals the medical 
profession has not been idle. 

Sometime in the latter part of the sixties Professor Stille was 
delivering in the Academy of Music one of those old-time com- 
mencement addresses in which the central waxen lay-figure of 
platitudes was clothed in the finest garments of pure and fashionable 
English. While semi-dozing in a carefully selected dark corner the 
thought came to me " we must have a hospital when we move the 
Medical Department over the river." The late Dr. William F. 
Norris, known to us at that time as " Bill Norris," sat next to me. 
I nudged him and gave him the benefit of my thought. He said, 
" Let us talk it over after the ceremonies with Pepper," whom we 
were already selecting as the natural leader of our party. This was 
done, and we finally, notwithstanding the almost contemptuous 
disregard of our elders, obtained permission from the Board of 
Trustees to make the attempt. Dr. George B. Wood gave us a 
subscription of $10,000. Mr. Henry C. Lea agreed to pay, and 
subsequently did pay, the last $2,500 on every $100,000 up to 



Am 7u iy?i9(M arm "} Development of the Medical Laboratories. 343 

$500,000, and we went to work. For the ground upon which to 
build the hospital we applied, with final success, to the city, and 
then we essayed the Legislature for assistance with the building. I 
believe at that time no money had ever been given by the State to 
a hospital not under State control, but during a whole winter we 
met once or twice a week, usually at 10 p.m., districted the State of 
Pennsylvania, searched out in each district the medical alumni of 
the University, made out as far as possible who were the medical 
attendants of each Legislator, and then by personal letters applied 
to our professional brethren, almost always with quick and sure 
response, and so we obtained our appropriation, At last the lot, 
the building, and the first endowment were obtained, and to the 
medical profession the University Hospital owes its existence and 
the possibility of its ever-expanding life. 

The University Hospital spends at least $75,000 a year above all 
moneys which it obtains from pay patients. This sum is in verity a 
payment for the clinical material which under our present medical 
curriculum is essential for the teaching during the third and fourth 
years of the course. If to this money be added the interest of three- 
quarters of a million of dollars, an under-valuation of the plant of 
the University Hospital, and our annual medical class of students 
be estimated at 125, the cost of clinical material for each individual 
student is for each of the last two years of his course about $500. 
It is in providing for this expenditure that the medical profession 
has done its work. Assuredly, however, the time has come when, 
at least temporarily, the medical profession should change the direc- 
tion of its efforts. The deep undermoan of human suffering fills the 
world always with the sound of its pleadings, and when a hospital 
has reached the wealth of popularity and achievement that has 
come to the University Hospital its never-silenced cry for greater 
powers for service will always find altruistic ears to listen. For of 
such is the ever-multiplying harvest from the work of the great Gal- 
ilean Master, at once the result and the seal of His divine teachings. 
The duty of the medical profession at the present moment is to 
make the world understand that as the laboratory underlies medical 
teaching so does it underlie the art as well as the science of medi- 
cine ; and that to endow hospitals and to forget laboratories is to 
prune and train the upper branches of that tree of knowledge 
which is for the healing of the people, and to forget to keep alive the 
root which is the source of all-continuing development and growth. 



344 The American Medical Association. { Am 7u°iya904 aim ' 

THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The fifty-fifth annual meeting of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, held at Atlantic City, N. J., June 7 to 10, 1904, will long be 
remembered as one of the most successful in the history of that 
Association. From the point of view of the pharmacist this meet- 
ing was of more than ordinary interest on account of the inaugura- 
tion of the innovation provided for at the meeting in New Orleans 
last year, admitting pharmaceutical members to the Section on Ma- 
teria Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 

While it is true that the number of these members admitted at 
this meeting was limited, the necessary precedent has been estab- 
lished, and it may reasonably be expected that with the added safe, 
guards, provided for by the section, at future annual meetings 
the number of pharmaceutical members will be materially increased. 

The working by-law, relating to pharmaceutical members, adopted 
at this meeting, provides that any pharmacist desiring to join the 
Section on Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics of the 
American Medical Association must secure the endorsement of the 
local County Medical Society at least three months before the date 
of the annual meeting of the American Medical Association. 

This endorsement with the necessary application is then to be for- 
warded to the Executive Committee of the Section on Materia Med- 
ica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics, who in turn will present the name 
to the members of the section for election. 

This by-law places the responsibility for efficiency and probity of • 
each individual member with the local society, and it is hoped that 
in this way it will be possible to prevent fe the admission of individ- 
uals who would be likely to use any possible advantage that mem- 
bership in the American Medical Association would give them for 
commercial purposes. 

For the pharmacists who were present as members, guests or 
delegates the meetings of the Section on Materia Medica, Pharmacy 
and Therapeutics were, of course, of greatest interest. Under the 
very able chairman, Dr. O. T. Osborne, Professor of Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics at the Yale Medical School, this section was able 
to present a programme containing no less than thirty-three papers. 

The initial meeting, Tuesday, June 7th, consisted practically of a 
symposium on the abuses arising from the use of secret nostrums 



Am 7u°iy?i904 arra '} The American Medical Association. 345 

and proprietary medicines. All of the communications, with the 
possible exception of the one on the coming edition of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia, by Prof. Joseph P. Remington, were largely 
devoted to this particular problem. 

The chairman, Dr. Osborne, in his address pointed out some of the 
possible dangers, to public health and morals, of the rapidly increas- 
ing nostrums and irregular practitioners. 

The chairman's address was followed by the reading of the report 
of the committee on proprietary medicines. This report, in the ab- 
sence of the chairman of the committee, Dr. Harry H. Moody, was 
read by the secretary, Dr. C. S. N. Hallberg, and was a conserva- 
tive and a highly important communication. The committee point 
©ut that the indiscriminate condemnation of all proprietary prepara- 
tions is not alone unjust but also tends to defeat or, at least, delay 
any necessary improvement or reform. They recommend that the 
American Medical Association have in view the gradual elimination 
of objectionable advertisements of medicinal preparations from the 
advertising pages of medical journals, particularly the Journal of 
the American Medical Association. With this object in view, the 
committee enumerate some of the most objectionable features of 
these preparations, and suggest changes that would be necessary to 
bring others within the limits of strictly legitimate preparations. 

The plan as outlined would appear to be reasonable, and if care- 
fully put into operation would be of incalculable benefit to the prac- 
tice of medicine as well as pharmacy. 

" Federal Supervision of Drugs " was the title of a very interesting 
communication by Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, the Chief Chemist of the 
Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, in which he de- 
scribed the work that is being done at the present time by the 
Department of Agriculture as well as by the inspectors of the 
Department of the Treasury to prevent the importation and sale of 
adulterated drugs and food products. He also referred to the efforts 
that are being made by the Postmaster General to prevent the 
transmission in the mails of fraudulent and obnoxious preparations 
or advertisements. Dr. Wiley thinks that if the Postmaster Gen- 
eral receives the hearty support of the members of the medical pro- 
fession in his campaign against concerns doing a fraudulent business 
the latter would soon be exterminated, as they cannot flourish or 



346 The American Medical Association. { Am, jS^iSi arm - 

even exist without the wide publicity that is secured to them by the 
free use of the mails. 

" The Eighth Decennial Revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the 
U. S. A." was the subject of a paper presented by the chairman of 
the Revision Committee, Prof. Joseph P. Remington, who said that 
the new Pharmacopoeia would probably appear in October. He 
spoke at some length of some of the advantages that are expected 
to accrue from the adoption of the recommendations of the Inter- 
national Conference for the unification of the formulae of potent 
medicaments, and called attention to the fact that after the adoption 
of the new Pharmacopoeia a number of the tinctures of potent drugs 
will be materially reduced in strength. 

Tincture of aconite, for instance, instead of being 35 per cent, 
strength, will, with all of the other potent tinctures, have the uni- 
form strength of 10 per cent. 

The use of synonyms will be discouraged by placing them in the 
index but not in the body of the book. Average doses will be 
given. A number of the more widely used synthetic chemicals will 
be admitted under descriptive or definite chemical names. 

" The Relation of the Physician to Proprietary Remedies " was 
the title of a paper presented by Dr. William J. Robinson, of New 
York. In this paper the writer divides physicians into three groups. 
The members of the first, or group A, prescribe anything that comes 
to their knowledge, while the members of group B are ultra-con- 
servative, and never use proprietary medicines under any conditions. 
The members of class C, on the other hand, will carefully inquire 
into the character of new drugs and preparations and, if satisfactory, 
give them a fair trial. 

Robinson differentiates between nostrums of secret composition 
and new remedies for which a patent has been granted, or is obtain- 
able, and believes that the use of the latter is perfectly justifiable. 

The discussion on these papers, collectively, was quite general, 
and certainly spirited. The general trend of the discussion, how- 
ever, appeared to be that the practical instructions in materia med- 
ica and pharmacy as given in by far the greater number of medical 
colleges was inefficient, and that this lack of training, combined with 
the prominence given the claims of proprietary medicines in the 
advertising pages of medical journals, was largely responsible for the 
widespread use of this class of medicinal preparations. 



Am 'j J u°i^904f rro '} The American Medical Association. 347 

The remaining papers were, with some notable exceptions, largely 
devoted to questions of therapeutics. One of the more interesting 
of the exceptional papers was on Apocynum Cannabinum. This was 
an analytical study of the physiological action of preparations of 
this drug, by Horatio C. Wood, Jr. 

Dr. Wood finds apocynum to have a stimulating influence on the 
circulation, acting very much as does digitalis. It causes a slowing 
of the pulse, a rise of blood pressure and, like digitalis, arrests the 
frog heart in systole. 

To give a full account of the scientific meetings would be practi- 
cally impossible, as the programme alone consisted of a very 
respectable volume of more than 140 pages. The twelve sections 
into which the Association is divided, together with the general 
meetings, had offered to them upwards of 400 scientific communica- 
tions. The papers presented at the several section meetings were 
not alone numerous but were also much above the average in qual- 
ity of contents. The most encouraging feature, however, of the 
scientific meetings was the marked interest that was displayed by 
the members attending them. This interest evidenced the earnest- 
ness and sincerity of the members to improve themselves by absorb, 
ing such information as was offered them, and also to contribute in 
return any experiences and ideas that in their opinion might, or 
would, be of interest and value to their fellow practitioners. 

The total attendance was the largest in the history of the Asso- 
ciation, the (2,890) registration exceeding the highest previous 
attendance by fully 40 per cent. 

No little of the credit for the success of this meeting is due to 
the local Committee of Arrangements, who were responsible not 
alone for the selection of the various meeting-places, but who also 
arranged and successfully carried out a most elaborate programme 
of social events, and in this way occupied every moment of time 
from the arrival of the members on Tuesday to their leaving, on the 
special train, on Friday afternoon to attend the dedication of the 
new Medical Laboratories at the University ot Pennsylvania in Phil- 
adelphia. 

The newly elected president of the American Medical Association 
is Dr. Lewis S. McMurtry, of Louisville, Ky., and the next meeting 
will be held in Portland, Ore., in connection with the Lewis & 
Clark Exhibition to be held there next year. 



348 



Obituaries, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July. 1904. 



The officers of the Section on Materia Medica, Pharmacy and 
Therapeutics for 1904-1905 are: Heinrich Stern, New York, chair- 
man ; William J. Robinson, New York, vice-chairman ; C. S. N. 
Hallberg, Chicago, secretary ; J. W. Foss, Phenix, Ariz., delegate. 

M. I. W. 



OBITUARIES. 

William Henry Webb, M.D., was born on the 16th day of Janu- 
ary, 1835, in Philadelphia, where he spent all his early life. At the 
commencement of the Civil War he was in the drug business with 
his cousin, Mr. John E. Grove, on Vine Street, below Thirteenth, 
and belonged to a company of Home Guards called " The Keystone 
Artillery." Early in 1862 he went to Washington, where he received 
an appointment as Chief Druggist at the Armory Square Hospital. 
Here he made the acquaintance of and became very intimate with 
the celebrated surgeon, Dr. Bliss, who was then in charge of the 
hospital. He was located here for some time, ranking as Hospital 
Steward, but on the completion of the Government Laboratory in 
Philadelphia, he was transferred to it by the department as an 
assistant to Chief Chemist Maisch. 

In 1866, he took his degree from the Jefferson Medical College ; 
his thesis on typhoid fever being considered very remarkable on 
account of its containing some original discoveries made by him 
relating to the disease. After graduation he had a quizz class at 
the college and was an assistant in clinic to Dr. DaCosta and others, 
among whom was the celebrated surgeon, Dr. Gross. 

He also graduated from the Army and Navy College and the 
College of Pharmacy in 1868, becoming a member of the latter in 
the same year. Dr. Webb was also a member of the College of 
Physicians and of Post 2, Grand Army of the Republic, of which 
he was surgeon for twenty-three years. For some years he was 
medical examiner for the New England Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany and the John Hancock Life Insurance Company. He belonged 
to Franklin Lodge, No. 134, F. and A. M. ; Corinthian Chasseur 
Commandery, No. 53, Knights Templar, and the Lulu Temple, 
Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. 

He was in practice in the northern section of the city since 1868, 
and at No. 556 North Sixteenth Street since 1880. He died De- 
cember 20, 1903. C. A. Weidemann. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



Obituaries. 



349 



Frank Luerssen. — Mr. Luerssen was born in Philadelphia on 
March 22, 1861, and spent practically all of his life there until he 
graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

During his lifetime he had managed pharmacies in New York 
and Washington. At one time he was in charge of Llewellyn's 
pharmacy, at Broad and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. 

On April 19, 1893, he was married to Mrs. Aurelia Schaeffer, of 
Salem, New Jersey, and shortly thereafter established a pharmacy 
in the city of Salem, which he carried on with success until about 
one year prior to his death, when failing health made it necessary 
for him to retire from active business. He died on January 6, 1904. 

Mr. J. W. Acton, Esq., of Salem, adds : " In submitting this brief 
outline of Mr. Luerssen's career, I feel an impulse to add that he 
was much esteemed here for his gentleness and kindness of heart, 
and his unostentatious generosity. He had great pride in his pro- 
fession and exhibited great zeal in his efforts to establish here a 
pharmacy that would be more than a 'country drug store,' and 
compare favorably with those of larger cities. He was public- 
spirited and took an earnest interest in the permanent betterment 
of our little city. At all times he stood for improvement and 
municipal progress." C. A. W. 

William M. Canby. — By the death of William M. Canby lovers 
of botany have lost a comrade, and the world has been deprived 
of the presence of one of nature's noblemen — a man who was almost 
unceasing in his efforts to give to others a part of what he had 
learned, and who, endowed as he was with the gilt of genius, largely 
enriched our knowledge of plant life. 

To those not familiar with botanical work Mr. Canby's abilities in 
this field of study were little known, his innate modesty preventing 
him from accepting degrees from colleges, who would have been 
only too glad to bestow honor upon him. 

In his home city, Wilmington, Del., it may safely be said that 
many did not know there lived among them a man to whom they 
were indebted for their beautiful parks — a man who kept in touch 
with and was so much loved and appreciated by the leading bot- 
anists of the world. 

His love for botany began early in life, and, being an enthusiastic 
collector, he in 1858 began a systematic collection which, augmented 
by exchanges and purchases, resulted, some forty years later, in an 



350 



Obituaries. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



herbarium of more than 30,000. specimens, purchased by and now 
in the possession of the New York College of Pharmacy. A second 
collection, some 15,000 specimens, he presented to the Natural 
History Society of Wilmington, Del., who naturally treasure it in 
memory of one of the most genial and beloved of men. 

To have known William M. Canby was to love him. He was always 
ready to impart his knowledge of botany and give advice even in 
matters of business, to which he was no stranger, having been 
identified with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad as a director ; a 
director in several banking concerns, and for twenty-four years 
President of the Wilmington Saving Fund — the strongest institution 
of its kind in the State of Delaware. 

There is now a movement on foot to erect a substantial memorial 
of him, which will be placed in the beautiful Brandywine Park, that 
he so much loved and to which he devoted a great part of his energy 
and ability in beautifying. 

The following has been issued by the Canby Memorial Fund 
Committee : 

Many of the friends of the late William M. Canby, in recognition 
of the eminent service he rendered to the scientific world as a bot- 
anist, and to the city of Wilmington as President of the Park Com- 
mission, have thought it fitting and appropriate to erect a simple, 
plain, but suitable memorial to him in the Brandywine Park. 

The Park Commission having given its consent to such a memo- 
rial, also added its approval by appointing a committee consisting 
of W. D. Bush, John M. Rogers and J. Newlin Gawthorp, who, with 
the Hon. William C. Spruance, Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Delaware ; Prof. C. S. Sargent, of Harvard University, and the Rev. 
W. F. D. Lewis, minister of the Rodney Street Church, have decided 
upon a suitable site for such a memorial. 

The site selected lies on a cliff overlooking the third dam on the 
park driveway between Franklin and Broome Streets. 

The nature of the memorial will not be decided upon until all 
those who knew and appreciated the work of the late William M. 
Canby have had the opportunity of contributing. 

Contributious may be sent to the Rev. W. F. D. Lewis, 1314 
West Tenth Street, Wilmington, Del., who will act as treasurer of 
the fund, which will be placed in bank until the sum necessary for 
such an appropriate memorial is raised. J. S. Beetem. 



m. Jour. Priarm. 
July, 1904. 



Notes and News. 



351 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

A Bronze Statue of Dr. Benjamin Rush was unveiled in Washington on 
June nth. It was given to the nation by the American Medical Association, 
and Prof. J. H. Musser, of Philadelphia, President of the Association, made 
the/ presentation address. It was accepted on behalf of the Government by 
President Roosevelt. The statue is of heroic size and stands on the grounds of 
the U. S. Naval Museum. 




College House of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Coeeege House of the Phieadeephia Coeeege of Pharmacy.— In the 
November issue of this Journae attention was called to the establishment of a 
house for the use of the students of this College. Results have shown that this 
undertaking was a wise one, not only in furnishing the students with comfort- 
able and healthful surroundings, but also in promoting fraternal relations among 
them. 

This year the College House Association has, by the aid of Mr. William 
Weightmau, of the firm of Powers & Weightman, secured control of a finely 



352 



Notes and Neivs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1904. 



equipped apartment house, fitted with all modern conveniences, bathrooms, 
steam heaters, parlor, reception-room, toilet-rooms, dining-rooms, and accom- 
modations for sixty students. 

The house is situated at 112 North Eighteenth Street, and is everything that 
can be desired, with an open outlook in the rear. Plenty of ventilation is pro- 
vided. A nominal board is charged each student, which is less than poor 
accommodations elsewhere would cost. 

Present and prospective students should communicate at once with E. Fuller- 
ton Cook, P.D., 145 N. Tenth Street, Philadelphia. The house is under the 
control of a Board of Governors, which is composed as follows: Mahlon N. 
Kline, Chairman; Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Howard B. French, W. A. Rum- 
sey, Prof. S. P. Sadtler, Henry C. Blair, Jacob Baer, James T. Shinn and E. 
Fullerton Cook. 

Howard B. French, President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
gave an informal dinner to the Faculty and members of the Board of Trustees, 
at his summer residence, " Alderbrook," near Valley Forge, on Wednesday, 
June 22d. The ride from the station to Mr. French's home is through a beau- 
tiful section of country, which is especially attractive at this season, with the 
roses in full bloom and ripe cherries loading the trees. Mr. French's grounds 
are extensive, including a large lawn and a wooded area, both of which are in 
excellent condition. The occasion furnished ar opportunity for the members 
to meet together socially, and was highly enjoyed by all. 

Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. — The annual meeting was 
held at Cambridge Springs, Crawford County, June 21st, 22d and 23d, the Hotel 
Rider being the headquarters of the Association. A full account of the meeting 
will be published in our next issue. 

Milk in Typhoid Fever is the title of an illustrated pamphlet recently 
published by the Smith, Kline & French Company. The color illustrations, 
showing the actual condition of the intestinal surfaces during the different 
stages of typhoid fever, are well reproduced, and are from Kast and Rumpel's 
classical work. The paper is devoted to a discussion of the use of cereal decoc- 
tions in modifying the defects of a milk diet alone in typhoid fever. 

Commercial Catalogues. — In a plea for a bibliography of the documents 
pertaining to American pharmaceutical history Edward Kremers {Bulletin of 
J-harmacy, June, 1904) says: "In such a bibliography catalogues of manufac- 
turers and jobbers will and should occupy a conspicuous place. Each existing 
manufacturing and jobbing firm should regard it a matter of pride to collect a 
complete set of its own catalogues, price-lists, and even leaflets, if possible, and 
present them to the American Pharmaceutical Association. The sooner this is 
done the better." 

America's First Cutter.— M. I. Wilbert {Ibid.) gives a sketch of T. W. 
Dyott, who, during the early part of the nineteenth century, conducted what 
was probably the first cut-rate drug store in this country, his establishment 
being at Second and Race Streets, in Philadelphia. 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy.— Prof. Wilbur t,. Scoville has 
resigned the professorship of pharmacy in this institution, and has accepted a 
position with a large Boston drug firm. Prof. E. H. La Pierre has been chosen 
his successor. 



DR. BENJAMIN RUSH 
(1745-1813). 

From " The History of Medicine in the United States," 
by Francis R. Packard, M.I). 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



AUGUST, 1904. 



SOME EARLY TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY IN AMERICA. 

BY M. I. WlIvBKRT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The science of chemistry, as we know it, may be said to have had 
its inception in the work of Johann Joachim Becher, who published 
several books relating to chemistry some time after the middle of 
the seventeenth century. Becher's ideas, however, were so radically 
different from those held by the then dominating sect of iatro- 
chemists that it was not until several decades later that they were 
finally adopted, in a modified form, by Georg Ernst Stahl as the 
basis of his theory of phlogiston. According to this theory it was 
supposed that a substance, which Stahl called phlogiston, formed a 
part of all combustible bodies and that its separation constituted fire. 

This theory, although soon found to be untenable, contributed 
very largely to the rapid development of chemical philosophy that 
took place in the latter decades of the eighteenth century, when 
chemists and philosophers, who were divided into two sects or 
schools, followers of Stahl or Lavoisier, vied with each other to prove 
the correctness of their particular beliefs or theories by actual dem- 
onstrations and experiments. As is now generally recognized, it is 
to this experimental work, that was largely done to defend or to 
prove the correctness of an erroneous theory, that we are indebted 
for much of our present knowledge of chemical properties and 
phenomena. 

Recognizing the, at that time, crude and undeveloped condition 
of chemical philosophy, it will not surprise us to find that the first 

(353) 



354 Teachers of Chemistry in America. {^^Sim™* 

attempts at teaching the rudiments of this science, in this country, 
were humble indeed, and that the number of the earlier teachers or 
students, who were in a position to contribute in any way to the 
advancement of correct theories or facts, was indeed limited. 

In reviewing the accomplishments and achievements of these 
pioneers in natural philosophy and chemistry, we must bear in mind, 
therefore, the peculiar conditions of their environment and the 
incomplete and undeveloped state of the science or art. We should 
not judge of their achievements by what they themselves have 
accomplished as practical chemists, but rather by the influence they 
have had, in a more general way, on their students, their times and 
their surroundings. In the following pages an attempt has been 
made to review the names of some of these earlier teachers, as near 
as possible chronologically, and to point out or to suggest the lines 
along which they have made themselves worthy of emulation or 
deserving of kindly remembrance on our part. 

Probably the first regularly appointed teacher of natural philoso- 
phy in this country was John Winthrop, a descendant of Governor 
Winthrop, who was appointed professor of natural philosophy in the 
University of Cambridge, now better known as Harvard, in 1738. 

John Winthrop, who died in 1779, was born in 1714. He was a 
graduate of Harvard and occupied the Hollis chair of natural phil- 
osophy in that institution for upward of forty years. The influence 
that John Winthrop had on the development of the physical and 
chemical sciences, indirectly at least, has been of considerable 
moment. It was largely due to the teaching and precept of John 
Winthrop that Benjamin Thompson, better known as Count Rum- 
ford, was induced to pursue his studies into the phenomena of light 
and heat that have contributed so much to advance scientific investi- 
gations along these lines. 

In addition to this, Count Rumford, despite the fact that he had 
been practically expatriated and had spent the greater period of his 
life in England and in Germany, devised to Harvard University a 
considerable sum with which to endow a professorship " to teach by 
regular courses of academical and public lectures, accompanied by 
proper experiments, the utility of the physical and mathematical 
sciences for the improvement of the useful arts and for the exten- 
sion ol the industry, happiness and well-being of society." 

Among other then existing schools that followed the example 



Am Au|ust^m m *} Teachers of Chemistry in America. 355 

of Harvard, the most conspicuous for progressiveness was the 
Academy, later known as the College, of Philadelphia, founded by 
Benjamin Franklin in 1749. The Board of Trustees of this institu- 
tion, in 1754, elected Mr. William Smith, " a gentleman lately ar- 
rived from London," to teach logic, rhetoric, ethics and natural 
philosophy. 

In the latter department he was assisted, after 1758, by the Rev. 
Dr. John Ewing, who, in that year, was elected professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy. 

The institution of medical schools necessitated a fuller and more 
exhaustive exposition of what was then known of medical chemis- 
try. Dr. John Morgan, the founder of the first medical school in 
America, was also the first to teach this special branch of chemis- 
try, or, as he defines it, in his " Discourse on the Introduction of 
Medical Schools," " pharmaceutic chemistry, that branch of philo- 
sophic chemistry which regards the particular properties of such 
bodies as are appropriated to medicine." 

Dr. Morgan was succeeded in the chair of chemistry by Br. 
Benjamin Rush, who, at the suggestion of John Morgan, had paid 
special attention to the study of chemistry while abroad. . 

Dr. Rush was elected professor of chemistry in the College of 
Philadelphia in 1769. While it cannot be said that Rush was the 
first to teach chemistry in this country, he was probably the first to 
teach it in the more practical or. demonstrative way that was being 
followed in the larger institutions of Europe. On his return from 
England he had brought with him "a compleat chymical appa- 
ratus," the gift of the proprietor, Thomas Penn. One of the special 
qualifications that fitted him to teach this branch in the newly 
established medical school was that he had seen every important 
chemical experiment carried out at least twice, and felt assured that 
he could duplicate them on his return. 

Dr. Rush continued as professor of chemistry until after the 
breaking out of the Revolutionary War, when the courses of lectures 
in the medical department of the College of Philadelphia were, for 
the time being, discontinued. 

In 1768, the year before the appointment of Dr. Rush as pro- 
fessor of chemistry in Philadelphia, Dr. James Smith was appointed 
professor of chemistry and materia medica in the medical school of 
Kings County, New York. Dr. Smith had studied at Leyden, and 



356 Teachers of Chemistry in America. { AD ^uS. w<M rm ' 

was probably well grounded in the science as it was then known. 
He did not continue long as a teacher, as owing to his removal 
from New York, in 1770, he was succeeded in the chair of chemis- 
try by Dr. Samuel Bard, the founder of the medical school in Kings 
College, who was also the professor of the theory and practice of 
physic. This school, like the one in Philadelphia, was discontinued 
during the Revolutionary war. In 1792 it was reorganized as the 
medical department of Columbia College, and Dr. Nicholl was 
elected professor of chemistry. 

Fortunes of war and Pennsylvania politicians had, in the meantime, 
played sad havoc with the College of Philadelphia. The legislature 
of the State had, in November, 1779, passed an act abrogating the 
charter of the College, confiscating its estates and removing from 
office all officials, professors and others, in any way connected with 
the institution. In extenuation of this summary action on the part 
of the legislature, it may be said that the provost of the col- 
lege, Dr. William Smith, was suspected of being in favor of. the 
royalist party, and that a number of the members of the board of 
trustees were thought to be antagonistic to the new government. 

The confiscated estates were transferred to a new institution, cre- 
ated by the legislature for that purpose, called the University of the 
State of Pennsylvania. Dr. John Ewing, who, it will be remem- 
bered, had been the assistant of Dr. William Smith in the Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, was elected provost and professor of natural 
philosophy, in which capacity he taught chemistry until his death 
in 1802. Considerable difficulty was experienced in trying to orga- 
nize a medical faculty, and it was not until 1783 that the school 
was finally put in operation with practically the same faculty that 
had taught in the College of Philadelphia. Dr. Rush continued to 
leach chemistry until 1789, when he, with the other professors, re- 
s'gned to accept the corresponding professorship in the then reor- 
ganized College of Philadelphia. In this capacity he was succeeded, 
on the death of John Morgan and his own advancement to the chair 
of the theory and practice of medicine, in 1789, by Caspar Wistar, 
who was elected professor of chemistry and of the institutes of 
physic. The officials of the University of the State of Pennsylvania 
decided to continue a medical department of their own, and Dr. 
James Hutchinson was elected professor of chemistry and materia 
medica. The career of Dr. Hutchinson is one of the most interest- 



Am iujust^m m '} Teachers of Chemistry in America. 357 

ing and most inspiring of the early medical practitioners of America. 
He was a graduate of the medical department of the College of 
Philadelphia, and has the distinction of being the first on this conti- 
nent to win a prize for proficiency in chemistry. This prize, a gold 
medal, was awarded him in 1774 by the board of trustees of the 
College of Philadelphia for his superior knowledge in chemistry. 

In 1773, after a competitive examination, James Hutchinson was 
selected to act as apothecary to the Pennsylvania Hospital. In this 
capacity he served until some time after his graduation from the 
College of Philadelphia, when he resigned, intending to go abroad 
to complete his medical education. 

The breaking out of the Revolutionary War hastened his return. 
He sailed from France, in 1777, bearing important despatches from 
Benjamin Franklin to the Colonial Congress. When near the 
American coast the vessel he was in was chased by a British man- 
of-war. Dr. Hutchinson, being desirous of saving the despatches 
entrusted to him, succeeded in landing in an open boat. The ship 
itself was subsequently captured and with it Dr. Hutchinson lost 
not only his personal effects, but also a valuable medical library that 
he had gathered together while abroad. In 1779 Dr. Hutchinson 
was appointed by the Legislature to serve as a member of the Board 
of Trustees of the University of the State of Pennsylvania ; he, how- 
ever, persistently refused to accept any of the medical professorships 
until after the reorganization of the College of Philadelphia, when, 
as noted above, he accepted the chair of chemistry in the University 
Medical School. After the amalgamation of the two Philadelphia 
schools as the medical departments of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Dr. Hutchinson was elected to continue as professor of chem- 
istry. Dr. Hutchinson died in the autumn of 1793 of epidemic 
yellow fever — a martyr to medical science and his own sense of duty 
to the poor of the city, in the terrible epidemic that ravaged Phila- 
delphia in that year. 

The chair of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania, vacated 
by the death of Dr. Hutchinson, was conferred on Dr. John Carson, 
of whose chemical abilities very little is known, and who died before 
he entered on his duties as a professor. 

Largely if not entirely through the influence of Dr. Rush, the 
position was then offered to the Rev. Dr. Joseph Priestley, who had 
but recently arrived in America. After having some correspondence 



358 



Teachers of Chemistry in America. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X August, 1904. 



on the matter with Dr. Rush, Priestley declined the offer, preferring 
to end his remaining days quietly in his retreat on the shores of the 
Susquehanna. 

The arrival of Priestley in America marks a new era in the history 
of the development of chemistry and chemical teaching in this 
country. Priestley, despite the fact that he had, at that time, made 
numerous original discoveries, and among other substances had dis- 
covered oxygen, was a staunch adherent of the theory of phlogiston, 
and despite his age he entered actively into the controversy that 
wis then waging between the followers of the two schools. 

Opposing him in this country were three men that deserve more 





Dr. James Hutchinson 
(I752-I793)- 



Dr Samuel Latham Mitchii^l 
(1764-1831). 



than passing mention. The first of these, and the first to teach the 
principles of the Lavoisierian or antiphlogistic school of chemistry 
in America, was Dr. Samuel Latham Mitchill, who was elected pro- 
fessor of chemistry and natural history in Columbia College in 1792. 

Dr. Mitchill was a man of considerable learning and of varied 
attainments ; he was keenly alive to and fully appreciated the value 
of practical experience and original research, and, despite the fact 
that he was among the most persistent and aggressive of the oppo- 
nents of Priestley, was also generally considered to be one of his 
staunchest friends. By far the greater number of the contributions 
relating to the controversy, on chemical philosophy, were published 



An Ai?gus r t jm m * } Teachers of Chemistry in America. 359 

in the earlier volumes of the Medical Repository, New York, one 
of the earliest of the regular medical publications, founded and 
edited by Samuel L. Mitchill (1 797-1826). 

From a pharmaceutical point of view the career of Dr. Mitchill 
is particularly interesting. He was practically the author of the 
Pharmacopoeia of the New York Hospital, published in 18 16, and 
was subsequently elected a delegate of the Medical Society of the 
State of New York to the district convention for the Middle States, 
which met in Philadelphia on the first day of June, 18 19. There he 
was elected vice-president and appointed one of the delegates to the 
general convention that was to meet in Washington on the first day 
of January, 1820. As is well known, the general convention met in 
the Capitol at Washington, on the appointed date, to consider the 
feasibility and advisability of issuing a National Pharmacopoeia. 
Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill was elected president, and as such deserves 
considerable of the credit for the successful inauguration of a national 
standard or Pharmacopoeia. 

In his controversy with Priestley, Mitchill was ably seconded by 
John MacLean, a native of Scotland, and a former pupil of Black and 
of Hope. Dr. MacLean was probably the first in this country to be 
elected to a chair of chemistry in a purely academical school. He 
was elected professor of chemistry at Nassau Hall, Princeton, in 
1795. Dr. MacLean continued to teach at Princeton until some time 
after the beginning of the nineteenth century, when he accepted a 
similar position at William and Mary, in Virginia. The third op- 
ponent of Priestley was Dr. James Woodhouse, Priestley's successor 
as professor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. 
Woodhouse was born in Philadelphia, November 17, 1 770. He was 
elected professor of chemistry in 1795, and was probably the first 
in America to devote his time exclusively to the study and teach- 
ing of chemical science. Philadelphia about this time was the 
most populous and the most progressive city in the country. It 
was also considered the centre of medical as well as scientific knowl- 
edge, and attracted students from all sections of the United States. 
An excellent descriptive picture of Philadelphia, at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, may be found in the memoirs of Benjamin 
Silliman, who, after his election as professor of chemistry at Yale, 
came to Philadelphia to absorb the rudiments of that science from 
Dr. Woodhouse. From these memoirs it would appear that the 



360 Teachers of Chemistry in America. { Ar ^.ujus r t,^m m 

lectures on chemistry, freely illustrated by actual experiments, were 
given in connection with the regular course of medical instruction 
in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. This 
department occupied a small building on South Fifth Street, opposite 
the State House yard, that was variously known as Surgeon's Hall, 
Anatomical Hall, or The Laboratory. It was in this same building 





THE LABORATORY AND MEDICAL SCHOOL 
(1765-1807)-. 

From "The History of Medicine in the United States," by Francis 
R. Packard, M.D. 

that the first chemical society held its weekly meetings, and it was 
probably in the chemical laboratory, situated on the first floor, that 
Seybert, Hare, Woodhouse, Bryant and others of the more active 
members, made their analyses of and experiments with indigenous 
minerals. 

This early chemical society was under the patronage of Drs. Sey- 
bert and Woodhouse, and included among its list of active members 



AD ASt P i9o a 4 rm " } Teachers of Chemistry in America. 361 

such eminent medical practitioners as Dr. Benjamin Rush, John S. 
Dorsey and John C. Otto. At least one of the then existing apoth- 
ecaries, John Y. Bryant, was an active member of the society. Mr. 
Bryant served the society as treasurer and also as a member of 
the Analyzing Committee. Prominent among the younger mem- 
bers of this society was Robert Hare, the inventor of the oxy- 
hydrogen blowpipe, and at a later period professor of chemistry 
in the University of Pennsylvania. Silliman, too, no doubt, attended 
the meetings of this society ; at all events, he became intimately 
attached to and a warm admirer of Hare, the two working together 
in a private laboratory that they had contrived to fit up in the base^ 
ment of their boarding-house. 

There are, however, several teachers of the eighteenth century 
that should still be mentioned. At William and Mary, in Virginia, 
the Rev. James Madison, later Bishop of Virginia, was elected pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy in 1774. Despite his numerous other 
duties, Bishop Madison continued to teach until his death in 1 81 2, 
when he was succeeded by Dr. John MacLean, the one-time professor 
of chemistry in Nassau Hall, Princeton. 

At Yale Prof. Josiah Meigs delivered lectures on natural philoso- 
phy from 1794 to 1801. According to one of his pupils, Benjamin 
Silliman, " he was a gentleman of great intelligence and was well 
read in the chemical writers of the French school." 

The first teacher of chemistry at Harvard, apart from natural phi- 
losophy, was Dr. Aaron Dexter, who, while not a brilliant teacher, 
or, according to an anecdote told by Oliver Wendell Holmes, not a 
very successful experimenter, was, nevertheless, instrumental in 
securing for Harvard University at least some of the material 
with which to lay the firm foundation on which the teaching 
of the science in that institution now rests. It was Dr. Aaron 
Dexter who, in 1 782, induced Mr. William Erving, a wealthy 
citizen of Boston, to endow a chair of Chemistry and Materia 
Medica in the newly organized medical school of the University of 
Cambridge. To this chair Dr. Dexter was elected in 1783 and con- 
tinued to teach until 1806, when he was succeeded by Dr. John 
Gorham, a brilliant lecturer and a very able teacher, who had been 
a fellow-student with Silliman, in Edinburgh, under Dr. Thomas 
Hope, then professor of chemistry. 

Another chair of chemistry, founded before the beginning of the 



362 Teachers of Chemistry in America, \^klllli?S™' 

nineteenth century, was that in the medical department of Dart- 
mouth College, New Hampshire. This was occupied for several 
years by Dr. Lyman Spalding, who was elected professor of chemis- 
try and materia medica in 1798. 

Dr. Spalding was closely associated in later years with the origin 
and successful publication of the first United States Pharmacopoeia. 
It was Dr. Spalding who, in 18 17, submitted to the New York 
County Medical Society a project for the formation of a National 
Pharmacopoeia, to be published by the authority of the medical so- 
cieties and medical schools in the United States. His suggestion 
was adopted, and he was subsequently elected one of the delegates 
to the convention, where he was elected a member, and later 
chairman, of the Committee of Publication, thus being practically 
the editor of the first United States Pharmacopoeia. 

After the beginning of the nineteenth century chairs and teachers 
of chemistry increased rapidly. Of medical schools alone, Dr. 
James Thacher, in his " History of Medicine in America," enumer- 
ates no less than twenty existing in the United States in 1825. 
Few of the then professors contributed materially to advance the 
science of chemistry. By far the greater number of these teachers 
were actively engaged in, or more interested in, the practice of medi- 
cine than in chemical research. Notable exceptions were Robert 
Hare, professor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Benjamin Silliman, of Yale, whose achievements in this particular 
field are so well and so favorably known that it will not be necessary 
to enumerate them at this time. Another notable exception that 
should be mentioned was Dr. Parker Cleaveland, who was elected 
professor of chemistry in Bowdoin College, Maine, in 1820, and who 
contributed materially to advance the general knowledge of chemical 
philosophy of his time. 

The first quarter of the nineteenth century also saw the introduc- 
tion of pharmaceutical and technical schools. The first of these, the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, founded in 1821, elected as its 
first professor of chemistry Gerard Troost, a particularly able and 
scholarly man, who had studied chemistry at Leyden and was well 
versed in the theory as well as in the practice of the science. Troost 
subsequently became professor of chemistry and mineralogy in the 
University of Nashville. At the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
he was followed in 1822 by Dr. George B. Wood, then quite a young 



t ■ 

An AuJus r t,^m m '} Teachers of Chemistry in America. 363 

man, who later became well known as an author and also as a teacher 
in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. 

The College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, founded in 
1829, had as its first professor of chemistry John Torrey, who is 
deservedly esteemed for his attainments in various departments of 
science, and who was, at that time, considered one of the most suc- 
cessful instructors in chemistry in the United States. 

In the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, founded in 1824, Dr. W. 
H. Keating was elected the first professor of chemistry; he was fol- 
lowed several years later by Dr. Franklin Bache, who, as is well 
known, succeeded Dr. Wood as professor of chemistry in the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. 

In the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y., also founded 
in 1824, Amos Eaton was one of the first to teach chemistry. 

Probably the first woman to teach chemistry in this country was 
Mrs. Almira H. Lincoln, the vice-principal of the Troy Female 
Seminary, who taught chemistry with considerable success in 1830, 
if not before. 

Popular lectures on chemical subjects were probably instituted in 
Philadelphia in 1807, when Dr. Joseph Parrish gave a series of public 
lectures and demonstrations. Dr. Parrish continued his courses for 
several years with considerable success. The same idea was subse- 
quently followed up by Dr. Benjamin Silliman and others, who gave 
regular courses of popular lectures that contributed very materially 
to the rapid spread of knowledge of the subject among people who 
would otherwise take little or no interest in this particular line. 

Closely allied to popular lectures was the publication of scientific 
and technical journals. The first of these was the American Mine- 
ralogical Journal, published in 18 10 and conducted by Dr. Archibald 
Bruce. This journal had a short and rather precarious existence, 
but is, nevertheless, interesting as being the pioneer of the numerous 
similar publications existing at the present time. 

It was followed in 1 81 8 by the publication of the American Journal 
of Science y edited by Professor Silliman. This journal has been a 
most important factor in the development of chemical philosophy. 

The Journal of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the 
pioneer pharmaceutical journal in the English language, was first 
published in 1 825. The history of this venture and its successful 
continuation has been so recently and so ably told by Professor 



364 



Entrance Requirements. 



(Am, Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1904. 



Kraemer (A. J. P., 1904, page 223) that it will only be necessary to 
refer to the facts at the present time. 

One other of the early journals that should be mentioned is the 
Journal of the Franklin Institute. This was first published in 1826, 
and, like the preceding, still enjoys an enviable reputation in its own 
particular field. 



WHEN SHALL HIGH-SCHOOL GRADUATION, OR ITS 
EQUIVALENT, BE ENFORCED BY COLLEGES OF 
PHARMACY AS A CONDITION OF ENTRANCE? 

By W. M. Seakby. 

I do not deem it necessary at this time to show by facts or argu- 
ment the desirability of higher entrance requirements for admission 
to colleges of pharmacy. This I believe to be so universally con- 
ceded that it does not need any further enforcement ; neither shall 
I attempt to show that it is desirable that the minimum requirement 
should be graduation from a high school (or the equivalent thereof), 
for this, I believe, is also practically conceded ; nor will I go over 
the ground which I traversed in my paper before the American 
Pharmaceutical Association in 1902, in which I endeavored to show 
that high-school graduation was not only desirable, but feasible 
within a very few years, if concerted action could be secured by a 
few of the largest colleges. I wish to show in this paper that the 
time has actually arrived when decisive action should be and could 
be taken, so that high-school graduation would be actually demanded 
and enforced within a few years from the present date, considering, 
first, when shall the advance be made toward this end, and, sec- 
ondly, how shall it be done ? 

The advantages to be secured by such a course would, in my 
opinion, include the following : 

(1) A more intelligent and studious student body. 

(2) Greater uniformity of attainment by the students. 

(3) More satisfactory progress by the students while in college, 
and higher attainments at graduation. 

(4) A higher order of class and college spirit. 

(5) A more cultured and more highly respected graduate body. 

I think the advance should be made now, and that it should be 
made gradually. I believe the majority of colleges now admit stu- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1904. J 



Entrance Requirements. 



365 



dents on grammar school graduation, or less. To bring the mini- 
mum to high-school graduation would mean an increase of from 
three to four years of academic instruction. Necessarily, the ad- 
vance requirement must be made gradually, and in order to give 
those who are now in school preparing for a pharmaceutical career, 
or who have left school and are employed in pharmacies, the neces- 
sary time to prepare themselves for entrance, some notice of such 
advance should be generally diffused. If it were made known this 
year that no student could obtain entrance into a good school of 
pharmacy in the autumn of 1905 unless he had spent one year in 
high school, or had fitted himself, through private study, to take an 
examination covering the same work, these young people would 
have time to prepare themselves for entrance. And if it were fur- 
ther announced that every year or two additional high school work 
would be demanded, students would fit themselves to meet the 
requirements. It will be contended that large numbers of young 
persons would dodge this unwelcome preparatory study and content 
themselves either with going to such schools of pharmacy as kept 
their doors open to them, or would eschew college altogether, and 
trust to luck in getting through the State Board. This is true, 
doubtless, of a considerable number; but on the other hand a more 
desirable class of persons would come forward to seek entrance to a 
calling that has in it more dignity and higher public appreciation. 
Some years ago the entrance requirements for schools of pharmacy 
in Great Britain were somewhat suddenly and greatly advanced. It 
was expected that these requirements would almost empty the 
schools. To the astonishment of the faint-hearted ones, the very 
opposite was the effect, and for several years the number of students 
in pharmacy was greater than it had ever been, because many per- 
sons felt that pharmacy would be on a higher plane, and was, there- 
fore, worthy of the serious attention of ambitious young men. It 
goes without saying that the intellectual calibre of those who entered 
pharmacy under the new conditions was considerably superior to 
that of their predecessors. While I do not anticipate an increased 
number of students under advanced entrance requirements in this 
country, I believe that the falling off would only be for one or two 
years, and that the moral effect of the new conditions would ulti- 
mately benefit the schools in the matter of attendance by causing 
every one that would enter a drug store with a view of following 



366 



Entrance Requirements. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1904. 



pharmacy for life, to do so with the foregone conclusion that a course 
in a school of pharmacy was a necessary condition. At the present 
time there are thousands of young men in drug stores who have 
never been to a school of pharmacy and have no intention of going 
there. It is for us to bring about a condition of things that will 
make a pharmacy course essential, not necessarily by legal enact- 
ment, as in New York, though that is desirable, but from the force 
of universal sentiment. In medicine the man who essays to practice 
without a college diploma is regarded, not only by graduates in medi- 
cine, but by the public, as a quack. In dentistry it is rapidly becom- 
ing so, and, likewise, in the practice of law ; yet, it is not many 
years since our large cities had great numbers of men practising all 
three of these professions without a college education. In dentistry 
in particular the change has been brought about with wonderful 
rapidity, and it has come because the public has realized that the 
graduates in that profession were the best men. It is for the lead- 
ers of pharmacy to bring about a like amelioration in the ranks of 
our own profession, but we cannot do it by sending into the world 
illiterate, half-educated graduates, whose general attainments are but 
little superior to those of the ungraduated. Let it be generally 
known that the holder of a diploma in pharmacy is, firstly, a man 
of general culture and, secondly, a man of good pharmaceutical 
education, and pharmacy will be respected by the public far more 
than it is now. 

Specifically, what steps should be taken at this time to bring 
about a consummation so devoutly to be wished? Assuming that 
the American Pharmaceutical Association should commit itself to an 
expression of opinion in favor of a definite plan whereby, at certain 
dates, the minimum qualification for entrance should be, firstly, one 
year; secondly, two years; and, thirdly, graduation from a high 
school ; and, assuming that the Conference of Pharmaceutical Facul- 
ties should also endorse the same plan, there would be such a large 
proportion of the best schools acting upon this procedure, that the 
effect upon other schools that held out against it would be that they 
would quickly take second rank in the esteem of pharmacists ; and 
when a college once gets relegated to a second- or third-rate posi- 
tion among its competitors, its days as a successful financial institu- 
tion are numbered. Such schools would, before long, be compelled 
to come into line. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1904. j 



Entrance Requirements. 



367 



But suppose that only a limited number of colleges, now members 
of the Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties, should be willing to 
adopt this plan, what would be the result ? If these colleges were 
among the smaller and less known institutions, the plan would 
probably be a failure, though that is by no means certain. Speaking 
for one of these smaller colleges in a remote portion of the country 
that has already made a beginning in the line here indicated, I would 
say that it is my impression that up to the present time our college 
has gained rather than lost by our advanced entrance requirements. 
We lost heavily for two years, but since that we have regained our 
attendance in the face of a competition as great as that in any part 
of the United States ; for we have five college* of pharmacy on the 
Pacific Coast, with an aggregate population, between British Colum- 
bia and Mexico, of only two millions and a half, and the others all 
admit on lower entrance qualifications than ours. 

But if a few of the larger colleges, with their ample resources, 
their grand history and magnificent prestige, their eminent faculty 
and ample equipment, should adopt, at a very early date, high school 
entrance requirements, they would loom up head and shoulders 
above those who threw their doors open to practically all comers, 
and it would not be many years before the more lax colleges would 
find it to their interest to fall into line. 

I almost feel like apologizing to the readers of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy and the pharmacists of America for what has, 
thus far, been written, because I have treated the whole matter as if 
it were a commercial one. I have sought to show that the change 
indicated can be made without financial loss. I now go further and 
say that it ought to be made, even if it does involve financial loss. 
We took that position several years ago in our own school and bore 
our loss bravely, not knowing whether we should ever recoup our- 
selves. These strong financial institutions are vastly better able to 
make this experiment than we were. In the world's history few 
reforms of real value have been attained without sacrifice. Let the 
colleges of pharmacy show that they have the reformer's spirit, and 
are willing to do what they know would be best, even if it should 
entail upon them some financial loss. Such a position as I now 
advocate, taken by four or five of the largest colleges, would, I feel 
sure, result in such a large measure of success that they would, for- 
ever afterwards, congratulate themselves on the position they had 
taken. 



3 68 



Bromide of Potassium. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X August, 1904. 



I do not, at this time, discuss the minimum requirements for 
graduation. That is a very large subject, and is still more difficult 
to deal with than the matter of preliminary education. Even the 
medical and dental colleges, with all their years of experience, have 
only recently come to a general agreement as to length of time to 
be consumed in a college course, and, at present, I am not prepared 
to discuss this subject, because, in my judgment, the two matters 
can be best discussed separately. 



BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM. 
By Francis J. Smith. 

During the past eighteen months the writer has had occasion to 
examine a considerable number of samples of bromide of potassium, 
and, as a comparison of the quality of different manufacturers' goods 
over such an extended period may be of interest, it has been thought 
worth while to publish the results. 

The salt was titrated in the usual way, and any excess of silver 
nitrate consumed was calculated into terms of chloride of potassium by 
the method for estimation of chlorides in presence of bromides given 
in "Muter's Analytical Chemistry," page 116. Chloride and car- 
bonate are generally the only two impurities met with, and of these 
the former is usually present in larger proportion than the latter. 
Some few samples did contain an excessive amount of carbonate, 
and in those cases the results obtained by the above method would 
not be absolutely correct ; but in the majority of cases, where the 
amount of carbonate did not exceed the small quantity allowed by 
the U.S.P., the results would hardly be affected. 

Where a larger proportion of carbonate exists, very accurate 
results can be obtained by first neutralizing with normal hydro, 
bromic acid solution, using phenol phthalein as indicator, calculating 
the carbonate of potassium thus found into bromide of potassium and 
deducting this amount from the total bromide of potassium, as esti- 
mated subsequently with silver nitrate test solution. 

It will be seen, by an examination of the table, that very reliable 
bromide is supplied by five out of the six manufacturers here repre- 
sented. 

Two samples from A and one sample from B were rejected as 
failing to answer the U.S.P. tests. From C, however, we find a large 
proportion of the samples had to be rejected. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1904. 



Bromide of Potassium. 



369 



In most of these the crystals were small and badly formed ; often 
aggregated into flat cakes, and conveying the impression that they 
formed the last crystallization from very concentrated mother 
liquors, which would account for the high percentage of impurities. 



1903 




1903 


B. 


1903 


C. 


I 9°3 


D 




p. c. 




p. c. 




p.c. 






p. c. 


Jan. 27 


968 


Feb. 17 


98-97 


Jan. 22 


94 - » 


| excess of KC1 and 
\ very alkaline. 


Feb. 17 


99*4 


Feb. 17 


98-9 


Mch. 19 


95"8o 2 


" 24 


94*8 




April 30 


99' 6 


Mch. 11 


99 "5 


" 25 


98-6 


Feb. 20 


97*4 




May 26 


99*9 


" 19 


95'8 


April 3 


97*o 


Mar. 19 


90*9 


44 " 


June 3 


97*0 


" 25 


98*1 


" 8 


97-0 


" 21 


986 




" 18 


99*3 


April 4 


99 1 


9 


98*0 


April 14 


97*o 




juiy 15 


- 

99 


*' 8 


97-0 


44 14 


99" 2 


May 12 


91-8 




Sepl* 2 


99*o 


" 14 


98*0 


" 20 


99-6 


44 16 


89-6 




" 29 


98-9 


July 12 


99*3 


" 29 


99'3 


" 20 


9i*5 


" " 


Dec. 18 


98 '3 


Aug. 28 


99 -I 5 


May 6 


99*49 


" 26 


96*2 


bad color and dirty. 


1904 




Sept. 21 


98-0 


" 18 


99*8 


Aug. 21 


99"i 




April 15 


99*2 




1 987 










f excess of KC1 and 






" 25 


" 20 


984 


" 24 


935 


(very alkaline. 




E. 


" 28 


99*3 J 


June 5 


99*45 


Sept. 29 


99*6 




i9°3 


Nov. 13 


99"i5 


44 16 


99*45 


1904 






Feb. 3 


99*3 


" 19 
" 25 


98-5 


" 22 


99*3 


Jan. 17 


97*9 








99-8 


" 29 


97 


Feb. 19 


99*2 






F. 


Dec. 7 


98-6 


July 1 


97"o 


Mar. 14 


99*9 




1903 


— : . 


" 22 


99*4 


Aug. 24 


99*3 


" 22 


99*9 




Mar. 21 


97*74 


V 24 


99'4 


1904 




" 25 


99*9 




April 17 


9870 


1904 




Jan. 15 


98-8 


April 21 


95*o 








Jan. 15 


99' 7 


" 20 


99*9 


" 25 


92-0 








" 26 


99 "9 


Feb. 2 


99*4 


" 26 


99*6 








Feb. 25 
May 4 


992 
99-1 


" 25 
May 4 


98-8 

98 8 


May 6 

" 6 


95*8*1 
97'o j 


( granulated, bad 
< color and very 
(alkaline. 






" 4 


99 '2 1 


" 12 


97'o 


" 9 


97 








*' 7 


98-8 


44 21 


987 


" 21 


97 








" 18 


970 


June 9 


97 


June 3 


95*7 


f excess of KC1 and 
(very alkaline. 







1 Granulated. 

2 Alkaline. 



370 Pharmacy and Chemistry. { A ^|ust, woT"' 

PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 

By Cari, G. Hinrichs, Ph.C, 
St. Louis University. 

( Continued from p. 314. ) 

II. CEYLON THE ISLE OF SPICE THE LAND, THE PEOPLE AND THE 

DRUGS THEY RAISE. 

This large island lies to the southward of both Bombay and Cal- 
cutta, the main ports of India. Like many tropical lands, such as 
Mexico and Africa, the coast region is low, while the inland region 
is quite elevated, even semi-mountainous. Especially in the north- 
ern portion of Ceylon do we find an extended low country, though 
not marshy ; this part is known as the Maritime Region. Thus the 
land diversifies the climate and consequently also the crops. 

Although lying just at the foot of the Indian peninsula, still the 
climate is not that of Southern India, for the ocean tempers the 
more pronounced changes in weather prevailing in India proper. 
Living at the leading seaport, commercial city and capital, Colombo, 
is thus not oppressive ; if, however, a change in climate be desired, 
a trip inland of a hundred miles brings one to the uplands. 

Four seasons are distinguished by the natives, namely, the N. E., 
S. E., S. W. and N. W. monsoons. During the N. E. monsoon the 
wind comes from the northeast, etc. 

The amount of rainfall here, as elsewhere in the tropics, deter- 
mines two well-marked seasons, the wet and the dry. But even in 
the so-called dry season, Ceylon enjoys a moderate rainfall ; the 
terrors of the Indian famine are thus unknown to the Cingalese. 

The Government is British, as it has been for the last hundred 
years. The Dutch lost both Ceylon and South Africa to the Eng- 
lish during the Napoleonic wars. Both nations have treated the na- 
tives well. The lesson of 1776 has been well , learned by England,, 
and now no country has greater success with its colonies ; in fact, 
England is the only great nation that finds them not only self-sup- 
porting, but even yielding a profit to the " mother country." 
To develop the resources of the colony, to teach the natives the 
English language and not to tread on their customs might be called 
the three cardinal virtues of the British. 

The people are of the same stock as the Hindoos. Their features 
are very regular, and they do remind one of the Caucasian. Like 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1903. j 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



371 



all people who have lived long in the tropics, they are very swarthy, 
of average height, quick and intelligent ; with long, straight, black 
hair, knotted at the back and held up by a peculiar comb-ornament, 
together with their dark eyes and white teeth, they make a very 
pleasant and striking impression. 

The Cingalese tongue is very musical, there being a preponder- 
ance of the vowel tones. No attempt is made by the English to do 
away with this v£ry ancient language, as the Cingalese have a very 
rich literature. The native tongue is taught in all the English 
schools of Ceylon. 

The men of Colombo wear long, flowing, light garments, as do all 
the women. The workmen in the country wear only the comfort- 
able loin cloth. 

England has established many schools for the natives, common, 
technical and medical. The medical school of Colombo turns out 
many physicians learned in the medicine of the Europeans. Dis- 
pensaries in charge of such natives furnish free to the people medi- 
cal and surgical aid. Some graduates start up a private practice, 
but the greater part of this work is in the hands of the so-called 
" native physicians." These have learnt by the experience of the 
ages where the various herbs, roots, etc., are found and when they 
may be used. Most of their medicines, as exhibited by Ceylon, 
are medicated oils. In some cases it was said where the European 
uses the knife, as in severe compound fractures, these native phy- 
sicians wrap the injured limb in certain leaves, allow it to remain 
in perfect rest for a week, when they find the bones have knit. 
What they use is unknown, as their knowledge passes from father 
to son, and no one outside the family is taken into confidence. 

Those following trade have usually studied at one of the techni- 
cal schools. The gentleman in charge, Mr. Peter de Abrew, is very 
polite, speaks fluent English, and is well versed in everything Cinga- 
lese. In his general appearance and bearing he reminds one of an 
educated Frenchman. 

The resources of Ceylon are mainly agricultural, though they 
have a very well-developed graphite industry. Spices, drugs and 
food are no longer a matter of gathering what nature presents in 
the jungle, but are followed out along strict agricultural lines. 

As stated, two agricultural regions are distinguished in Ceylon, 
viz., the maritime or lowland, where the main products raised are 



372 Pharmacy and Chemistry. { Am ii?S^ iSm" 11 " 

cocoanuts, cacao, cinnamon, tapioca, rubber, lemon and citronella 
grasses, and to a less extent white and black pepper, cloves, nut- 
megs, sugar cane and bananas may also be mentioned. The upland 
claims cinchona, coffee, tea and cardamom plantations, while rice, 
their staple, is grown in both regions. 

The great farms are called " estates." Labor is cheap, food is 
plentiful, the ambient air often supplies all the needed garments, 
while for a little scratching of the soil, nature richly repays the 
planter with three crops a year. 

The first task of the planter is to clear the jungle or native forest. 
This comprises many large trees fit for the carpenter, and much 
underbrush and scrub growth. The large trunks are cut and sold 
as lumber, while the brush and leaves drying form an excellent fuel 
to burn the remaining trees, which are fired during the dry season. 
As a result, a good bed of wood ashes covers the already fertile soil. 
Here and there the great stumps are left. 

Plowing is next in order. This is done with wooden plows, pulled 
by the hardy and patient beast of burden of the East, the bullock. 
Horses are never used ; they are too valuable and could not stand 
the hard usage. This superficial plowing would in our country be 
called a mere scratching of the soil. 

All coast lands of the tropics are blessed with the cocoanut tree, 
from which practically all their wants might be supplied. The great 
importance of this culture to Ceylon is very artistically shown in 
the exhibit booth. 

All planting takes place in the dry season. The cocoanut, husk 
and all, is planted in nurseries ; in about ten days the young tree is 
above ground. The next six months are trying ones to the planter, 
as the " milk of the cocoanut " is changed to a very pithy delicacy 
for both man and beast. The men standing guard shoot the porcu- 
pine and wild hog that delight at this stage to eat only the tender 
sprouts and this pithy substance. When the young tree has absorbed 
all the nourishment from the nut, and the wild animals will feed no 
longer thereof, it is transplanted to the orchard in rows 22 feet apart 
each way. This space allows for the 15-foot sweep of the leaves of 
the grown plant and also for ventilation. This distance is now being 
increased to 30 feet. 

The tree grows at the rate of a foot a year. When six years old 
the trees blossom and bear nuts. While no longer in danger of the 



Al A^gus r t■,l904! :m •} Pharmacy and Chemistry. 373 

four-footed animals it finds a formidable enemy in a large beetle. 
This beetle feeds on the crown of the tree, and if it succeeds in 
eating away the crown before the native notices its presence the tree 
dies. By tying a human hair about this crown the beetle is repulsed, 
or if his presence is noticed in the crown, a sharp iron spike of about 
5 inches in length is jabbed into the crown ; the beetle is impaled 
and drawn out. 

The bud is a peculiar, horn-shaped pod, about 2 feet in length ; 
it has a very graceful curve from tip to tip, gradually increasing in 
diameter to the centre, where it is about 2 inches thick. 

Just previous to bursting into flower the pod is full of a sweetish 
liquid. Cutting off the tip, this liquid exudes, is collected by the 
native and called " toddy." This peculiar practice does not kill the 
plant, as does the similar operation of the Mexicans preparing 
pulque from the agava, but seems to act as does pruning in our 
orchards. 

The collected juice may be treated in several ways. It is concen- 
trated till crystallization begins, and cooled, when the so-called 
"jaggery" or palm sugar is obtained. This product, as shown, is 
in irregular, brownish-yellow slices. Again, suppose the juice is 
exposed to the air, it promptly ferments and alcohol is formed ; if 
the native now distills, he obtains a pale yellowish, pleasant-flavored 
sort of brandy. This is sold in Ceylon under the name of " arrack." 
If not distilled, acetous fermentation sets in and a palm vinegar 
results ; this is brownish and not so perfectly clear as is the wine. 

The flower is made up of from six to eleven ivory-white petals, 
each petal being 2 feet in length and spear-shaped. In the dark- 
green tuft of foliage the flower shows up beautifully and may be seen 
a mile away. 

A month later a cocoanut rests where the flower was. The native 
climbs up the tree, using a sliding-rope appliance, and cuts the stem. 
The nut dropping from even the 90-ioot and fully grown tree is un- 
injured, thanks to a thick, hard husk, surrounding an inch thickness 
of matted fibres, in turn enclosing the nut proper. 

The husk is cut, the matting of fibre is removed. This fibre is 
pale brown and up to a foot in length ; mats, cloth and brushes are 
made from this " coir" fibre. The smooth cocoanut is now exposed 
and is either sold in the market as such or worked up. 

The shell is often used to make dippers, cups, carved receptacles, 
etc. ; being quite hard, it takes a beautiful polish. 



374 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



( A.VQ. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1904. 



Halving the nut, the white meat is removed ; this is either grated 
and dried, thus forming the familiar shreds used by the confectioner, 
or the halved meats are dried and sold as "coprah" to firms in 
Marseilles and London, which extract the valued cocoanut oil by 
either solvents or pressure. 

The native is not ignorant of the fact that an oil is hidden in the 
white meats, for oil of Cingalese manufacture and even a model of 
an oil mill is shown in this exhibit. Of course this mill looks very 
primitive. Imagine a very large bell-shaped mortar of wood, having 
inserted therein a formidable pestle ; to this latter a heavy timber is 
firmly spiked, making an angle of 6o° therewith ; this is in turn 
attached to another timber by means of a metallic hinge. This 
third timber is spiked to a long, heavy beam that presses firmly 
against the contracted portion of the mortar. Bullocks are hitched 
to the free end of this horizontal beam and furnish the slow but 
sure motive power. A very effective rotary and sliding motion 
results, and, as the cocoanut oil is liquid at the temperatures that 
prevail in Ceylon, the oil is continually tapped. 

The pressed cake is much used as a very valuable stock feed. 

Returning to our tree, this often attains a height of 100 feet and 
may live to be 120 years of age. Such a tree is a straight trunk 
crowned with a tuft of leaves. These leaves have a sweep of 1 5 to 
20 feet along the midrib ; from this outward leaflets, 2 to 4 feet long 
and 2 inches broad, grow. The midribs are used as bristles for 
brooms, while the leaflets crossed form very effective lattice-work 
screens and partitions. 

The tree trunk makes excellent lumber, being not hard to work, 
taking an excellent polish, and with its light-brown color, splashed 
with the darker-colored veins, makes elegant furniture. 

So we see this one plant furnishes shelter, raiment, food, drink 
and even light to the native, for he uses the oil in his lamp. 

While the cocoanut is with the culture of tea the most important, 
still, cinnamon is usually recalled whenever Ceylon is mentioned, 
and every one knows it to be the finest in flavor and odor. This 
cinnamon is shown in large bales 3 feet high and a foot in diameter. 
When the Dutch controlled the spice trade of the world, they burnt 
the rest of the previous crop when the new supply came in ; thus 
they kept up both the quality as well as the price. Ceylon cinna- 
mon in those days sold at £$ sterling. The chips used by the vola- 



Am. Jour. Pbarm.) 
August, 1904. J 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



375 



tile-oil distiller and drug miller are also shown ; these, like the stick 
variety, have the outer bark scraped off. 

What is now of special interest to those making lemon essences, 
citral, ionone, etc., are the grass oils. Extensive field cultivation in 
the maritime region supplies the trade with both lemongrass and 
citronella oils, of which many brands of native distillers are shown. 

It is a remarkable fact that rice is grown in both the upland and 
the maritime region. Rice is called " paddy," and is the staff of life 
in the East. Tapioca is also prepared, but to a smaller extent. 
Plantain flour is made by the housewife from the banana grown in 
the vegetable garden. 

Fibres of commercial importance are the palm fibres " kitul " 
and palmyra, the latter made from the Palmyra palm ; both are 
brown in color and coarser than the more important coir fibre. 
What will undoubtedly be of much importance in the future is a 
long, thin, pure white fibre extracted from the East Indian hemp — 
Sansevietia zeylanica. This plant, from its long, spear-like leaves of 
light green striped crosswise with dark green, is a favorite in our 
greenhouses for ornamental effects. 

Cacao culture is important; the products from the pod to the fin- 
ished cocoa are shown ; also various brands of the cocoa butter. 

Cinchona favors the uplands and Ceylon has an increasing culture 
of the bark ; a tasty case of the quills is shown. 

Cardamoms, wild and cultivated, have a very prominent place in 
the display ; this is also an exclusive upland culture. 

No country can raise too much rubber, and Ceylon estates in the 
maritime region are looking after this product. 

Cloves, nutmegs, mace, white and black pepper find a more sub- 
ordinate place in the agriculture, but are shown in many trade 
qualities. 

Undoubtedly Ceylon has the most artistically arranged exhibit in 
the drug line ; the booth is light and airy, suggestive of the Orient. 
Everything is arranged a la Yankee, to show off to the best advan- 
tage and kept scrupulously clean. The educational value resides in 
the fact that many estate scenes, showing the way they work, the 
plants in various stages of blossoming and bearing fruit, are taste- 
fully placed above the cases of drugs ; thus at a glance we have the 
history of the drug before us. 



376 Drug Trade in Japan and the Orient. { AJ August,T904. rm * 

THE DRUG TRADE IN JAPAN AND THE ORIENT AS 
SEEN BY A DRUG TRAVELER. 1 

By Kugenk Ross. 

While Japan has contributed a very fair number to the list of 
prominent living chemists of to-day, it was not until within recent 
years that pharmacy received Government support. There are very 
stringent laws regulating the practice of medicine, as well as numerous 
schools for the education of doctors throughout the empire, and it 
is very apparent that the reason for this was due to the fact that 
the doctors in Japan furnished the medicine with a single fee for 
medical advice. 

The first official Pharmacopoeia in Japan had its origin about 
nineteen years ago, and this was modeled after the German. The 
German influence was paramount ; professors from that country were 
brought over and taught the science of medicine, and this influence 
carried when the Government finally encouraged the advancement 
of pharmacy by establishing pharmaceutical preparatory schools 
throughout Japan. The German influence was so pronounced that 
all medical papers as well as the pharmaceutical text-books were 
printed in German, giving at the same time the Japanese translation. 
This influence was further exerted to the end that the chemicals 
imported into Japan for a number of years were practically all of 
German makes, preferential duty privileges being directed to this 
channel. 

Pharmacy as applied in Japan may be divided into two classes — 
the chemist, who receives the title Master of Medicine or Yakuzai 
Shi, and the Baiyuka, the dealer in patent medicines or prepared 
remedies. 

The chemist can open a pharmacy and dispense prescriptions ; he 
is likewise licensed to examine and pass upon all drugs and chemi- 
cals brought into the country, and for this latter service he receives 
from the applicant, who furnishes the drug for examination, a fee. 
All drugs and chemicals brought into and sold in Japan must be 
examined, and a certificate guaranteeing their qualities according 
to the Pharmacopoeia standard must be attached to every package 



x ~NLr. Eugene Ross, foreign traveler for Johnson & Johnson, gave an account 
of his journeys in the Far Bast, covering a period of over two years, at the 
pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, on May 16th. 



Am Au|u S r t^904!* m '} Drug Trade in Japan and the Orient. 377 

sold. Failure to observe this requirement of the law carries a pen- 
alty. As a consequence of this, the quality of the drugs sold in 
Japan is of a very pure and high standard of excellence. 

The Baiyuka, or dealer in patent medicines, is limited exclusively 
to the sale of licensed preparations or the usual order of proprietary 
remedies, but he is not allowed to prepare or put up medicines or 
dispense prescriptions ; he is limited entirely to purveying ready- 
made or patent medicines. 

Every article in the line of drugs or chemicals sold in Japan must 
carry an internal-revenue stamp, and this based on 10 per cent, of 
the selling price; for illustration, an article which would retail at 
20 sen would carry a tax of 2 sen. In Japanese currency a yen is 
equivalent to 100 sen or 50 cents United States gold. 
- Japan is a very fertile field for the sale of patent medicines, but 
it would seem as though the minimum in price carried the maximum 
in quantity. It is not uncommon to find a package containing 500 
or 1,000 little pills, and made by hand as well, and equally well 
formed, retailed through the Baiyuka for 10 sen. No doubt this 
condition militates against the efforts of foreign manufacturers in 
exploiting their products in Japan. The usual selling price of patent 
medicines is from 2 to 10 sen or 1 cent to 5 cents United States 
gold. 

While the laws are very stringently enforced regulating drugs and 
chemicals as to their purity, a like condition exists for the sale of 
the Baiyuka remedies. When a manufacturer wishes to exploit or 
place a new preparation on the market, he must make application to 
the governor of the province in which he resides, submitting a copy 
of the formula of the preparation as well as a list descriptive of its 
merits and the diseases for which it is recommended to give relief, 
The formula, with a sample of the article, is sent to the Kencho or 
Hygienic Laboratory of the district, and the Government chemist 
in charge makes his report; and if for any reason the formula and 
sample submitted are found deficient or to contain any drugs pois- 
onous in their nature, or so construed, the application is denied. If, 
on the other hand, the requirements of the law are fulfilled, a charge 
of 2 yen is assessed against the applicant, and a license of a like 
amount must be paid each year to the Kencho for the privilege 
of selling the article throughout the empire. It is understood, of 
course, that the stamp tax applies also. 



378 Drug Trade in Japan and the Orient. { A ™d™i*$g£ m - 

The Government support as given to pharmacy has resulted in a 
large increase in the number of pharmaceutical schools throughout 
the empire, so that at the present time they are to be found in about 
every district in Japan ; and in Tokyo, the university where the post- 
graduate course in the higher branches of science is obtained, is 
where chemistry and pharmacy have been most successfully applied. 
In this university is founded one of the most complete chemical and 
bacteriological laboratories in the world. 

In view of this law which grants to chemists the right to inspect 
and pass upon the chemicals and drugs sold in Japan, many of the 
importers or wholesale dealers in drugs have had their sons educated 
in pharmacy and qualified as chemists to perform this office, that is, 
to inspect their own drugs and certify as to their standard. Any 
chemist who falsely represents, or attaches his seal to an article not 
found to be up to the Pharmacopoeia standard as to purify, is liable 
to a fine, and if the offence is committed a second or third time, he 
is disqualified to practice his profession. 

In the foregoing remarks I have referred to the position of native 
pharmacy. The foreign concessions, three or four in number, in the 
port cities where all foreigners were granted certain locations for 
habitation and their business houses, pharmacy is represented by 
mostly English service, and the customs prevailing in the conces- 
sions were on a par as found in any English colony, and as well in 
the States. The foreign stores in Japan are thoroughly modern and 
up-to-date establishments, presided over by competent managers 
and a staff of qualified assistants. The stocks carried are very large 
and complete in every particular. 

In July, 1900, when all foreigners in Japan came under Japanese 
jurisdiction, and were subject to the laws as applied in Japan to its 
subjects, the effect upon the foreign pharmacist or chemist was 
somewhat arbitrary in its application, and no little confusion and 
annoyance resulted from the enactment of the native laws; but the 
conditions were met, and in due time the foreigner adapted himself 
to the state. I do not believe, however, that the restrictions which 
are in force will stimulate the foreign chemist for any advancement 
of the business interests. The laws usually applied to economic 
conditions are especially applicable to the foreign pharmacist or 
chemist in Japan. 

Passing from Japan to China, conditions present themselves under 



Al A^ustj9(M. rm '} Drug Trade in Japan and the Orient. 379 

different aspects. There is no law regulating the practice of phar- 
macy or medicine in China, and the history of China furnishes very 
unsatisfactory knowledge as to the native practices of these arts ; 
but the foreign representation in China is second to none in the Far 
East. The foreign stores are among the finest in the East, and they 
all have very large capital and interests. 

The spirit of democracy which prevails in China has its influence 
on all business, and while there are no restrictions as to the quality 
of drugs sold in China, the privilege is anything but abused. There 
is no doubt that this condition is due to the high character of the 
men engaged in the business of pharmacy. The English, as well as 
the other foreign chemists, are invariably graduated from home col- 
leges. The foreign medical men in China, many of whom have 
served their time as steamer doctors, and settled down in the settle- 
ments to pursue their profession, are as thoroughly progressive, and 
have their local organizations and institute sanitariums and hos- 
pitals as complete and modern as any to be found elsewhere, either 
in America or Europe. 

Chinese pharmacy is rather obscure in its scope. The Chinese 
have very peculiar customs and methods in the use of medicines, and 
it is very difficult for the foreigner to satisfy their tastes. The native 
prejudice, of course, has much to do with this, but the Chinese who 
have come in contact with the foreigners and live near the settle- 
ments or foreign concessions, in time learn to adopt the use of for- 
eign-made medicines; it is necessary, however, to cater to their 
fancies in the many little ways so peculiar to the Chinese. They 
have a marked preference, as well as antipathy to certain colors, 
and in medicine these customs particularly prevail. An orthodox 
Chinaman would never think of taking medicine out of a blue 
bottle, nor drugs wrapped in white with black printing. Red is 
happy joss, and it is always to be found as the predominating color 
in everything of a medical nature. Blue and black are mourning 
colors, and always are in evidence at funerals, and if there is one 
thing above all others that the average Chinaman desires, it is to 
avoid getting under the sod. 

There are several very progressive and up-to-date pharmacies 
managed and owned by Chinese. There are three such in Shanghai, 
who have numerous branches throughout China, and there is also a 
very large Chinese drug store in Pekin. These Chinese in most in- 



380 Drug Trade in Japan and the Orient, {^ulustjm 111 " 

stances have received their education by working in foreign stores 
or by college education, and they carry very large and complete 
stocks. They are very straightforward and honorable men in their 
dealings, and they enjoy the confidence and respect of the foreigners 
in the settlements where they reside. 

The Chinese are a very superstitious race, and as a consequence 
venders of patent nostrums prey on their susceptibilities in this di- 
rection by selling medicines put up in a very peculiar and attractive 
manner, to which wonderful curative properties are applied. Wealthy 
mandarins will often pay fabulous sums for a medicine claimed to 
possess the virtue of giving vigor of youth, and I have known of 
an instance where a pill about the size of a hickory nut encased in 
wax was sold at a price of $10.00, this on the strength of the won- 
derful restorative properties guaranteed for it. Upon examination, 
this pill was found to be nothing more or less than an extract of 
ginseng and licorice powder. The great masses in China, however, 
are on a par with the Japanese, in that they expect a great deal of 
medicine for a very little money, and the medicines usually sold 
bring prices ranging from five to ten cents. 

There are now in operation two very up-to-date pharmaceutical 
schools in China, erected for the education of native Chinese, and 
there is an impetus given to the cause by the introduction of foreign 
teachers. There are medical colleges also to be found on the same 
lines. 

Hong Kong, an English colony, built on an island, oftentimes 
called the Gibraltar of the East, is frequently referred to as part of 
China. The English influence here, of course, is paramount to all 
others, and the business in Hong Kong is practically controlled by 
the renowned house of A. S. Watson & Co., Ltd. This company 
has branches in many of the principal cities of China as well as in 
the Philippines. They carry enormous stocks and operate thor- 
oughly modern and up-to-date stores. 

In the Straits Settlements and Siam the conditions do not change 
materially. English influences dominate there, as the Settlements 
are practically an English colony. 

In India the same characteristics present themselves as in China 
and Japan, but the foreign stores, which are in the main operated 
by English companies, are the largest of their kind in the East. It 
would require too extensive a report to go into details on the sub- 
ject of pharmacy applied to India. 



Ar August,^9o£ m ' } Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 381 

In South Africa, which is an English colony, the chemists have 
all received their education in the home colleges, and very stringent 
pharmacy laws regulate the practice of the profession there. No 
finer or more complete pharmacies are to be seen anywhere than in 
South Africa. 

The leading American pharmaceutical products meet with popular 
favor in South Africa, and there has always been a popular demand 
for goods of American manufacture on these lines. 



REPORT OF THE MEETING OF THE PENNSYLVANIA 
PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

By Charles H. La-Waix. 

The twenty-seventh annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association was held at Cambridge Springs, Crawford 
County, Pa,, on June 21, 22 and 23, 1904, the Hotel Rider being the 
official headquarters. 

Cambridge Springs is a popular Western Pennsylvania health re- 
sort, which has established a widespread reputation for the variety 
and excellence of its numerous mineral springs. It is situated on the 
Erie Railroad, about twenty-seven miles west of Corry, and about 
thirty miles south of Erie. 

The Hotel Rider is a magnificent building, situated on a hill 
overlooking the town and capable of accommodating about 600 
guests. It is eminently well adapted for convention purposes, as it 
is furnished with every facility for promoting the enjoyment of the 
guests, and is provided with a complete theatrical hall in which the 
business sessions can be held to much better advantage than is pos- 
sible where one of the parlors of the hotel has to be utilized for the 
purpose, as is usually the case. 

It has been the custom in the past to hold the opening session on 
Tuesday; but this year, on account of the elaborate preparations of 
the members from the western part of the State, to show their 
Eastern confreres as much of the surrounding country as possible, 
it was necessary for President Frailey to call the convention to 
order on Monday evening. The opening session was attended by 
many members who had arrived on Sunday and Monday ; but the 
majority of the members not arriving until Tuesday morning, 
there was not much business transacted aside from the reception of 



382 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { An ^^Just,i9(M! m * 

the credentials of such delegates as were present. The address of 
welcome to the members of the association and their visiting ladies 
was delivered by Mr. McGonigle, president of the First National 
Bank of Meadville, and was responded to by Mr. J. H. Redsecker, 
of Lebanon, and Mr. John Patton, of York, the latter being called 
upon by President Frailey to respond for the ladies, quite a number 
of whom were present. 

The session on Tuesday morning was opened at 9.30, and after 
hearing a few committee reports, President Frailey read his annual 
address, First Vice-President L. L. Walton, of Williamsport, presid- 
ing. The President's address constituted a comprehensive review of 
numerous subjects, particularly affecting the welfare of retail phar- 
macists, and, by its clear and cfoncise language, showed that much 
care and thought had been spent in its preparation. In it, Presi- 
dent Frailey referred to the great interest and enthusiasm which 
had been shown by many members who had joined at the previous 
annual meeting, and whose work showed that they appreciated the 
benefits of membership. He issued a warning against the danger 
of the association losing its identity on account of lack of original 
effort, and he stated that there were many issues confronting the 
smaller county and borough organizations which could best be 
met by applying local remedies. The trading-stamp craze was 
spoken of at some length, and the members were warned not to 
succumb to the specious arguments of those who were trying to 
introduce them to the trade. The difficulty of obtaining properly 
qualified clerks was spoken of, and the tendency of many druggists 
to lose their professional standing by their devotion to ultra-com- 
mercialism was deplored. The necessity for patent-law revision was 
touched upon, and in the consideration of the ever-present 4< cut- 
rate " question, the Miles plan was unhesitatingly favored on ac- 
count of the results which had thus far been accomplished through 
its agency. Particular mention was made of the lack of interest in 
committee work, upon the part of the members who have been 
appointed to these important positions. Praise was given to the 
members of the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board for the intro- 
duction of practical examinations in addition to written examina- 
tions held by the Board, and the auxiliary Committees upon 
Membership were congratulated upon the work which had been ac- 
complished by their efforts. The work of the Legislative Com- 



Am Aigusi.vm m ' } Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 383 

mittee, while not as important during the past year as during the 
previous year, on account of the Legislature not having been in ses- 
sion, was commended in unqualified terms, and it was stated the 
work done by the Legislative Committee alone should constitute a 
sufficient reason for membership in the association, and should place 
solicitations for membership on a business basis, apart from any 
question of sentiment. The recommendations which were enume- 
rated at the close of the President's address were as follows : 

That part of one session be set aside for addresses by Prof. J. P. 
Remington, Prof. C. B. Lowe and others on the subject of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association ; that the Pennsylvania Phar- 
maceutical Association draw up resolutions of support to the 
N.A.R.D., and that an order be drawn upon the Treasurer for the 
amount of the per capita tax, basing the figures on the membership 
as it existed on January 1st; that the pharmacy laws be so amended 
that a certificate for registered manager be granted only to graduates 
of such colleges of pharmacy as belong to the American Conference 
of Pharmaceutical Faculties ; and that a resolution be passed in favor 
of the Mann H. R. bill on patent-law revision and favoring a reduc- 
tion of the tax on alcohol. 

The President's address was then referred to a committee consist- 
ing of Messrs. Cliffe, Gorgas, Dice, Siegfried and Ballinger, with 
instructions to report on the recommendations contained therein. 

Prof. J. A. Koch, chairman of the Committee on Papers and 
Queries, then assumed charge of the meeting, and a number of 
papers were read. Mr. C. N. Boyd, of Butler, Pa., read a paper on 
the typhoid epidemic by which that city was recently attacked, and 
related some amusing occurrences of the erroneous ideas which some 
of the natives of the rural districts formed of the germs during the 
excitement attendant upon the examination of the various sources 
of the water-supply. He stated that one farmer was heard to remark 
that when he arrived at the top of the hill overlooking the town on 
that morning, he saw swarms of " gems " arising from the town. 
(It had happened to be a foggy morning.) Another said that he had 
never believed in those germs because he had often looked for them 
and had never seen any until a day or so before, when he had seen 
three in a glass of water, adding, that " they were about as big as 
potato bugs." 

Professor Remington then read a paper on the subject of " The Di- 



384 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. {^ m jJ^li, 



Pharm. 
1904. 



ploma as a Prerequisite to the Board of Pharmacy Examinations," 
which will be published in a later issue of this Journal, and in 
which the matter was ably and exhaustively considered from every 
point of view ; this paper was followed by another on the same sub- 
ject, contributed by P. H. Utech, of Meadville. These two papers 
were then referred to the Committee on President's Address, with 
power to draw up suitable resolutions. A Nominating Committee 
was appointed consisting of Messrs. Emanuel, Hay, Cliffe, Haley and 
Steinmetz, and the meeting adjourned until Wednesday at 9 a.m. 

On Tuesday afternoon the members of the Association and their 
ladies were taken for a trolley excursion to Meadville, the county 
seat of Crawford County, about fifteen miles south of Cambridge 
Springs. The route led through the picturesque and historic Ven- 
ango Valley, traversed by Washington on his first mission to the 
French at Fort Le Beouf in 1753, and many points of interest were 
seen, among which may be mentioned the borough of Saegertown, 
where the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association met in 1893, 
and Allegheny College at Meadville — this institution being the Alma 
Mater of the late President McKinley. Upon arriving at Meadville 
the party changed cars and proceeded to Ponce de Leon Springs, 
the famous summer resort of Meadville, where refreshments were 
served and the members were afforded an opportunity to drink the 
spring water, which is highly impregnated with sulphur. The party 
returned to the Hotel Rider in time for dinner, and in the evening 
an excellent concert was given by talent from the Conservatory of 
Music at Meadville, which was appreciated by all who heard it. 

The session on Wednesday was opened early, so as to give the 
members a chance to take the trolley trip to Erie, which had been 
announced as one of the features of the entertainment programme. 

Mr. Talbot, president of the Proprietary Association of America, 
was introduced by Mr. W. L. Cliffe, and after being tendered the 
privileges of the floor he read a short address in which the necessity 
of maintaining the present harmonious relations was emphasized. 

Mr. C. E. Vanderkleed, chemist for Mulford & Co., then read a 
paper upon suppositories, in which a new form of suppository having 
a block-tin protective cover was described, the advantages being 
greater stability in all extremes of temperature, and sterility of the 
suppository at the time of its insertion. The paper was illustrated 
by tests of the melting-points of suppositories made in various 



An A^gust,^f m "} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 385 

ways, and was listened to with much attention by all present. The 
discussion on Mr. Vanderkleed's paper consuming so much time, the 
meeting was forced to adjourn before it was concluded and it was 
carried over until the next session. 

The excursion to Erie occupied almost the entire day on Wed- 
nesday. The trip was made by trolley, the cars leaving at 10.30 
a.m. Upon arriving at Erie the party was taken out to the Lake 
and royally entertained by the Erie druggists. Alter witnessing a 
vaudeville performance at the summer theatre, and being served 
with refreshments, the party started back to Cambridge Springs, 
arriving there in time for dinner at 7 p.m. 

On Wednesday evening an amateur vaudeville production was 
given by some of the more talented members of the Association, 
among whom may be mentioned Mrs. McKean, of Erie ; Mr. J. P. 
Remington, Jr., of Philadelphia ; Miss Gorgas, of Harrisburg ; Mrs. 
McMurtrie, of Altoona, and Mr. Faries, of Harrisburg. 

I he next business session of the Association was called to order 
by President Frailey on Thursday, at 9,30 a.m., and the first order 
of business was the reading of a number of committee reports, which 
had been postponed from the earlier sessions for various reasons. 
Mr. H. L. Stiles, of Philadelphia, chairman of the Committee on 
Affiliation with Local Associations, read the report of this com- 
mittee, in which he stated that very little interest had been shown 
in the matter by the secretaries of the local associations with whom 
he had endeavored to get in touch, and that only eight replies had 
been received in answer to more than fifty letters which had been 
sent out. He stated that this apathy was probably largely due to 
the fact that the meeting place this year was so far away from the 
centre of the State, in consequence of which fact very few of the 
local bodies would send any delegates to represent them. 

The report of the Committee on Trade Interests was presented by 
the chairman, Mr. Charles Leedom, of Philadelphia, in which a res- 
olution was proposed and carried, denouncing the methods of intro- 
ducing a substitute for a well-known proprietary article, which has 
appeared upon the market recently. 

The most comprehensive report which was presented was that of the 
Committee on Adulterations, which was read by Mr. R. H. Lackey, 
of Philadelphia, in the absence of the chairman, Mr. D. J. Thomas, 
of Scranton. In this report a comprehensive canvass had been 



386 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { Am Auguli!im. m ' 

made of the entire State, and circular letters had been sent out to 
all of the prominent wholesale and supply houses, asking for any 
information on the subject. Many interesting and valuable replies 
were received and embodied in the report, which, when published, 
will, no doubt, form a valuable addition to the literature on the sub- 
ject of adulteration. 

The report of the Committee on Botany was presented and read 
by the chairman, Mr. C. H. La Wall, after which the discussion of 
Mr. Vanderkleed's paper on suppositories was resumed, where it 
had been interrupted the day before. 

Mr. C. H. La Wall then read a paper on the " Detection of Aniline 
Colors and Salicylic Acid in Articles of Food and Drink," which 
will be published in a later issue of this Journal, and which outlined 
processes so simple as to readily enable the retail druggist to apply 
them. This paper was also illustrated by means of specimens. 

A paper which had been contributed by Prof. F. X. Moerk was 
then read, entitled " Laboratory Notes," in which the author sug- 
gested some improvements in the application of the tribromphenol 
reaction to the estimation of carbolic acid, and in which the use 
of oil of cassia was suggested as a preservative for starch solution 
for indicator and test purposes. This paper will appear in a later 
issue of this Journal. 

A paper, also entitled " Laboratory Notes," by Willard R. Graham 
(see page 389), was read, in which the author gave some analytical 
results of the examination of a variety of substances which had 
come under his notice recently, the most interesting of which was 
the statement that cappock oil, an oil obtained from Eriodendron 
anfractuosum, in quantities as low as 0-5 per cent, when added to 
pure olive oil, would give a reaction similar to that obtained with 
cottonseed oil with Halphen's test. 

A very interesting paper contributed by Second Vice-President 
B. E. Pritchard, who is also President of the N.A.R.D., was 
then read by the author. The title was " Mental Myopia," and in it 
the author discussed trade conditions in his usual forceful and enter- 
taining style. 

Mr. L. L. Walton, first vice-president of the Association, then 
read a carefully prepared article, which considered the advisability 
of the retail druggist establishing a directory for nurses. 

The Nominating Committee then announced that they were pre- 
pared to report, and submitted the following nominations: 



Am August,^904! m '} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 387 

President, J. A. Koch, Pittsburg ; First Vice-President, F. T. Wray, 
Apollo ; Second Vice-President, R. H. Lackey, Philadelphia ; Secre- 
tary, J. A. Miller, Harrisburg ; Treasurer, J. L. Lemberger, Lebanon ; 
Executive Committee, Charles Griffith, Johnstown ; W. E. Lee, 
Philadelphia; L. L. Walton, Williamsport. 

The committee also recommended that Bedford Springs be selected 
as the next meeting place, the time to be June 22, 23 and 24, 1905, 
with Mr. C. H. Marcy, of Altoona, as local secretary. 

The report of the committee was accepted, the candidates as 
nominated were unanimously elected, and the recommendations of 
the time and place for the next meeting were unanimously approved. 

The report of the Auxiliary Committee on Membership, which 
was headed by Prof. J. P. Remington and Mr. Louis Emanuel, was 
read by Professor Remington. It was stated that while the growth 
of the Association had not reached the phenomenal figures of the 
previous year, there had been sufficient increase to bring the total 
membership figures above the 1,000 mark, which places it at the 
head of all State associations. A list of the individual members 
who had greatly aided the committee was then read, after which the 
report of the committee was received with the unanimous thanks of 
those present. 

The report of the Committee on President's Address was then 
presented by the chairman, W. L. Cliffe. The recommendations of 
the committee were taken up singly for discussion and adoption, 
after which the report was unanimously adopted as a whole. The 
recommendations which were adopted included the endorsement of 
the Miles plan, the recommendation of the passage of an act amend- 
ing the pharmacy law so that the applicant for a registered manager's 
certificate will have to show a diploma from some accredited college 
of pharmacy, the payment of a per capita tax to the N.A.R.D. on 
all members in good standing on July I, 1 904, and the endorsement 
of the Mann H. R. bill No. 13,679. 

Mr. C. H. LaWall then read a paper in which attention was called 
to the prophetic character of the conclusions arrived at by Joseph 
Priestley in his paper on " Dephlogisticated Air." The meeting 
then adjourned until 2.30 p.m. 

The whole of the Thursday afternoon session and the early part 
of the evening session of the same day was devoted to the reading 
of papers ; Chairman Koch, of the Committee on Papers and Queries, 



388 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { A ^ugu S r t,T9M rm ' 

having awakened a large amount of interest in this matter with the 
result that the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, as usual, 
heads the list of the various State Pharmaceutical societies both in 
the number and value of the papers read, and the spirited manner 
in which some of the papers were discussed showed that the mem- 
bers in attendance were there for profit as well as pleasure. 

The following papers were read at these two sessions : 

"African Balsam of Copaiba," by Clarence M. Kline. (To be 
published later in this Journal.) 

" Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate," by Clarence O. Snavely. (To 
be published later in this Journal.) 

" Detection of Formaldehyde," by Albert F. Judd. (See page 

3890 

" Coarsely Powdered Talc for Making Aromatic Waters," by J. P. 
Remington, Jr. (See page 390.) 

" Profitable Preparations of Petroleum Products," by F. E. Niece. 
"The Salus Bill," by R. O. Schmitz. 

" The Advantages of an Annual License," by Louis Emanuel. 

" Prescribing Proprietary Remedies," by Clement B. Lowe. 

" Is it not Time that Graduation from a College of Pharmacy be 
Required before Registration ? " by H. B. Foresman. 

" Preventing Frost on Show Windows," by H. F. Ruhl and 
Charles E. King, respectively. 

" Forms of Advertising Best Adapted to the Needs of Retail 
Druggists," by John R. Thompson and James S. Gleghom, respec- 
tively. 

" The Traveling Salesman," by W. O. Skelton. 

" The Cause of the Popularity of Carbolic Acid as a Means of 
Committing Suicide," by Louis Emanuel. 

The business sessions closed on Thursday evening with the instal- 
lation of the newly elected officers, after which the association 
adjourned to convene at Bedford Springs on June 22, 1905. 

Among the many entertainment features of the association which 
had been provided by the Entertainment Committee, which as usual 
consisted of Messrs. Bransome, Byers and Busch, there were euchre 
parties for the ladies, bowling matches, guessing contests, etc., and 
after the regular meeting of the Association had been disposed of 
and the convention had formally adjourned, the Entertainment Com- 
mittee were given complete charge of the proceedings. The cus- 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
August, 1904. j 



Some Recent Literature. 



389 



tomary prizes, which this year were more numerous and handsome 
than ever, were then awarded and the evening closed with the serv- 
ing of refreshments in the dining-room. 

The value of these meetings to the retail druggist has often been 
dwelt upon at length ; so let it suffice to say that the interest which 
was shown this year in a meeting which was held so far away from 
the centre of the State shows that the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical 
Association is to be congratulated upon the fact that in vitality as 
well as in point of size, it is surpassed by no other State association. 



SOME RECENT LITERATURE. 

DETECTION OF FORMALDEHYDE. 

Albert F. Judd, in a paper to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical 
Association, utilizes the method employed in the detection of for- 
maldehyde in milk as follows : Ten c.c. of the sample are added to 
IO c.c. of a 5 per cent, aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, con- 
taining one or two drops of an alcoholic solution of phloroglucin. 
If the sample contains formic aldehyde the rose color produced lasts 
for twelve minutes and then fades to a yellowish-brown, which is 
permanent ; if amylic aldehyde is present, the reddish color fades 
completely in four minutes, whereas if the sample contains ethylic 
aldehyde the same result is produced in from six to eight minutes. 

LABORATORY NOTES. 

Willard Graham {ibid.) has examined four samples of yellow cin- 
chona bark and found the alkaloidal content to range from 4-8 to 
8-9 per cent. Seven samples of red cinchona bark yielded between 
5-7 and 8-8 per cent, of total alkaloids. Five samples of Spanish 
saffron answered the U. S. P. requirements for ash and moisture ; 
one contained, however, considerably more styles than usual. Of 
three samples of oil of rose examined one had an unusually low 
congealing point, y°-g° C. As the result of examinations of olive 
oil, the author ascertained that when 0-5 per cent, or more of cap- 
pock oil 1 was added to olive oil, it produced the same coloration as 
cottonseed oil in Halphen's test. Mr. Graham states that there is 
little difficulty in obtaining high-grade table oils. 

1 Cappock oil, probably better known as kapok oil, is obtained by pressing 
the seeds of Eriodendron anfractuosum. The oil is used in soap-making as a 
substitute for cottonseed oil. 



390 



Some Recent Literature. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

I August, 1904. 



COARSELY-POWDERED TALC FOR MAKING AROMATIC WATERS. 

J. P. Remington, ]r.(ibid.) obtained from the mines of North Caro- 
lina talc in broken pieces, which were broken up and ground in a 
small mill of the Bogardus type, which consists of a conical feed 
box, or hopper, which delivers the pieces of material between two 
discs, revolving horizontally. With this mill he obtained powders 
of varying degrees of fineness, which were boiled with distilled water 
containing hydrochloric acid, and afterwards thoroughly washed and 
dried. A powder ranging between 80 and 120, i. e., one which would 
pass through a sieve of 80 meshes to the inch and retained by a 120 
sieve, was found to be the most satisfactory in making the following 
aromatic waters : Anise, fennel, cinnamon, peppermint, spearmint 
and camphor. H. K. 

THE PURIFICATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 

This subject has been taken up by the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, and on May 7th, Bulletin No. 64, of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, entitled "A Method of Destroying or Preventing the 
Growth of Algse and Certain Pathogenic Bacteria in Water Sup. 
plies," and prepared by George T. Moore, Pathologist and Algolo- 
gist, in charge of Laboratory of Plant Physiology, and Karl F. 
Kellerman, Assistant in Physiology, was issued. 

The authors state that " while the best known cases of water 
pollution are those due to the presence of typhoid and other germs 
which have given rise to serious epidemics, there are a vastly 
greater number of water supplies which are rendered unfit for use, 
not because they are dangerous to public health, but on account of 
the very offensive odor and taste produced in them by plants other 
than bacteria." 

Data furnished by the leading engineers and superintendents of 
water companies, in reply to a circular letter sent to them, show that 
the trouble caused by algae in water supplies belongs to no particu- 
lar section of the country, but is of wide distribution, extending 
from Maine to California, and from Minnesota to Texas, and that it is 
of the most serious kind, in some instances rendering the water 
wholly unfit for use. 

Because of the unsatisfactory results yielded by the methods now 
in use for eliminating algae from water supplies, or because of their 
great expense, the authors decided to take up the biological phase 



Am At§uii P im m '} S° me Recent Literature. 391 

of the problem, and see what results would be yielded by making a 
study of the physiology of the organisms under laboratory condi- 
tions, the object being to discover some substance which, because of 
its toxic action on the algae, would prevent their growth in water 
supplies. 

In determining such a physiological method it was necessary to 
consider not only that the remedy must be cheap enough for prac- 
tical purposes and readily available, but that it must be harmless to 
man under the conditions used. A large number of substances 
were experimented with, but copper sulphate gave the most satis- 
factory results. As stated by the writers, " this salt has a very 
high toxicity for algae, and experiments with a number of the forms 
usually found in reservoirs, and the source of much trouble, have 
shown that inconceivably small amounts of copper are poisonous in 
a high degree." 

In the method proposed the death points of the algae were deter- 
mined by using Van Tieghem cells. Accurate solutions were made 
with distilled water and 200 c.c. of each solution was pipetted into 
an Erlenmeyer flask. The algae, if filamentous forms, were rinsed ; 
if free-swimming, they were concentrated by the Sedgwick-Rafter 1 
method from 500 c.c. volume to 5 c.c. volume, and this was added 
to the treated water, the inaccuracy due to this addition being dis- 
regarded. At the same time control experiments were also car- 
ried on. 

The species tested are divided into three groups, as follows: (1) 
Those with death points at higher concentrations than I part copper 
sulphate to 1,000,000 parts of water; (2) those with death points 
between 1 to 1,000,000 and 1 to 5,000,000 ; and (3) those with death 
points at greater dilutions than 1 to 5,000,000. 

Having demonstrated the effectiveness of copper sulphate as an 
agent for the destruction of algae, the authors discuss the effects of 
copper and its compounds on the animal economy, and arrive at the 
conclusion that " even if the maximum concentration of copper 
sulphate necessary to destroy algae in reservoirs were maintained 
indefinitely, the total absorption from daily use would be very far 
below an amount that could produce the least unpleasant effect." In 
other words, taking a dilution of 1 to 1,000,000, which would in all 



1 Whipple : " The Microscopy of Drinking Water." New York, 1889, p. 15. 



392 



Some Recent Literature. 



[Am. Jour. Phnrm. 
I August, 1904. 



cases be sufficiently toxic to prevent the growth of polluting forms 
of algae, it would be necessary to drink over 20 quarts of the water 
a day before an amount of copper sulphate which is recognized as 
harmless would be introduced into the system, while it would take 
more than 50 quarts to produce unpleasant or undesirable effects. 

There are also two other factors to be considered which would 
seem to render the danger from the use of copper sulphate in the 
manner prescribed entirely nil. (1) In most cases the use ©f a solution 
of maximum dilution (r to 1,000,000) would be sufficient to kill all 
forms and would perhaps not have to be resorted to again for at least 
some time, or at most very much weaker solutions could be used. 
(2) Very little of the copper would be found in the water after a 
few hours, it being combined by the algae and precipitated in other 
ways. 

The point to be borne in mind in applying the copper sulphate is 
that it should be thoroughly distributed. The method recommended 
and used by the Department of Agriculture is as follows : Place the 
required number of pounds of copper sulphate in a coarse bag — a 
gunny sack or some equally loose mesh — and, attaching this to the 
stern of a rowboat near the surface of the water, row slowly back 
and forth over the reservoir, on each trip keeping the boat within 
10 to 20 feet of the previous path. In this manner about 100 pounds 
of copper sulphate can be distributed in one hour. By increasing 
the number of boats, and, in the case of very deep reservoirs, hang- 
ing two or three bags to each boat, the treatment of even a large 
reservoir may be accomplished in from four to six hours. There are 
a few other details to be observed in some cases, but as the Depart- 
ment desires that those contemplating the use of the method con- 
sult with them first before making a test of the method, these will 
not be given. 

It remains to be said that the method has been tested in water- 
cress beds having an extensive growth of algae, and also in water 
reservoirs, and that the results have been very encouraging. 

In summarizing their experiments with pathogenic bacteria, the 
authors state that at ordinary temperatures I part of copper sul- 
phate to 100,000 parts of water destroys typhoid and cholera germs 
in from three to four hours. The copper can be eliminated from the 
water with considerable ease, and thus is afforded a practical method 
of sterilizing large bodies of water when this becomes desirable. 

F. Y. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1904. j 



Congress of Arts and Science. 



393 



THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ARTS AND 

SCIENCE. 

The programme has now been issued of the congress to be held 
as part of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition from September 19th 
to 25th of the present year. The purpose and plan of the congress 
are thus described : 

The idea of the congress grows out of the thought that the sub- 
division and multiplication of specialties in science has reached a 
stage at which investigators and scholars may derive both inspira- 
tion and profit from a general survey of the various fields of learn- 
ing, planned with a view of bringing the scattered sciences into 
closer mutual relations. The central purpose is the unification of 
knowledge, an effort toward which seems appropriate on an occa- 
sion when the nations bring together an exhibit of their arts and in- 
dustries. An assemblage is, therefore, to be convened, at which 
leading representatives of theoretical and applied sciences shall set 
forth those general principles and fundamental conceptions which 
connect groups of sciences, review the historical development of spe- 
cial sciences, show their mutual relations and discuss their present 
problems. 

The speakers to treat the various themes are selected in advance 
from the European and American continents. The discussions will 
be arranged on the following general plan : 

After the opening of the congress on Monday afternoon, Septem- 
ber 19th, will follow, on Tuesday forenoon, addresses on main divi- 
sions of science and its applications, the general theme being the 
unification of each of the fields treated. These will be followed by 
two addresses on each of the twenty-four great departments of 
knowledge. The theme of one address in each case will be the fun- 
damental conceptions and methods, while the other will set forth the 
progress during the last century. The preceding addresses will be 
delivered by Americans, making the work of the first two days the 
contribution of American scholars. 

On the third day, with the opening of the sections, the interna- 
tional work will begin. About 128 sectional meetings will be held 
on the four remaining days of the congress, at each of which two 
papers will be read, the theme of one being suggested by the rela- 
tions of the special branch treated to other branches ; the other by 
its present problems. Three hours will be devoted to each sectional 



394 



Congress of Arts and Science. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1904. 



meeting, thus enabling each hearer to attend eight such meetings, 
if he so desires. The programme is so arranged that related subjects 
will be treated, as far as possible, at different times. The length of 
the principal addresses being limited to forty-five minutes each, there 
will remain at least one hour for five or six brief communications in 
each section. The addresses in each department will be collected 
and published in a special volume. 

It is hoped that the living influence of this meeting will be yet 
more important than the formal addresses, and that the scholars 
whose names are announced in the following programme of speakers 
and chairmen will form only a nucleus for the gathering of thou- 
sands who feel in sympathy with the efforts to bring unity into the 
world of knowledge. 

The organization of the congress consists of : 

Director of Congresses — Howard J. Rogers. 

Administrative Board — Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Co- 
lumbia University, chairman ; William R. Harper, president of the 
University of Chicago; R. H. Jesse, president of the University of 
Missouri ; Henry S. Pritchett, president of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology ; Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress; Fred- 
erick J. V. Skiff, director of the Field Columbian Museum. 

Officers of the Congress — President, Simon Newcomb, retired pro. 
fessor U. S. N.; Vice-Presidents, Hugo Miinsterberg, professor of 
psychology in Harvard University ; Albion W. Small, professor of 
sociology in the University of Chicago. 

The speakers and chairmen in the subjects of more especial in- 
terest to pharmacists are : 

Division A- — normative science. 
Speaker, Prof. Josiah Royce, Harvard University. 

DEPARTMENT I— PHILOSOPHY. 

Section d, Methodology of Science — Chairman, Prof. James E. 
Creighton, Cornell University ; Speakers, Prof. Wilhelm Ostwald, 
University of Leipzig ; Prof. Benno Erdmann, University of Bonn. 

Division C — physical science. 
Speaker, Prof. Robert S. Woodward, Columbia University. 

department 9 — physics. 
Speakers, Prof. Edward L. Nichols, Cornell University ; Prof. Carl 
Barus, Brown University. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1904. J 



Congress of Arts and Science. 



395 



Section a, Physics of Matter — Chairman, Prof. Samuel W. Stratton, 
director of the National Bureau of Standards, Washington ; Speak- 
ers, Prof. Robert W.Wood, Johns Hopkins University ; Prof. Francis 
E. Nipher, Washington University. 

Section &, Physics of Ether — Chairman, Prof. Henry S. Carhart, 
University of Michigan ; Speakers, Prof. James Dewar, Royal Insti- 
tution, London ; Prof. DeWitt B. Brace, University of Nebraska. 

Section c, Physics of the Electron — Chairman, Prof. Charles R. 
Cross, Institute of Technology, Boston; Speaker, Prof. Ernest Ruth- 
erford, McGill University, Montreal. 

DEPARTMENT IO CHEMISTRY. 

Chairman, Prof. James M. Crafts, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology ; Speakers, Prof. John U. Nef, University of Chicago ; Prof. 
Frank W. Clarke, chief chemist, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Section a, Inorganic Chemistry — Chairman, Prof. John W. Mallet, 
University of Virginia ; Speaker, Prof. Henri Moissan, The Sor- 
bonne, member of the Institute of France. 

Section b y Organic Chemistry — Chairman, Prof. Albert B. Prescott, 
University of Michigan ; Speakers, Prof. Rudolf Fittig, University 
of Strassburg ; Prof. William A. Noyes, National Bureau of Stand- 
ards. 

Section c , Physical Chemistry — Chairman, Prof. Wilder D. Bancroft, 
Cornell University ; Speakers, Prof. J. H. Van't Hoff, University of 
Berlin ; Prof. Arthur A. Noyes, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

Section d t Physiological Chemistry — Chairman, Prof. Wilbur O. 
Atwater, Wesleyan University ; Speakers, Prof. Albrecht Kossel, 
University of Heidelberg ; Prof. Russell H. Chittenden, Yale Uni- 
versity. 

DEPARTMENT I 3 BIOLOGY. 

Chairman, Prof. William G. Farlow, Harvard University ; Speak- 
ers, Prof. Jacques Loeb, University of California ; Prof. John M. 
Coulter, University of Chicago. 

Section a y Phytogeny — Chairman, Prof. T. H. Morgan, Bryn Mawr ; 
Speakers, Prof. Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam ; Prof. 
Charles O. Whitman, University of Chicago. 

Section b> Plant Morphology — Chairman, Prof. William Trelease, 
Washington University, St. Louis ; Speakers, Prof. Frederick O. 



396 Congress of Arts and Science. {'^ilguk \m m ' 

Bower, University of Glasgow ; Prof. Karl F. Goebel, University of 
Munich. 

Section c, Plant Physiology — Chairman, Prof. Charles R. Barnes, 
University of Chicago ; Speakers, Prof. Julius Wiessner, University 
of Vienna; Prof. Benjamin M. Duggar, University of Missouri. 

Section d, Plant Pathology — Chairman, Prof. Charles E. Bessey, 
University of Nebraska ; Speaker, Prof. Joseph C. Arthur, Purdue 
University. 

Section e, Ecology — Chairman, Prof. Conway MacMillan, University 
of Minnesota ; Speakers, Prof. Oskar Drude Kbn, Technische 
Hochschule, Dresden ; Prof. Charles Flahault, director of the Botanic 
Institute, Montpellier, France. 

Section f, Bacteriology — Chairman, Prof. Harold C. Ernst, Harvard 
University ; Speakers, Prof. Edwin 0. Jordan, University of Chicago; 
Prof. Theobald Smith, Harvard University. 

Section g, Animal Morphology — Chairman, Dr. Leland 0. Howard, 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C; Speakers, Prof. 
Charles B. Davenport, University of Chicago ; Prof. Alfred Giard, 
The Sorbonne, member of the Institute of France. 

Section h, Embryology — Chairman, Prof. Simon H. Gage, Cornell 
University ; Speakers, Prof. Oskar Hertwig, University of Berlin ; 
Prof. William K. Brooks, Johns Hopkins University. 

Section i, Comparative Anatomy — Chairman, Prof. James P. Mc- 
Murrich, University of Michigan; Speakers, Prof. Max Fiirbringer, 
University of Heidelberg ; Prof. Yves Delage, The Sorbonne, mem- 
ber of the Institute of France. 

Section j, Human Anatomy — Chairman, Prof. George A. Piersol, 
University of Pennsylvania ; Speakers, Prof. Wilhelm W 7 aldeyer, 
University of Berlin ; Prof. H. H. Donaldson, University of Chicago. 

Section k, Physiology — Chairman, Dr. S. J. Meltzer, New York ; 
Speakers, Prof. Max Verworn, University of Gottingen ; Prof. Wil- 
liam H. Howell, Johns Hopkins University. 

DEPARTMENT I J MEDICINE. 

Chairman, Dr. William Osier, Johns Hopkins University ; Speak- 
ers, Dr. William T. Councilman, Harvard University; Dr. Frank 
Billings, Rush Medical College. 

Section a, Public Health — Chairman, Dr. Walter Wyman, surgeon- 
general of the U. S. Marine Hospital Service ; Speakers, Prof. Wil- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1904. / 



Congress of Arts and Science. 



397 



liam T. Sedgwick, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; Dr. 
Ernest J. Lederle, Commissioner of Health, New York City. 

Section b y Preventive Medicine — Chairman, Dr. Joseph M. Mathews, 
president of the State Board of Health, Louisville, Ky.; Speakers, 
Prof. Ronald Ross, F.R.S., School of Tropical Medicine, University 
College, Liverpool; Prof. Angelo Celli, University of Rome. 

Section c, Pathology — Chairman, Prof. Simon Flexner, director of 
the Rockefeller Institute ; Speakers, Prof. Felix Marchand, Univer- 
sity of Leipzig; Prof. Johannes Orth, University of Berlin. 

Section d, Therapeutics and Pharmacology — Chairman, Dr. Hobart 
A. Hare, Jefferson Medical College ; Speakers, Sir Lauder Brunton, 
F.R.S., London; Prof. Mathias E. O. Liebreich, University of 
Berlin. 

Section e, Internal Medicine — Chairman, Prof. Frederick C. Shat- 
tuck, Harvard University ; Speakers, Prof. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., 
University of Cambridge; Prof. William S.Thayer, Johns Hopkins 
University. 

Section f t Neurology — Chairman, Prof. Lewellys F. Barker, Univer- 
sity of Chicago ; Speakers, Prof. Shibasaburo Kitasato, University 
of Tokio ; Prof. James J. Putnam, Harvard University. 

Section g, Psychiatry — Chairman, Dr. Edward Cowles, Boston ; 
Speakers, Prof. Th. Ziehen, University of Berlin ; Dr. Charles L. 
Dana, New York City. 

Section h, Surgery — Chairman, Prof. Carl Beck, Post-Graduate 
Medical School, New York; Speaker, Prof. Nicholas Senn, Rush 
Medical College, Chicago. 

Section i, Gynecology — Chairman, Prof. Howard A. Kelly, Johns 
Hopkins University ; Speakers, Dr. L. Gustave Richelot, member 
of the Academy of Medicine, Paris ; Prof. John C. Webster, Rush 
Medical College, Chicago. 

Section j, Ophthalmology — Chairman, Dr. George C. Harlan, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Speaker, Dr. Edward Jackson, Denver, Col. 

Section k, Otology and Laryngology — Chairman, Prof. William C. 
Glasgow, Washington University, St. Louis ; Speakers, Sir Felix 
Semon, C.V.O., physician extraordinary to the King, London ; Dr. 
J. Solis-Cohen, Jefferson Medical College. 

Section /, Pediatrics — Chairman, Prof. Thomas M. Rotch, Harvard 
University ; Speakers, Prof. Theodore Escherich, University of 
Vienna ; Prof. Abraham Jacobi, Columbia University. 



393 



Correspondence. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1904. 



DEPARTMENT I 8 TECHNOLOGY. 

Chairman, Chancellor Winheld S. Chaplin, Washington Univer- 
sity, St. Louis ; Speakers, Prof. Henry T. Bovey, F.R.S., McGill 
University, Montreal; Mr. John R. Freeman, Providence, R. I. 

Section a, Civil Engineering — Chairman, Prof. William H. Burr, 
Columbia University; Speakers, Dr. J. A. L. Waddell, consulting 
engineer, Kansas City ; Mr. Lewis M. Haupt, consulting engineer, 
Philadelphia. 

Section b, Mechanical Engineering — Chairman, President Alexander 
C. Humphreys, Stevens Institute of Technology ; Speakers, Prof. 
A. Riedler, Konigliche Technische Hochschule, Berlin ; Prof. Albert 
W. Smith, Leland Stanford, Jr., University. 

Section c, Electrical Engineering — Chairman, Prof. Arthur E. Ken- 
nelly, Harvard University; Speakers, Signor G. Marconi, Italy; 
Prof. Michael I. Pupin, Columbia University. 

Section d, Mining E?igi?ieering — Chairman, Mr. John Hays Ham- 
mond, New York City ; Speakers, Prof. Robert H. Richards, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology; Prof. Samuel B. Christy, Univer- 
sity of California. 

Section e, Technical Chemistry — Chairman, Prof. Charles F. Chand- 
ler, Columbia University; Speakers, Prof. Otto N. Witt, Konigliche 
Technische Hochschule, Berlin ; Prof. William H. Walker, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. 

Section f, Agriculture — Chairman, Hon. James Wilson, Secretary 
ot Agriculture, Washington ; Speakers, Prof. Leon Lindet, National 
Agronomic Institute, Paris ; Prof. Liberty H. Bailey, Cornell Uni- 
versity. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION SCIENTIFIC SECTION. 

To the Members of the American Pharmaceutical Association : 

The Committee on Scientific Papers herewith invites papers of 
scientific interest for presentation to the Section at the fifty-second 
annual meeting, which will be held at Kansas City, Mo., beginning 
September 5th. 

Believing that the interest in subjects presented is much increased 
when the papers are printed and ready for distribution at the meet- 
ings of the Section, the Committee urges the contributors to send 



Am. Jour. Fharm. \ 
August. 1904. J 



Obituaries. 



399 



their papers to the chairman as early as convenient, certainly net 
later than July ioth. 

It is the intention of the committee that all papers accepted for 
presentation to the Section shall there receive due consideration. 
In ©rder to accomplish this, and to do away with the necessity of 
reading many papers by title, it will be essential that strict compli- 
ance with Article IV of Chapter 9 of the By-Laws (see Proceedings 
A. Ph. A., vol. 50, page 11 34) be insisted on: "Any person pre- 
paring a paper for the Association which shall require more than 
ten minutes for its reading, must accompany the same with a 
synopsis which can be read within ten minutes' time. The paper 
and synopsis must both be furnished the committee of the particu- 
lar Section to which it refers previous to the first session." 
Chas. E. Caspari, Associate. W. A. Puckner, Chairman, 

Eustace H. Gane, Secretary. 73 Wells Street, Chicago. 



. OBITUARIES. 

M. Leidie, the chief pharmacist of the Necker Hospital, Paris, 
died November 25, 1903, in his forty-eighth year. 

M. Leidie had been chief pharmacist at the Necker Hospital for 
twenty-two years. He was a member of the Society of Pharmacy 
of Paris, and had been elected to serve as annual secretary in 1892 
and as president in 1899. M. Leidie had done considerable research- 
work on the metals of the platinum group. 

Roberts Bartholow, Professor Emeritus of Materia Medica in 
Jefferson College, died in Philadelphia, May 10, 1904, in his seventy- 
third year. 

Dr. Bartholow, who was well known as an author on subjects 
relating to materia medica and therapeutics, was born in New Wind- 
sor, Carroll County, Md., on November 28, 1831, and obtained his 
degree in medicine from the University of Maryland in 1852. He 
served as surgeon in the Union Army during the War of the 
Rebellion. Dr. Bartholow was elected Professor of Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics in Jefferson Medieval College, Philadelphia, in 1879, 
and was made Professor Emeritus in 1893. 

Eugene Dietrich, the founder and president of the advisory 
board of the well-known Chemische Fabrik, Helfenberg, Germany, 



400 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am A U J g u u s r t,S m ' 

died at his home in that city on April 15, 1904, in the sixty-fourth 
year of his age. 

Mr. Dietrich, who was probably the pioneer manufacturer of 
pharmaceutical galenicals in Germany, succeeded in developing a 
business and establishing a reputation extending far beyond the 
borders of his native country. 

The annual reports of the scientific work done in connection with 
his manufacturing establishment, embodied in the well-known 
" Helfenberger Annalen," are generally recognized as having scien- 
tific merit, and have been liberally quoted from by the pharmaceu- 
tical journals of all countries. M. I. W. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

MINUTES OF THE QUARTERLY MEETING. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy was held June 27, 1904, in the Library, at 4 o'clock, the President, 
Howard B. French, presiding. Nineteen members were present. The minutes 
of the annual meeting, held March 28, 1904, were read and approved. The 
minutes of the Board of Trustees for March, April and May were read by the 
Registrar, Jacob S. Beetem, and approved. 

The Historical Committee had no report to make at this time. The Com- 
mittee on Necrology reported the death of two members during the year, viz., 
Dr. William H. Webb and Mr. Frank Luerssen. Memoirs of these members 
were published in the American Journal of Pharmacy for July, pages 
348-349. 

The delegates to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, by their chair- 
man, H. L. Stiles, made a verbal report ; a full report will be published in the 
August number of this Journal. 

The President made the following appointments : 

Historical Committee — George M. Beringer, William J. Jenks, Henry 
Kraemer, Jacob M. Baer, Martin I. Wilbert. 

Committee on Necrology — Henry Kraemer, Gustavus Pile, Samuel P. 
Sadtler. 

Committee on Nominations — C. B. Lowe, William Mclntyre, Martin I. Wil- 
bert, Joseph P. Remington, Joseph W. England. 

Delegates to American Pharmaceutical Association— Joseph P. Remington, 
Henry Kraemer, Mahlon N. Kline, W. L. Cliffe, C. B. Lowe. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer proposed an addition to the By-Laws, as follows : To be 
Section 20 of Article VIII. A Committee on Membership, consisting of three 
members, shall be appointed by the President, annually, at the stated meeting 
in June. All applications for membership shall be reported to this committee, 
and it shall be the duty of this committee to consider the ways of increasing 
the membership, and to report annually in June on the status of the member- 
ship in the College. Action on the matter was deferred till the next stated 
meeting. 



Am AignIt P wo4 m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 401 

Mr. England moved that the Secretary of the College be authorized to make 
such abstracts of the proceedings of the Board of Trustees as may be deemed 
proper for publication in connection with the minutes of the College meetings, 
when Mr. Beringer moved to amend " lhat such abstracts be first submitted to 
the President for approval." The motion, as amended, was then adopted. 

ABSTRACTS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

The Committee on Instruction recommended that an auxiliary course of 
instruction be established in the College for students in the first year. Instruc- 
tion will be given in chemical and pharmaceutical arithmetic; the instruction 
in this branch to be compulsory. 

The Committee also recommended that Charles H. LaWall be elected 
Instructor in Pharmaceutical Mathematics. 

The following named were elected active members : James A. Ferguson, C. 
Stanley French, E. R. Kennedy, M.D., G. Nelson Thompson, John T. Harbold, 
and as associate member, William G. L,etzkus. 

The Committee on Examination reported that the third year examinations 
proved that the mid-year examination was of decided advantage, stimulating 
the members of the class and raising the general class average. 

M. N. Kline was elected Chairman of the Board of Trustees; G. M. Beringer, 
Vice-Chairman, and Jacob S. Beetem, Registrar, for the ensuing year. 

The Property Committee reported that the College is in good condition. 

The Committee on Instruction presented their annual report. This report 
embraces reports from the members of the Faculty for the year. In the 
Department of Pharmacy it was recommended that with the month's extension 
of the third year course there be given more time to Magistral Pharmacy and 
Pharmaceutical Legislation, and that the optional course in Prescription Com- 
pounding be abandoned and be included in the regular course. The course in 
Commercial Training is now a part of the established instruction of the College 
and increased interest in it is very general. 

Department of Chemistry: The Professor believes that the course in Chemi- 
cal Arithmetic will be a distinct benefit in overcoming deficiencies in this 
branch. Additional time will also be given to the subjects of Proximate 
Analysis and Separation, and Food Adulteration. 

Department of Analytical Chemistry: The innovation of having quizzes in 
this department has proven to be of much value. The resignation of the 
instructor, Mr. E. E. Wyckoff, was presented and accepted with regret. 

Department of Pharmacognosy: Mr. Herbert J. Watson, the instructor, ten- 
dered his resignation on account of ill health. It was accepted with regret. 

Department of Materia Medica and Physiology : The first year students in 
this branch passed an unusually good examination. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., Secretary. 



The Chicago Coi,i,EGE of Pharmacy, located for the past twenty years at 
465 and 467 State Street, has moved into new quarters at the N. W. corner of 
Michigan Boulevard and Twelfth Street. The new building is five stories high 
and has windows on four sides. It is admirably located and furnishes ample 
accommodations for lectures and laboratory work. 



402 



Notes and News. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1904. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Theodore Weicker, Editor of Merck's Report and member of the firm of 
Merck & Co., New York, has by mutual agreement retired from that firm. 

The other member of the 
firm, Mr. George Merck, 
will continue the business 
as heretofore, under the 
same firm name. 

Mr. Weicker has been 
prominently identified with 
the house of Merck for 
more than twenty years, 
and his influence in its 
council has been recog- 
nized both here and abroad. 
In 1887 he organized the 
American branch of the 
house, which has been 
characterized by high-plane 
and progressive business 
methods. The next year 
he was elected a life-mem- 
ber of the New York Col- 
lege of Pharmacy. 

It is not Mr. Weicker' s 
purpose to relinquish his 
active business life, and on 
his return from Europe in 
the spring of 1905, he will 
re-establish himself in New 
York under the firm name 
of Theodore Weicker 
Company, manufacturers and importers of chemicals and drugs. Meantime, 
letters and telegrams to him should be addressed care Deutsche Bank, Berlin. 

American Pharmaceutical Association. — The Fifty-second Annual 
Meeting will be held at Kansas City, Mo., September 5-10 inclusive, beginning 
at 3 p.m. on Monday, the 5th. The headquarters of the Association will be at 
the Coates House, where by.special arrangement a rate of $2.50 per day and 
upwards, on the American plan, has been secured. 

The Maryland College of Pharmacy, having become a department of 
the University of Maryland, has been installed in the new University Building, 
in Greene Street, Baltimore. The members of the College faculty other than 
Prof. D. M. R. Culbreth, who is already identified with the University, were 
elected members of the University Faculty at a meeting on July 7th. 

Prof. H. H. Rusby, of the New York College of Pharmacy, according to 
Torreya, is now at Kew, engaged in the critical comparison of South American 
material from the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden with that pre- 
served in the herbarium of the Royal Gardens. 




THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, 1904. 



PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 

Cakx G. Hinrichs, Ph.C, 
Professor of Chemistry, Marion-Sims Dental College. 

( Continued from p. J75. ) 
III. CHINA I ITS DRUGGISTS, MEDICINES AND CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES. 

On the following page we have a Chinese note, specially writ- 
ten for us by the Imperial Chinese Secretary to the readers of the 
American Journal of Pharmacy. Beginning at the upper right- 
hand corner, reading down the column, and then down the next to 
the left, it states : " We invite the readers of America's oldest drug 
journal to see the Chinese medicines ; " and it will well repay any one 
to spend a good portion of his time studying the Chinese exhibit 
shown in the Liberal Arts Building. 

China is a country with a glorious past, and the centuries of ex- 
perience have taught all trades the wisdom of our trite saying that 
the shoemaker should stick to his last. The readers will then not 
be surprised to learn that the Chinese druggist states on his shop 
signs that he sells drugs and medicines ; also, that if you should 
ever enter such a store, you would not find cigars, soda-water, sta- 
tionery, paints or glassware, but only drugs and medicines. The 
Chinese druggist makes no pretensions to being a professional 
man, but he is a man of conscience, for no Chinese druggist sells a 
grain of opium to its unfortunate habitue. Would that we could 
say as much for our entire drug trade ! 

The Chinese drug-stores are similar to other Chinese shops ; in 
size they vary of course according to the location, size of town and 

(403) 



404 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharrn. 
I September, 1904. 



importance of their trade. The entire front is open to the street during 
business hours ; at night the shop is closed tightly with shutters 
so that no one may enter. About the walls are shelves, and all this 
space is taken up with an array of chinaware (porcelain) pots con- 
taining drugs. These pots remind one of the similar receptacles 





4tk 



7* 



XL 

used in the seventeenth century. They are urn-like in shape, and 
are closed with a porcelain lid. A counter, upon which all drugs 
are cut, weighed out, wrapped up and sold to the customer, has a 
prominent place. There is also a desk, where we find the scrupu- 
lously kept account books, writing material and the ever-present 
Chinese counting-board. So expert and rapid is the Chinese calcu- 



Ann. Jour. Pharru. "i 
September, 1904. J 



Pharmacy and Chemistry . 



405 



lator on this board that the English banks at the treaty ports have 
such men check up the intricate problems of Chinese fluctuating 
currency into British pounds and pence after the English cashier 
has made his estimate. If there be a discrepancy, it is found that 
the Chinese is right. This board consists of about ten rods, each 
having seven sliding balls, two of which are above a wooden parti- 
tition and five below ; by sliding these up and down the calcu- 
lator does the most difficult of additions, subtractions, multiplications 
and divisions. 

We might almost say the appliances and apparatus of the drug- 
gist are his deft hands, from the very few aids he uses. Upon the 
counter is a lever-knife similar to our plug-tobacco cutter ; this is 
firmly fixed to the table, and he cuts his roots, barks, etc., with this. 
Hard drugs, such as betel nuts, are opened up by a peculiar tri- 
angular knife blade. The mortar is not like ours ; it is made of 
bronze or iron, and looks like the water-holder found on many 
grindstones. In length it is about 2 feet, in width about 2 to 4 
inches ; this trough has an elliptical grinding surface. Playing in 
this is a wheel of metal having an axle ; the projecting axle is firmly 
grasped. With a pressing forward and backward motion, a thor- 
ough pulverization is possible. To remove oil from contused seeds 
and to strain oils they use the bibulous Chinese paper. 

The Chinese grain measures are bronze-bound tubs, the throat 
being contracted, affording a more accurate stricken measure than 
we practise here in the West. Chinese liquid medicines kept and 
sold in shops are few ; so they have no need for measures, but only 
appliances for weighing. 

The appliances for weighing are two ; the common equal-arm 
balance for fine weighing, drug and specie, and the steelyard, used 
for less accurate and heavy commercial work. The steelyard is the 
common Chinese balance. It consists of a wooden rod, at one end 
of which a bronze pan is suspended by four strings ; near this are 
either two or three string supports, each used according as to 
whether heavier or lighter weighing is to be done, while beyond is 
the scale marked in golden Chinese characters. There are as many 
scales as there are string supports. The equal-arm scales are built 
similar to ours ; they have the pointer playing upward, are nicely 
adjusted, and they keep the pans at rest by sliding a wooden block 
underneath them when not weighing. 



406 Pharmacy and Chemistry. {^epSefim 

Weights are made in two qualities: the common kind, used on 
the steelyard, are of iron, and are suspended therefrom by means of 
a string tied about the knob at the top of the cylindrical body. 
These weights are similar to our knob weights in form. The fine 
quality, used for weighing specie and drugs, are made of. bronze. 
These are finely polished, similar to a figure 8 in form, only very 
slightly contracted in the centre ; they are about as thick as they 
are broad. 

As the standard of weight depends on the fact that the standard 
Chinese currency is silver, which is only worth its bullion value 
for all important commercial transactions, and, consequently, is 
weighed, and, as their weights have the same names as the divisions 
of the currency, I give a table of these coin values. 

10 cash equal i candareen. 

10 candareens equal i mace. 

10 maces equal i tael. 

12 taels equal i pound avoirdupois of silver. 

So we see their standard coin is the tael, and this is their unit of 
weight. Weights of 10 taels down to the mace are made of bronze; 
the I mace and subdivisions thereof are made of small thin blocks 
of ivory. All weights have the imprint in Chinese, indicating their 
value. 

The prices obtained by the druggist vary very much, a small pot 
of eye-paste to clear the vision brings about 6 cents; an ounce pill, 
gold coated and encased in wax, may bring several dollars, while 
the Chinese panacea, the native ginseng, brings its weight in gold. 

It is the usual thing to find a physician, who has gained a repu- 
tation, in each drug store ; he is not connected with the store man- 
agement proper, but the druggist finds it to his trade interest to 
have a desk for the physician in his shop. The consultation is 
somewhat on this order: The patient comes, he is very carefully 
examined as to pulse both of the right hand and the left, this may 
take ten minutes, then follows a searching examination of the eyes, 
tongue, etc. A prescription is now written and the patient hands 
this to the druggist. It may call for a standard pill or a complex 
prescription of animal and vegetable drugs; all is carefully weighed 
out separately and wrapped up for the patient. At the home this 
is mixed according to the directions given, and an infusion thereof 
made. The druggist does not retain the prescription. 



iStSber P i^ m '} Pharmacy and Chemistry. 407 

The Chinese materia medica is like that of the times of Lemery; 
the vegetable drugs are the most abundant ; of course, there are also 
very many animal drugs of all kinds, while the inorganic chemicals 
and the fossil shells, animals and the like, are of least importance. 
There must be over a thousand drugs exhibited here. Many are in 
our own materia medica, such as rhubarb, valerian, veratrum nigrum, 
liquorice, several varieties of galls, safflower, melon seeds, blistering 
flies, calomel, alum, copperas, sugar, honey, wax, etc. We give a 
number of each kind of drugs and the uses to which they are put. 

Drugs from plants are many, and the most important is ginseng. 
By Tong Shan we mean ginseng, the kind that grows in the north- 
ern and highly favored Chee-Lee province, and not the cheap 
American product known as Yeung Sum by the Chinese. The 
genuine ginseng is much larger and plumper than that grown in 
Kentucky; and no Chinaman that has the price would take the 
American product if he could get the Chee-Lee province brand. 
Tong Shan brings more than $100 a pound in China wholesale, and 
as it "allays excitement, increases secretions and the flow of saliva," 
it is certainly worth it. The American ginseng is also a " siala- 
gogue, relieves thirst and is a cooling medicine," but it is worth 
only a little more than $5.00 a pound in Canton. 

Tai Wong is rhubarb ; it is used for jaundice, dropsy and dysen- 
tery. 

Fu Pak or amber is specially indicated in cases of fright of chil- 
dren, and is used in nearly all remedies designed for child sickness. 

Mut Yeuk is myrrh, it dissipates effused blood and cures pain. 

Pung Lung Fa is the betel-nut flower; this is an expectorant and 
intestinal remedy. 

The so-called lotus nuts are round brown-coated kernels with 
white meats, and nearly ^ mcn m diameter. 

Beautiful thin white sheets of paper cut in squares about 3 inches 
across, as obtained from Aralia papyrifera, are shown. 

What is the most striking in this exhibit are the many animal 
drugs; you feel as though you step into the past of our pharmacy; 
that you read from the pages of the old Pharmacopoeia Augustana, 
with its many queer drugs and the interminable Theriacse 
Andromachi, its Classes Mithridatii Damocratis, and its gems, fos- 
sils, snakes, etc., used at that time, only two centuries ago. The 
Chinese are fond of boiling things up with water, and they show 
many animal glues. 



408 



Pharmacy and Chemistry, 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 September, 1904. 



Cow glue and chicken-blood glue are used. Tiger-bone glue 
cures rheumatism, and was stated to do wonders by the European 
in charge. Tortoise-horn glue relieves heat of blood, dryness of 
the mouth and thirst. Luk Kau (also Lu Chiao), deer-horn glue, is 
a tonic, increases the semen. 

Bones of the various animals are used. Sing Yuen, antelope 
horns, relieves the heart, liver and lungs. Sai Kok, hippopotamus 
horns, removes the impurities from the blood, abates the heat of the 
heart. Kuai Pan, tortoise shell, is a tonic for the blood of young 
people. 

Of things that crawl and hop, I found: the Ki Li Kwai lizard 
(frog) was good for dysentery; Ki She, a snake, cures rheumatism in 
limbs and fingers; Kop Kai, lizard, is an aphrodisiac; Ti-lung, 
earthworm, regulates menstrual discharge and relieves colic. The 
bile of three kinds of snakes is an expectorant and carminative. I 
also saw Ch'an Su, or toad-spittle cakes; they exercise the toads, 
thereby obtaining the fluid that they are well known to discharge, 
this is dried and formed into cakes about 2 inches across and % 
inch thick, the cakes are brown and have a white spot in the centre 
from manipulation. Two beautiful jars of dried frogs are shown. 
Some very fine centipedes, 4 inches long, of many joints, each joint 
having a pair of legs. The back of all joints, except the head and 
first joint, are black on the back, these are of a fine orange tint, like- 
wise all the legs and the breast. If you examine the jar of scorpions 
you will distinguish their form as that given in many patent medi- 
cine calendars as part of the zodiac. These are not in as perfect a 
state of preservation as the centipedes ; are rather deep brown in 
color, about 2 inches long and almost all legs. 

There is nothing buggy about the Chinese, still you find many 
bugs shown as medicine ; such are beetle skins, Ch'an Pui or 
cicada skins ; Chin Chan Hua, locust-like bugs ; tree bugs, like 
those flying about our electric lights ; earth beetles, very much like 
the humble tumble bug ; fine specimens of the Chinese blistering 
fly; a Hung Paw Mao bug from Tien-tsin ; these are an inch in 
length, having a reddish breast and black back. What these bugs 
are used for I did not find out. 

Feng.fang is a wasp's nest, a jar of fine quality is shown. 

Fossilized remains of prehistoric animals are also shown. There 
is a jar of " fossil shells," they are trilobites ; also some fossil crabs 



Am. Jour. Pbarm.> 
September. 1904. j 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



409 



in another jar. Dragon teeth and bones ! Lung Nga is Chinese for 
dragon teeth; they " quiet the mind and heart, cure tumors in the 
neck of adults and fright in children." 

The Chinese make some fine chemicals of apparently highest 
purity. White alum from Hankow is pure white in color and we 
could distinguish octahedral terminations. Vermillion from China 
has long been considered to be the best made, by painters ; a fine 
jarful is exhibited. Calomel of good appearance also comes from 
Hankow. Sulphate of iron, also there called green alum, fills sev- 
eral jars from Siufu and Cheefoo. 

Of minerals used in medicine I found iron pyrites and realgar, the 
latter, the red sulphide of arsenic. 

CHINESE PHARMACEUTICALS. 

Practically the only liquid preparations made are the infusions, 
and these are always made in the patient's home. Alcohol, vinegar, 
glycerine, ether and the like are not used in the native Chinese drug 
store as solvents. The only liquid preparations found are medicated 
oils. Ointments, pastes, pills galore, powders, simple and compound, 
are practically the only preparations made. They are highly 
advanced along patent medicine lines, fine advertisements extolling 
the peculiar virtues of preparations are gotten up. 

Chinese pills are not like the nice little sugar-coated American 
product, but they stand in a class of their own. There is nothing 
small about these Chinese pills, they are great ; not only are they 
elegant in appearance, but often of such generous proportions that 
they weigh an ounce. Fortunately for the Chinese, they do not 
swallow them whole, but cut them into as many pills as is desired 
by their physician. The Chinese pill is a bolus carefully rounded 
and of the usual consistency of a pill mass, the dearer pill is coated 
with gold leaf to preserve it, but, as even with such treatment 
the pills would harden, the Chinese druggist gets in his peculiar 
ingenuity and encases the entire pill in a beautiful wax coat. Such 
pills retain their original freshness for a great length of time. When 
you buy the pill at the druggist's he will remove this wax coat, then 
weigh the pill, and you pay accordingly. Some pills are sold by 
number, but the usual practice is the above. To give an idea as to 
their pills I copied the following in the exhibit: 

" Seven Precious Ingredients Im-Tam Pill," a tonic for the Ming- 
Mun (small of back between kidneys). 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



r Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I September, 1904. 



" Hung Sing Cham Chung Pill," used for loss of memory from 
overstudy. 

"Eight Genii Old Age Pills," a tonic for the promotion of long 
living. 

" Aloes Pills " cure heat of lungs and colic pains. 

" Triple Compound Tonic Pill " warms kidneys, aphrodisiac. 

" King Pu Fu Tsim Pill," tonic for the legs. 

" Fifteen Times Prepared Tsing Ning Pills " cure heat from 
damp, purgative. 

" King Ngok Yan Kwai Pill," tonic for right kidney. 
" Ginseng Tonic Pill," useful for debility, spleen and liver. 
" Chi Pak Pat Mi Pill " will cure excess of venery. 
" Hak Shik Pills," sulphur pills, fever. 

Powders are also prepared and sold as such by our Celestial 
brother, and we may mention the " Voy Yeung Sz Yik Powder " 
that is used in general weakness. " Tit Ta San " (falling bruise 
powder) cures scalds, burns and wounds. 

Charms are not foreign to Chinese practices, the " Ka Nam Pik 
Yik Heung Chu " is a renowned charm against epidemics, is made 
in strings of eighteen beads and worn on the left coat collar. This 
charm costs $2 per string of eighteen beads. 

Ointments are made and sold by the druggists. The " Shea 
Heung Siu Leuk Ointment " cures scrofula, ulcers and swelling. 

The making of infusions is the favorite mode of medication, un- 
doubtedly the very general practice of tea-growing and drinking is 
cause for this popularity. In general all simples bought at the 
shops are made into infusion by the Chinese, even the ofttimes 
complex mixtures of the Chinese doctor's prescription, bought and 
weighed out separately by the druggist to the holder of the pre- 
scription, are taken home, mixed and infused for the patient. They 
have one that would undoubtedly be of great value in this country ; 
it is the " Infallible Voi Tsun Tea " that cures indigestion. 

Omega oil is not in it with the U-E-Yan (As you wish oil). This 
can be taken internally and also applied externally ; it is a great 
seller in Canton, being an infallible oil for all diseases, headaches, 
etc. The Europeans take kindly to it. 

I believe there is a golden medical discovery exploited in the 
United States, the large firm of Kwong Chi Koon has a seller in 
" Sing Po Golden Prescription" that is " useful in loss of voice and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
September. 1904. J 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



411 



injury of liver." This firm is located in Canton, and all the pills 
and preparations mentioned above, shown in this exhibit, are of 
their manufacture. About a hundred Chinese and Europeans find 
employment with this firm. 

MANUFACTURES INVOLVING CHEMISTRY. 

In southern China the buffalo is the beast of burden, in the north 
they have the horse. These animals are used in many oil mills to 
move the rollers. The wind is harnessed up in a peculiar manner ; 
they make a large horizontal wheel, on the periphery masts are 
erected, from these large sails are hung. Such mills are especially 
used to hoist water. Coolie labor is cheap in the East, they use it 
in treadmills, carrying goods and the like. 

Machinery is of secondary importance in China, still they have 
some crude appliances. Edge runners working in a groove propelled 
by the beasts of burden are used to crush oil-bearing seeds. These 
runners are not hung in pairs as is customary in our country, but 
only single ; to the extension of the axle the animals are hitched. 

Horizontal burr- stones are used in the manufacture of rice flour, 
grinding of seeds for making vegetable oil and tallow. The upper 
stone is movable, on the periphery a vertical axle is fixed, to this a 
long pole is attached, this is supported by a rope tied to the ceiling. 
The native pushes and pulls on this pole or crank. A hole in the 
stone permits the continual feeding of rice. 

Tread-hammers are used in the compressing of vegetable tallow 
into firm cakes. These hammers are heavy affairs mounted on an 
axle near the operator ; by alternately stepping on and off he raises 
the hammer and lets it drop. 

For expression of oil enormous wedge-presses are used. These 
are horizontal, the crushed and warmed seeds are placed in circular 
iron hoops, a circular timber fits in the hoops, wedges are forced 
behind this piston. Huge mallets swung from the roof give the 
necessary power for this. 

Heating is commonly done by direct firing of the tubs, pans, etc. 
The fuel almost exclusively used is straw and wood. Large furnaces 
are used in the manufacture of the celebrated " chinaware " or porce- 
lain. Such furnaces are shown. 

Filtering or straining is commonly accomplished by using the 
bibulous Chinese paper. 



412 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



(Am. Jour. Phariu. 
I .September. 1904. 



Lime burning is not done in kilns or shafts but upon platforms. 
These platforms are perforated metal sheets; separating this from 
the firepot is a brick wall. The fuel — straw and wood — is placed in 
a lower pit, the hot air is led up through the perforated platform ; 
a pure grade of lime results. 

The Chinese were the first to make porcelain. They made the 
so-called " china ware " a thousand years before the Germans suc- 
ceeded in stumbling upon the process. This is an enormous indus- 
try. In the Imperial Chinaware Works, at Kiu Kiang, there are 
over 3,000 kilns and a small army of workmen. It is at this place 
that the celebrated kaolin, also called mingsha, or china clay, is 
found. Beautiful snow white bricks of this kaolin are shown, as are 
also some thirty fine pigments used in the coloring of ware. A 
small model of the manufacturing plant is shown, and here is also 
seen the potter's wheel — the only machine that has not been im- 
proved upon for the last 4,000 years. The mixture used is kaolin 
and feldspar, the latter serving as a flux. Some very fine samples 
of finished ware are shown. 

Salt is extracted from salt earth, or mud, obtained at the mud 
flats along the sea coast. This is heaped upon tubs, the bottom of 
which has filtering material, as bits of bamboo, and also a draw-off. 
Water thrown on this heap gradually trickles through, leaches out 
the salt and runs into a sunken tub. From this the brine is bailed 
out, placed in a large evaporating tub, fired from beneath, and 
evaporated down. The Chinese make salt of snowy whiteness. It 
is usually brought into trade rather coarse ; also salt that is used for 
animals, of a white fracture, but rather black surface. 

In dyeing they use hot dye baths, express the excess of liquor by 
rollers, hang the finished product on elevated bamboo poles in the 
yards. 

Sesame oil, linseed oil — used as we do salad oil — walnut, teaberry, 
rapeseed, groundnut oil, wood oil and vegetable tallow are expressed. 
The most distinctive is the manufacture of the vegetable tallow. A 
vegetable tallow is made from the seeds of a castor-bean plant ; but 
the finest is expressed from a kind of white, tallowy, stringy fungus 
that grows on certain trees. This fungus coats the limbs to about 
an inch in thickness. It is removed, first run through the edge 
runner mill, then ground finely in the burr stone, following which 
the comminuted mass is warmed over the fire ; it is then packed in 



^ptembef^mT} Revision of Dispensing Pharmacies. 413 

the iron hoops very tightly and placed in the wedge-press. The 
liquid fat is caught, placed in molds and thoroughly pounded into 
shapes by the tread hammer. This vegetable tallow is very hard, 
and as the process is complicated and difficult, also as the great 
standard on oils (Lewkowitsch) does not mention this manner of 
obtaining the vegetable tallow, it is interesting ; he mentions only 
the castor-bean product. 

Swatow is the centre of sugar manufacture in the south. To ex- 
press the cane, they have large upright revolving pillars ; these are 
revolved ; the force is supplied by buffaloes hitched to the end of a 
long timber working at the top of the pillars. A native feeds the 
stalks one at a time on one side ; the juice exudes, runs into a sunken 
well, at the base of the rollers. The juice is carried into the evapo- 
rating-house in buckets ; here, over the free fire, it is concentrated ; 
naturally, the sugar so obtained is rather yellowish in color. Some 
samples that would here be called a rather poor grade of gray 
sugar are labeled white sugar. 

It would not do to say nothing of the curse of China — the opium 
habit. In the Yunnan province, also in Sechuan province, in 
Southern China, opium is grown; this is near India. Samples ot 
opium in little jars, as prepared for smoking, are shown; also some 
as sent into the drug trade. The latter is done up in rectangular 
parcels of brown paper, tied with hemp twines a number of times. 
The saloons of China are the opium houses ; some streets have one 
of these on every corner ; but this traffic is on the down road, as the 
government is gradually running these dealers out of China. It is 
only in those towns, such as the treaty ports of Southern China, 
that this practice is carried on to any great extent, and that mainly 
among the coolies. 



PERIODICAL REVISION OF DISPENSING PHARMACIES. 

By M. I. Wii,bert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

At the coming meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion it is quite probable that the proposed " National Bureau of 
Medicines and Foods " will be brought forward once more for discus- 
sion, with a view of securing the endorsement of the association in 
favor of its proposed objects. 



41 4 Revision of Dispensing Pharmacies. {^v^^wf: 

While there is much to be said in favor of such a bureau of con- 
trol, it, of itself, would not, and, under the most ideal system of 
administration, could not control the efficiency and purity of medi- 
cines as dispensed to the sick and the ailing on physicians' prescrip- 
tions. It is quite probable that the members of the House of 
Delegates of the American Medical Association appreciated this 
fact, for, as is now well known, that august body, after considerable 
discussion, refused to concur in the recommendations of a special 
committee to endorse the inauguration and proposed objects of the 
" National Bureau of Medicines and Foods." 

The objects of the proposed bureau, as enumerated in the report of 
the committee of the American Medical Association, are as follows : 

(1) To relieve physicians, pharmacists and the public of all doubt 
as to the composition or standards of identity, purity, quality and 
strength of such drugs, medicines and foodstuffs as may be sub- 
mitted to and be found acceptable by a competent board of ten 
experts. 

(2) To furnish to physicians and pharmacists, and to others who 
may be interested, accurate and reliable information concerning 
articles submitted to the bureau for its supervision. 

(3) To certify to the standards of identity, purity, quality and 
strength of such articles as may be determined to be worthy by the 
board of experts and of no others. 

(4) To relieve the physicians, in the manner outlined, of the doubt 
and uncertainty as to the nature, composition or reliability of the 
medicines which they are requested by representatives of various 
houses to prescribe or to employ. 

From this statement of the objects of the bureau, it will readily be 
seen that there is absolutely no provision for following up the vari- 
ous drugs and preparations that have received the endorsement of 
its board, nor is there any limitation as to where or how the various 
preparations are to be handled or dispensed. 

As is well known, many drugs and chemicals, and nearly all 
galenic preparations, deteriorate on keeping. This deterioration is, 
perhaps, not so much due to the element of time alone as it is to 
general atmospheric conditions and the lack of technical knowledge 
or care in storing the various substances. 

This question of drug deterioration, while it is a matter that is 
generally recognized, has received but comparatively little attention 



'^embe?,^*} Revision of Dispensing Pharmacies. 415 

in this country, and is usually lost sight of, particularly in discus- 
sions on the improvement of drugs and preparations. 

In addition to drug deterioration, there are a number of other 
factors that should be taken into consideration in connection with 
the dispensing of medicines on physicians' prescriptions. 

Among these we may cite the position and general condition of 
the dispensing department of the drug store ; the accuracy and also 
the sensitiveness of scales, weights and measures ; the presence or 
absence of authoritative works and works of reference on the Materia 
Medica; the presence or absence of the necessary apparatus to 
properly test and identify the various drugs for which such tests are 
known ; a,nd last, but not least, the nature and extent of the probity, 
technical knowledge, training and general ideals of the proprietor or 
manager of the pharmacy or store. 

Any rational individual must admit that, no matter how excellent 
a material may be when it leaves the manufacturer, there are still 
numerous chances of its becoming worthless, if not positively dan- 
gerous, through carelessness or neglect, before it reaches the con- 
sumer. 

It is for these reasons that the proposed " National Bureau of 
Medicines and Foods " cannot be considered far-reaching enough in 
its objects to benefit the physician and the pharmacist ; but might, 
on the other hand, by giving a false sense of security, be positively 
harmful in its influence, by delaying, if not preventing, improve- 
ments along more desirable lines. 

It would be reasonable to suppose that if, instead of one bureau 
more or less closely connected with manufacturers and wholesale 
dealers, we had a thousand independent investigators constantly on 
the lookout for materials that did not correspond to certain well- 
known requirements, that the consumer would be at least as well, if 
not better, protected from adulteration and fraud, and that, on the 
whole, he would be getting better service, and, at the same time, 
would be fostering a spirit of investigation in a more or less competi- 
tive way. 

In this connection it may be said that it can hardly be supposed 
that we have arrived at that stage of our development when all 
scientific work can be entrusted to institutions especially devised for 
that particular field of investigation. There always have been, and 
there always will be, men who are especially gifted in certain direc- 



41 6 Revision of Dispensing Pharmacies, {^pfemberjm 1 " 

tions; but it is folly to assert that it is possible to institute a certain 
line of work and to constantly have at hand men who are experts in 
that particular field for the asking. 

If we, in this country, desire to make rational progress in the field 
of medicine, we must endeavor to keep the practice of medicine, and 
all that pertains to it, free from any possible taint of commercialism, 
and at the same time endeavor to build up, in all the branches of 
medicine, a spirit of rivalry for honest scientific investigation and 
work that will produce exceptional men for the exceptional cases 
and places as they occur. 

In the field of pharmacy this may perhaps best be done by pro- 
moting a line of dispensing pharmacies that are independent of and 
free from the spirit of commercialism to which so much exception is 
being taken at the present time. 

For this purpose an innovation that would be of advantage, par- 
ticularly to such pharmacists as are willing to conduct their shops 
along professional lines, would be to institute a periodic and sys- 
tematic revision or inspection of dispensing pharmacies, very much 
the same as is done in some of the European countries, particularly 
in Germany, at the present time.. Such an inspection could be "made 
in a number of ways — it might be entrusted to a state or to a local 
board of pharmacists — or, and this I believe to be the more rational 
scheme, it might be entrusted to a committee composed of physicians 
and pharmacists under the authority of the local county medical 
societies. 

To prevent any suspicion of this idea being original with me, I 
should like to state that some eighty-three years ago, when the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was founded, the apothecaries and 
druggists of the city of Philadelphia and the surrounding districts 
resolved, or rather proposed, " that the whole profession should 
form themselves into a society for the twofold purpose of providing 
a system of instruction for their apprentices and subjecting them- 
selves to regulations in their business." 

It appears that the latter portion of this proposal was allowed to 
lapse, largely, perhaps, due to the fact that at that time there were 
comparatively few dispensing drug stores in the city, and that the 
system of regulation, or inspection, as was then proposed, met with 
considerable opposition on the part of druggists whose business was 
largely devoted to the sale of paints, glass and dyestuffs. The 



^pimbef^t™'} Revision of Dispensing Pharmacies. 417 

proposition was not lost sight of, however, and was brought up, 
from time to time, by the more advanced and progressive pharma- 
cists who were members of the college. 

Among these, Daniel B. Smith, who was the third president 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, was a warm advocate of 
professional pharmacy, and also of systematic inspection of the sev- 
eral stores. In an address, delivered to the first class to receive the 
degree of Ph.G. (A. J. P., vol. r, page 243), in referring to the needs 
and wants of pharmacists, he said: " Before we can assume to com. 
pete with kindred institutions of the Old World, our system of scien- 
tific instruction must be extended to other branches of natural his- 
tory, and rendered more thorough and minute in those which are 
already taught. Our members must be willing to subject the con- 
tents of their shops to periodical scrutiny by impartial and compe- 
tent judges. The College must exercise a vigilant police over the 
market for drugs, and over the weights and measures used in the 
administration of medicines." 

While it is true that none of the colleges of pharmacy in this 
country have ever essayed to comply with the high standard of 
excellence outlined by Daniel B. Smith, in his address, they did, 
during the first decades of their existence, contribute materially to 
improve the quality of the drugs and medicines sold in the cities 
along the Atlantic Coast. 

As is well known, it was not until 1848 that Congress passed a 
law, which is still in operation, to prevent the importation of grossly 
adulterated or sophisticated drugs and medicines. 

Much of the credit for" bringing about this desirable piece ot 
legislation is due to the then newly-organized American Medical 
Association. This association at its first annual meeting, in 
Baltimore, 1848, had presented to it a lengthy report on "The 
adulteration of drugs and medicines," and in turn adopted a spirited 
set of resolutions which were addressed as a memorial " To the 
Honorable Senate and House of Representatives, in Congress 
assembled," endorsing the bill which was then pending, to exclude 
fraudulent drugs and medicines from this country. 

In the years immediately succeeding, reports on the adulterations 
of drugs and medicines were made an annual feature of the Associa- 
tion's work. These reports, at the present time, constitute a veri- 
table mine of information as to the practices of unscrupulous dealers 



41 8 Revision of Dispensing Pharmacies. { A s™pt J emb e ri9o?" 

at that time, and also indicate the marked improvement that has 
taken place in the quality of drugs and medicines. 

From the recommendations that were attached to these several 
reports, I should like to quote from the report by Dr. Robert M. 
Huston, of Philadelphia, published in 1850 (Proc. Am. Med. Assoc., 
vol. 3). " It is to the members of our own profession, in conjunc- 
tion with the respectable druggists and apothecaries, that we must 
look for whatever reformation is to be accomplished. 

4 'It has been suggested that physicians should feel it to be their 
duty to inspect the medicines in the drug stores from which they 
are in the habit of obtaining their supplies, for themselves or their 
patients. This would exercise a wholesome influence if submitted to 
by the apothecary and frequently performed by the physician." 

It is this same proposition, that was thought to be impracticable 
half a century ago, that I believe could be put into operation at the 
present time, with advantage to the members of the medical as well 
as pharmaceutical professions. 

Such a system of inspection might readily be inaugurated in con- 
nection with the work of local or county medical societies and might 
be made one of the requisites for pharmaceutical membership of the 
American Medical Association. 

The local medical society could in this way control, not alone the 
class of drugs and medicines, but also the nature and kind of store 
at which it would recommend the prescriptions of its several mem- 
bers to be compounded. In larger cities particularly such an 
arrangement would be of inestimable value to the physician, as it 
would relieve him of any possible suspicion of favoring any one 
pharmacist, and at the same time give him a reasonable assurance 
that his prescriptions would be compounded, at any one of the 
recommended pharmacies, by competent men and in the best pos- 
sible manner. 

It is true that the requirements, at least at the start, should not 
be prohibitive, but they can readily be made to cover a wide field 
and can be made more stringent as occasion permits. 

Among the factors that might be considered in this direction are: 

(1) The number of stores to be recommended. 

(2) The arrangement and general contents of the store. 

(3) The class of analytical and manufacturing work that should 
be done in connection with the dispensing department. 



^pfembe^oT'} Revision of Dispensing Pharmacies. 419 

(4) The nature and quality of the goods that are allowed to be 
carried as a side line. 

(5) The ability, training and achievements of the proprietor or 
manager. 

The practical application of the scheme could be made simple 
enough. A pharmacist who wishes to have the endorsement of 
the local medical society would obligate himself to conduct his 
pharmacy strictly in accordance with the requirements of his 
local society, which in turn would be subject to change and 
strictly in keeping with the ideas and ideals of the members of 
the society. The pharmacist would be subject to periodical inspec- 
tions by a special committee, appointed for this purpose, and would 
also be subject to complaints for any violations of the stated require, 
ments by any one of the members of the society. 

The requirements made by the local societies might be controlled, 
in a general way, by the state or national associations so that there 
could be absolutely no cause for any suspicion of favoritism. A 
proposition of this kind, put into operation, would assure for the 
pharmacist who is anxious and willing to do conscientious work, the 
endorsement and encouragement of the better class of physicians of 
his city or town. 

It would ensure for the physician a source of supplies that is 
absolutely under his control, at least so far as the excellence or the 
quality of the various drugs and preparations is concerned, and 
would at the same time relieve him of any suspicion of being inter- 
ested in the shop of any one apothecary ; for he would have several 
to choose from whose honesty and ability are subject to his censure 
or control. For the public such an arrangement would be of inesti- 
mable value in that it would make a distinction between the efforts 
of the honest, earnest and able man who is in the practice of pharmacy 
with a view of improving or increasing the sum total of human 
knowledge, as being distinctly above the ideals of the man who is 
willing to pose as a vendor of patent medicines and adulterated 
drugs, whose sole object in life appears to be to sell anything and 
everything, regardless of the consequences, simply and solely for 
the profit that accrues to him for the time being. 

This latter suggests, too, what I believe to be the strongest argu- 
ment in favor of some arrangement similar to that proposed above. 
If the dispensing of legitimate prescriptions were absolutely divorced 



420 



Educational Qualification. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. September, 1904. 



from the promiscuous sale of medicines and appliances, that are 
openly and willingly recommended and sold for questionable or even 
criminal purposes, physicians and pharmacists who are not willing 
to endorse such practices would not, as at present, be suspected of 
sanctioning the same by fraternizing with or patronizing the pro- 
prietors of establishments where the same are sold. 



THE EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION. 1 

By Albert B. Prescott. 

The public-school system is the heart of intellectual life at the 
present day. The school system cannot be considered separately 
from the organization of the commonwealth. The pulse of the 
school beats through the community, and beats by virtue of the vital 
force it draws from that community. To co